these goals requires development and utilization of biomass resources well beyond current production levels.
In 2005, a US Department of Energy (DOE) study identified that more than one billion tons of biomass may be available annually for energy production in the US (Perlack et al., 2005). Three hundred million tons of this biomass will come from agricultural residues (i.e., materials other than grain including stems, leaves, and chaff [Perlack et al., 2005]). However, sustainable use of agricultural residues for bioenergy production must take into consideration the critical role of agriculturalresidue in maintaining soil health and long-term productivity (Johnson et al., 2009; Johnson et al., 2006; Wilhelm et al., 2007; and Karlen et al., 2003). A recent review study identified six environmental factors that can limit sustainableagriculturalresidue removal—soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balances, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts (Wilhelm et al., 2010). These factors result from complex interactions between local soil characteristics, climate, and land management practices. Because of the breadth of soils, climate, and land management practices, it is not possible to determine the agriculturalresidue removal limits from experimental measurement or current practice at the level of detail and accuracy needed for policy decisions. Currently, there are no tools or models that perform this type of analysis (Wilhelm et al., 2010). Delivering this tool requires integrating the set of models that describe wind erosion, water erosion, and soil carbon together with an extensive set of databases that describe soil, climate, and soils management practices.
Throughout the world, urban areas have increased in size during recent decades. About 50% of the world’s population and approximately 76% in the more devel- oped countries are urban dwellers . Even though there is an evidence to suggest that in many ‘advanced’ industrialised countries there has been a reversal in the rural-to-urban shift of populations, virtually all popula- tion growth expected between 2000 and 2030 will be concentrated in urban areas of the world. With an ex- pected annual growth of 1.8%, the world’s urban popula- tion will double in 38 years . This represents a seri- ous contributing to the potential problem of maintaining the required food supply. Inappropriate land use and management, often driven by intensification resulting from high population pressure and market forces, is also a threat to food availability for domestic, livestock and wildlife use. Conversion to cropland and urban-industrial establishments is threatening their integrity. Improved productivity of peri-urban agriculture can, therefore, make a very large contribution to meeting food security needs of cities as well as providing income to the peri- urban farmers. Hence, greenhouses agriculture can be- come an engine of pro-poor ‘trickle-up’ growth because of the synergistic effects of agricultural growth such as :
Generally, the three major factors that drive the cost related to the irrigation are; availability of water, energy, and pattern of use. Conversely, this cost can be reduced by water-energy-saving irrigation system (Chandel et al., 2015). Pumping of water has traditionally been implemented with the use of conventional energy sources such as diesel or grid electricity. The depletion of fossil fuel and an unreliable power supply have made researchers to seek alternative means. Besides, the associated cost and environmental degradation are challenges that must be addressed. Interestingly, renewable energy sources have been found reliable for such applications. Furthermore, evidence has shown that the ever-increasing population growth will directly affect food consumption. Therefore, there is a need to improve on the agricultural production for food security. However, minimizing the waste of food is a viable alternative. Food wastage occurs mainly in three different phases; harvest, post-harvest, and marketing. A case study in India has shown that major waste of food occurs at the post-harvest phase and this leads to a significant economic loss (Prakash et al., 2016). For instance, perishable commodities can easily get damaged. Thus, one possible way to keep it fresh is to use a low-temperature storage technology. Unfortunately, this technique is found to be expensive and need a reliable energy source. Consequently, the drying process has been established as one of the preservation methods in order to reduce the loss of food (Sharma et al., 2009). The dried product can be stored for a lengthy period of time. However, drying is a heat and mass transfer process where energy is crucial (Kumar and Tiwari, 2007). Drying of agricultural product is extremely energy demanding. In the developed nations, about 10% of energy is devoted to drying operations (Kudra, 2004). Not until sometimes in the 1970s, these operations were basically powered with the use of fossil fuel. However, the oil crises in the 1970s prompted the adoption of alternative energy supply for drying of agricultural products. Fortunately, renewable energy sources are feasible possibilities which are environmentally friendly and economically viable (Akinbulire et al., 2014; Babatunde et al., 2018).
The following example demonstrates the application of the integrated modeling toolkit to perform a high spatial fidelity assessment of sustainableresidueavailability within a single management unit in Cerro Gordo County, Iowa. The farm being investigated is approximately 140 acres, and is managed utilizing typical agronomic practices for the region. The farm has been in a continuous corn for grain cropping rotation for the last six years, with a corn-soybean rotation having been implemented for at least the two prior decades. Reduced tillage practices using a chisel plow in the fall are used on this management unit. A fall manure application with slight surface residue processing and soil disruption has been utilized over the last six years of continuous corn rotation. Spring field cultivation is performed directly prior to planting. Fertilizer applications have varied based on annual weather constraints. Modeled fertilization for this analysis has been spring side dress application of N at varying rates based on the composition of the manure being applied. Yields on this management unit are slightly less than local production averages as non-genetically modified (GMO) varieties have been grown over the last several years. The management unit being investigated for this case study in comprised of seven SSURGO soils (Figure 6). These soils are typical of north central Iowa, having generally low slopes and moderate to high baseline organic matter.
In this paper, we presented several issues of the PV solar cells including the characteristics, types, advantages and disadvantages and a study of some specific factors effecting the solar cell’s efficiency. the weather and location are the most important factors that affect solar cell’s efficiency and output energy. A case study of two major cities in Saudi Arabia was presented to show the effect of the factors mentioned in this paper. Finally, it is recommended that a detailed study is important during the design of the solar cells project. This will lead to perfect installation and very efficient solar system. Also, we have found in this study that the the energy produced from the PV system located in Riyadh is better than the PV system in Jeddah because of different factors such as the performance of PV modules under varying light conditions will differ significantly, which in turn has a severe impact on the yield of PV systems, module temperature ,soiling and all the other factors can effect the performance of the PV system in different places.
The cellulose-based biorefinery is expected to be a large-scale facility with a feedstock requirement of approximately 900,000 tons of wheat straw per year. Accordingly, an assessment of the potential availability and cost of wheat straw feedstock was undertaken (for a complete description, see Leistritz et al., 2006). Production of wheat straw was estimated based on grain yield, using a Harvest Index formula (Ottman, Dorge, and Martin, 2000). Using the Harvest Index formula and the 2004 statewide average wheat yield of 39.4 bushels per acre, an estimated 3,355.6 pounds per acre of straw would be produced. However, only a portion of this straw can be baled and removed from the field. A sustainable rate of straw recovery for North Dakota has been estimated to be 43% (Lundstrom, 1994), and this value was used throughout the analysis. Over the past decade, estimated wheat straw production in North Dakota has ranged from 9.2 to 16.8 million tons. Using a 43% recovery rate, from 4 million to 7 million tons of wheat straw should be recoverable.
The wind is one of the most important natural resources for the world. Several ways and systems are being used to obtain the energy from the wind. The wind quality and strength are mostly effected by the weather changing and the instability warming around the world. The speed and the direction of the wind control the properties of the wind. The speed rise depends on the location like onshore and offshore [1,2]. The wind speed and the power curve of the turbine are very important for the capacity of the wind energy and in air density changes. The size of the blades of the wind energy depends on some parameters. One of the most important parameters is the average air density of the site. Many factors like the air temperature, the air pressure, and the tower's height for the desired location should be studied very carefully. Moreover, it is very important to critically design the correct size of the blades. Also, the atmosphere is very important for the design and the calculation of the expected power generation capacity after installation of the wind power system [3,4]. In 2016, the wind power capacity increased to 486.8 GW around the world. The wind power usages have increased in the past few years in most of countries around the world including Denmark, Portugal, Ireland, Spain, Cyprus, Germany, China, USA and Canada. The rate of increasing between countries varies from 5.5% to 40% . Figure 1 shows the cumulative installed capacity in 2017 up to 539 GW for different countries around the world .
In different areas of the world, the solar power generation is growing rapidly, powered by the cost savings, economic opportunities, and the need to meet energy demand growth. Meanwhile, the fossil fuel dependency is being reduced. However, several challenges must be dealt with to allow its successful deployment . In the realistic PV power generation network, a PV array's total maximum output capacity will decrease when one or more PV modules in the array are partially shaded. The clouds or the buildings may cause partial shading. It should be noted that the partial shading will result in a hotspot that damages PV cells. How to tackle the reduced performance of PV systems due to partial shading has therefore been a hot topic of research. Recently, a lot of literature has been published to reduce the negative effects of the partial shading . Some of the world's solar-energy-rich spots such as the Middle East and the Arab Gulf are suffering from climate obstacles like dust. Due to the solar radiation available, solar systems such as PV panels are attractive for these areas. On the other hand, dust can be a significant impediment to the activity of solar panels in two ways:
1189 | P a g e 3.4 Enzymatic Hydrolysis of the pretreated samples: After the Lignocellulosic biomass components viz. Cellulose, Hemicellulose and Lignin were loosened during the pretreatments, they were enzymatically hydrolyzed for conversion into hexoses and pentoses. These monomeric subunits were acted upon by the yeast strain and converted into alcohol. In this investigation the enzymes used were Cellulase, Xylanase, Glucoamylase, alpha-amylase and pectinase as an enzyme cocktail, as reported earlier and also observed by us it works better compared to individual enzymes for the hydrolysis of the substrates. Better pretreatment and the mixture of enzymes leads to better enzymatic hydrolysis resulting in to better saccharifation .The maximum hexoses (59%) were obtained from Rice straw and (56.4%) from Sorghum bran in case of acid pretreatment while Sorghum straw (48.2%) and Rice husk (46.4%) were highest in alkali pretreated sample (Table 3.3)
As we know 70% of population of our country lives in villages & their main occupation is agriculture. My prominent aim of this paper is to fulfill the tasks like hand spraying with I/C engine spraying and leg pump spraying etc. using non-conventional energy sources. Thus solar operated spray pump will help the farmers of those remote areas of country where fuel is not available easily. They can perform their regular work as well as save fuel up to large extent. At the same time environment pollution can be reduced. Thus saving is done for revenue of government & also most demanded fuel.
Abstract: Snow and ice removal on highways and public streets is critical for safe operation of the road transportation infrastructure. The issues to be addressed in selecting suitable deicing and anti-icing materials include cost, effectiveness, and damage to the pavement, vehicles and the environment. Considerable research has been carried out in recent years to develop alternative deicers with better performance and cost effectiveness. Among the developed deicer materials are agricultural based deicers that are considered to be sustainable and environmentally-beneficial materials. Iowa is one of the States that is rich in agricultural renewable resources, some of which are being processed for applications such as fuel. Any industrial process, including that of converting corn to ethanol or soy to bio-diesel, is likely to have a number of by-products generated. Rather than face disposal issues for these by- products, it would be desirable to find those that, with a minimum of additional processing, can be used as a deicing compound, either alone, or in combination with products currently in use. Currently, a number of agricultural based deicer materials have been developed or are still under development. However, little information is known about the actual manufacturing/ refining process since most of the developed materials are all proprietary products (patented or commercial). Furthermore, no standard test specifying agricultural-based deicer is available. The study described in this paper focuses on the development of an improved agricultural based deicing product. The objective of this study was to evaluate deicer materials including traditional and alternative deicer materials on road skid resistance which is critical for safe operation of the road transportation infrastructure.
Abstract This investigation focuses on the renewable geothermal energy source utilized as a reservoir for a water chiller unit in the cooling mode. Two hydrocarbon refrigerants, R290 and R600a were suggested to be implemented in a closed loop system to produce chilled water for air conditioning purposes. The traditional R-22 and its substitute R410A were also investigated in a direct expansion geothermal system. The analysis was carried out at the evaporation and condensation temperature ranges of (-25 to -5) °C and (15 to 35) °C respectively. The data showed that R-290 revealed similar coefficient of performance as that of R-22. R-410A exhibited a lower coefficient of performance than that of the R-22 refrigerant by (1-5) %. On the contrary, R-600a showed a higher coefficient of performance than that of the R-22 by about (3) % for the investigation range of operating conditions. R-410A refrigerant exhibited the highest load in comparison with R-22 among other circulated refrigerants by (1.5) %. R- 600a showed a lower condenser load than that of the R-22 system by a negligible margin value. The hydrocarbon refrigerants and the azeotrop mixture were found to be proper candidates to replace R-22 in geothermal system.
static version of the model supports this hypothesis.19 A dynamic demand system seems, on theoretical grounds, to be a superior candidate to represent the energy demand structure as compared with a static one because of the relatively long life of energy appliances. Someone may prefer to switch to, say, gas from electricity for cooking and heating purposes after a relative price change but may not find it economical to do so instantaneously because of the electrical appliances installed. So, this unexpected finding may very well be the result of a model mis-specification. This is a hypothesis which needs to be tested before drawing any conclusions regarding the extent of inter fuel substitution in the sector. Application of a different (static) demand system such as a translog or logit system or single equation methods could be another procedure undertaken before establishing any such conclusion, as results may differ quite significantly across functional specifications.“
268 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Operating Parameters on a Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Abhishek Raj 269 Techno-economic analysis of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification Jim Andersson 270 SMART FAULT DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS AS THE HEART OF A SMART HEAT PUMP SYSTEM Hatef Madani 271 Thermal conductivity of highly stable graphene aqueous nanofluid prepared by hydrazine-assisted
management and some were also trained in gender mainstreaming and nutrition.
Harmonized demonstration plots are being conducted on various technologies including CA, intercropping and crop rotation with different varieties of legumes, spacing of ridges and planting stations, and seed density. During field visits, the mission was able to observe the demonstration plots and discuss with LF and their follower groups. The mission commends DAES for the high quality of the demonstration plots and the fact that the theme of the demonstration plots originated from discussions by AEDOs with the farmers in response to their most pressing problems. The mission also appreciated the positive engagement, enthusiasm and commitment of the LF and their groups in the application of CA principles, the use and application of manure (or more often compost) and the development of nurseries for agroforestry trees to be used within the CA system. As per discussion with farmers, CA has proved to be crucial for maintaining good yields during the previous season that was characterised by long periods of droughts in some districts; this will certainly translate into higher adoption rates. However, some farmers raised issues that they considered to be constraints (though not preventing them from accepting CA) and these included the limited availability, theft or burning of crop residues, and the difficult task of hand weeding when herbicides were not available. In contrast, some farmers noted a reduction in the weed populations under CA.
The integration of large-scale energy storage systems (ESSs) has been identified as a viable option to mitigate the adverse effects of renewable energy sources (RES) on the power system operation and reliability. Currently, compressed air energy storage (CAES) is one of the two large- scale energy storage technologies with low capital and operational costs. This chapter presents a method to integrate a new CAES reliability model in the bulk power system reliability evaluation and investigates quantitative benefits derived from the CAES. A state-duration sampling method is adopted for the reliability evaluation. A detailed reliability model of the CAES that considers its actual operating mechanism is first developed. Each system contingency state is then analyzed using a unit commitment (UC) method instead of hourly optimal power flow (OPF). This ensures that the inter-temporal constraints introduced by the CAES, such as its state-of-charge (SOC), are included in the analysis. Case studies are performed on a six-bus test system containing a wind farm and a CAES. The results indicate that the CAES can improve the overall reliability of the system. In particular, the reliability indices of the bus where the CAES is connected show the greatest improvement. Further case studies have demonstrated that CAES location and size is also important factors affecting the reliability of a power system.
By means of three methods FTIR, XRD and Compressive strength, the presence of hydration compounds as well as the changes in mineral phases during hydration was highlighted. The interpretation of the results with the XRD enables a more precise identification of the mineral phases, in all the samples under investigation. A2 sample exhibits higher strength than other samples and A1 and A4 sample show higher strength than control paste. The WA and RSA mixture have better pozzolanic effect upto 25% replacement.
Based on these, the user is determined to be the biggest determinant of battery drain/consumption in smartphones based on how much time they spend on their devices and what they do with them. The only way to completely stop battery drain is if the device is turned off because ongoing background processes still contribute to energy consumption. Drained batteries are largely discarded, which brings about the release of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions that are harmful to the planet. The manufacturer however bears some responsibility in that they need to work more levelheadedly to design better smartphones, while also communicating better to their consumers the recommended usage practices for optimal use and improved preservation of the planet.
emissions is attributed to the ICT industry, a significant part of which is caused by energy consumed by the functioning of the datacenter physical, mechanical, and computing systems. The high cost of investment necessary for datacenters prevents smaller companies from entering the market. Basic methods for infrastructure availability and service accessibility in a sustainability framework for the client-server distributed cloud architectures have been described in this paper.