Humidtropical climates with high average annual temperatures and relative humidity can induce sweltering and sweating. Givoni (1978) stated that there is a very close relationship between humans and climate and vice versa; even Olgyay (1976) stated that the typical climate determine largely the existing architecture in the area of climate. This adaptation process is essential to achieve a balance and to mankind itself with its environment to achieve comfort or neutral conditions. According to ISO 7730 (1985) that thermal comfort is a condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. Thermal comfort is maintained only when the heat produced by the body’s metabolism is equal to the heat lost from the body and signals from the body’s heat and cold sensors are neutral. Furthermore, in order to simplify the definition, it is stated that thermal environment not only temperature as the only main parameters, but the role of other parameters is crucial. The human body has an automatic mechanism when confronted with the environment. In a cold environment will occur heating mechanisms: reduction of blood flow and shivering. While, in a hot environment will occur cooling mechanism by increasing blood flow and sweating (evaporation).
EM (Electromagnetic) techniques enable efficient wireless communications in different media with different material absorptions. A wide range of novel and important applications in such challenged environments can be realized based on the EM communication mechanism. The main challenge in this area is the realization of efficient and reliable links to establish multi-hop communication and efficiently disseminate data for seamless operation. However, the hostile environments do not allow the direct usage of most, if not all, existing wireless communication and networking solutions, mainly because of the extremely high path loss, small communication range, and high dynamics of the EM waves when penetrating the different medium. In this paper, the propagation based on EM waves in the 315/433 MHz band through a solids: soil, coal, oil sand and liquids: water, salty water and crude oil medium is analyzed in order to explore its applicability. The developed model evaluates the total path loss, the transmission characteristics and bit error rate. The propagation characteristics are investigated through simulation. The theoretical analysis and the simulation results prove the feasibility of wireless communication in the 315/433 MHz band in these environment and highlight several important aspects in this field.
Orientation is a huge factor in case of office buildings (chosen building type) which have majority of wall area covered with glass windows. This extensive glazing offers spectacular views and daylighting while resulting in increased energy consumption for heating and cooling due to their weak thermal resistance. Hence, the orientation of a building on site is one of the deterministic factors of the amount of heat gains and losses. Selecting an optimal orientation would have influence the energy consumption of a building positively.
Contrary to the above explanation, there is some sugges- tion that plasma volume expands in summer when com- pared to winter months . It is not clear if this is associated with changes in plasma osmolality. Also, this phenomenon has not been studied in tropical monsoon region. In our study temperatures during monsoon season remained high (30.7°C) although cooler than the rest of the year (32.3°C). Whether such changes in plasma vol- ume occur in these climatic conditions is not known. The
modern medicine demand, but the increase of traditional medicinal plants demand in the country has increased in high amount. This can be seen in the data shown in 2003; the demand of traditional medicinal plants from 2 trillion rupiah increase up to 7.2 trillion rupiah in 2010. The high demand of medicinal plants causes the value of trade increasing. It is predicted to continue increasing. It can be a good chance for Indonesia to develop agro-industry in foreign markets. Based on WHO data, 80% of the world's population depends on traditional medicine and 20% of world’s population use modern medicine. The modern medicines that marketed in the world made from medicinal plants in the tropics (KLH, 2014).
Of course it is not easy to form a profile of healthy families like this in the middle of the social conditions and economic pressures. Healthy family characters at least can be realized through the interaction example, trust an excellent communication within and outside the family environment. In essence, the family was able to exist and provide a reciprocal influence for the formation of an ideal character family members and their surroundings. Religion also teaches us to make a profile of the family as a social unit which can be helpful for family members and others so will bring up the authority and role of the family in the social order of society. If a profile of the family ideal is embodied by the nuclear family then social disease phenomenon appears in Indonesia very likely would be reduced.
From the results, five diagnostic horizons in soil taxonomy were recognized and defined on the basis of clay movement and illuviation, horizon thickness, organic matter content and presence of anthropogenic activities. Soil physico- chemical properties varied in many respect. However, large scale studies may be necessary in future investigation for increased accuracy of prediction. In addition, more attributes of soil resources should be investigated to create greater confidence.
learning process, from the most common and simple uses to the most sophisticated." Educators are readily embracing the challenges of integrating that technology into their teaching. However, authors and educators still question whether its use positively impacts the learning process. Research is beginning to focus more on the evaluation of the use of technology, but results remain inconclusive. Learning and teaching is the concern of the trained teacher ( Adeyanju, 1997). Belz (2002) thinks that technology brings meaningful and communicative materials into the classroom such as tele- collaboration and interaction.
In Africa, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) is more appreciated in the food habit than other legumes. It is a popular pulse cultivated mainly in the semi-arid region of West Africa, but its production cannot meet the demand, therefore, this study assessed yield potential and adaptability of cowpea to humid agro-ecology. Ninety-two genotypes obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria were evaluated in Calabar (4° 57’N, 8° 19’E) in a randomised complete block design in three replications. All genotypes were collected in southern Nigeria between Latitude 05°05 and 08°30N, and Longitude 03°25 and 15°40E. Twenty-two of the 92 genotypes flowered and had grain yield; TVu-1131, TVu-1132 and TVu-215 had grain yield between 1054.7 and 1093.9 Kg ha -1 ; this yield is within range of the cowpea yield in West Africa. Principal component analysis (PCA) explained the contribution of 99.9% of the morphological variation in the genotypes and attributed most of it to the diversity in grain yield and single linkage
The role of tax acceptance is very important for the country, therefore the Directorate General (Director General) of taxation is a government agency under the Department of Finance that acts as a manager of taxation system in Indonesia seeks to improve Tax reform, which aims to allow the taxation system to be simplified which includes tax rates, untaxable income, and a tax-voting system. In the implementation of tax law, the law number 28 of 2007 about the general provisions and taxation procedures that taxpayers are individuals or entities, such as taxpayers, tax cutters, and tax collectors who have and tax obligations in accordance with the provisions of taxation regulations. The public reaction form can be seen from the taxpayer's willingness to pay taxes. According to the tax law, Indonesia adheres to the self-assessment system which gives the trust to carry out taxation obligations both counting, calculating, paying, and reporting itself the amount of tax owed.
Furthermore, population’s origin influences directly on weight of 1000 grains where itself influences on yield. In effect, populations which come from areas with more annual rainfalls had more small pods and grains at upper sizes than of dry environments (Graziano et al., 2010). These results are confirmed by Del Pozo et al (2002) who affirm that sizes of grains and pods have an adaptive value. Nevertheless, the grains performance may be reduced through over-grazing, freeze, and drought. (Muir et al., 2005). Since 70% of feedings have been insured by pods of MedicKs, proportion decreased rapidly to zero when green material becomes available after rain (Porqueddu., 2001). Much of leguminous fodder species are depending to permanent grassland (Duc et al., 2010). Weight of grains constitutes a compensation mechanism to support grain yield under impact of the drought (Yousfi et al., 2012).
The College's role in motivating students to become a young entrepreneur is very important in growing number of businesspeople. With the rise of entrepreneur from among scholars will reduce the amount of added unemployment even increased the number of jobs. The question is how the College parties can print a young entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship education in Indonesia is still less gain enough attention adequately, either by education or community. Many educators are less attentive to the growth of entrepreneurial attitudes and behavior of target students, both at secondary schools, as well as in higher education. Their orientation, generally just on setting up manpower.
historically exploited population. The sea of Indonesia has a huge potential for sustainable, i.e. 6.4 million tonnes year. What is meant by sustainable potential is the potential of catching fish that still allows the fish to do regenerate until the number of fish caught is not reducing fish populations. Based on international rules, the amount of the catch is allowed is 80% of the potential of the sustainable or about 5.12 million tons per year. In fact, the number of catches in Indonesia have yet to reach that number. This means there are still opportunities to increase the number of catches are permitted. If compared the distribution of potential fish, visible distinction in General between the Western and Eastern parts of Indonesia. In the western part of Indonesia with an average depth of 75 meters of the sea, a type of fish that many small pelagic fish are found. Somewhat different conditions found in Eastern Indonesia region with average depths of the sea reaches 4,000 m In the eastern Indonesia region, many large pelagic fish are found such as skipjack and tuna. In addition to the available fish in the ocean, the population of Indonesia are also many that do aquaculture, especially in coastal areas. On the North coast of Java Island, many societies that developing aquaculture businesses by using the Causeway. The types of fish that breed there is fish milkfish and shrimps. In addition to fish the sea wealth, Indonesia is also in the coastal areas in the form of mangrove forests, seagrass, seagrass meadow, and coral reefs. Indonesia has more than 13 thousand islands so very long coastline. The shoreline length is Indonesia reached 81,000 km, this size is the length of the second longest Beach in the world after Canada. Therefore, the potential of natural resources in the coastal areas is very important for Indonesia. Not wrong if the Government under the administration of the President of the maritime development focusing the Jokowi Indonesia. Our natural wealth in the form of fish and even many taken by unscrupulous persons from other countries in the form of the practice of stealing fish or illegal fishing. There are some areas of Indonesia's waters are prone to illegal fishing activities. The most prone areas with Sea fish is theft practices Arafuru (Papua) in eastern Indonesia waters.
MSMEs contribute greatly to the formation of GDP (Gross Domestic Product). In 2003 Small Enterprises contributed Rp 815.14 million and increased to Rp1,257.76 million in 2006. This contribution of GDP is able to drive and accelerate the growth of the domestic economy. The value of UMKM exports also continues to increase, because there are local characteristics of Indonesia and is a cultural product (culture product). The nature of UMKM is flexible and can be done by various layers of lower and middle society, and they can easily participate in it. The flexibility possessed by SMEs and small scale, has burst its spirits to start a business anytime and is easy to get started. Given the capital required to start a business on a small scale, it requires local technology that is simple and straightforward, which is dominant in the ability of the local community.
Boalemo's quality improvement is very much influenced by the level of participation of education personnel in carrying out the teaching and learning process. This can be measured by a variety of indicators, namely the percentage of graduates of TK/RA/BA, the number of repetitions, the dropout rate, the number of graduates, the teacher feasibility of teaching, the percentage of classroom conditions, the percentage of school facilities, the participation rate of school fees and units. Especially for junior high and high school, the teacher's indicator teaches the field of study. Increasing the professionalism of teachers greatly determines the improvement of the quality of education. Therefore, teachers are required to continue at the undergraduate level of strata education. Teacher teaching feasibility indicators, it turns out that at the junior high school + MTs level the teachers who deserve to teach are the biggest and the lowest at the level of SM + MA. The best conditions for classrooms are at the level of SMP + MTs and SM / MA, preferably the most severely damaged condition is at the level of SD / MI. Of the existing school facilities, there are still schools that do not have a library, namely schools at the elementary / MI level and for junior high schools.