The collected plant was washed with distilled water to remove the dust and then was dried under shade. The shade-dried material was powdered by means of mechanical grinder and the powder was allowed to pass through sieve no. 60 for powder microscopy. The coarse powder was used for extraction. The suitably crushed plant material of Aporosalindleyanaleaves were placed in a closed vessel and ethanol i.e, (1:10) ratio were added. The system is allowed to stand for seven days, with occasional shaking. The liquid is then strained off and the solid residue is pressed to recover as much occluded solution as possible. The extract was filtered and used for the anti-inflammatoryactivity.
fractions were tested in experimental animal models of arthritis and inflammation. As the HRBC or erythrocyte membrane is similar to that of the lysosomal membrane and its stabilization implies that the extract can also stabilize the lysosomal membrane and thus the stabilization of human red blood cell membrane (HRBC) by hypotonicity induced membrane lysis can be taken as measure for evaluation of invitroanti-inflammatoryactivity of the plant extracts. Most of the investigators have reported that denaturation of protein is one of the cause of rheumatoid arthritis. Production of auto antigens in certain rheumatic diseases may be due to invivo denaturation of proteins. Mechanism of denaturation probably involves alteration in electrostatic, hydrogen, hydrophobic and disulphide bonding. Antidenaturation study which includes the albumin denaturation is performed by using Bovine serum albumin (BSA). When BSA is heated it undergoes denaturation and express antigens associated with type 3 hypersensitivity reactions and that is related to diseases such as serum sickness, glomerulonephritis, rheumatic arthritis, and lupus erythromotosus.Pergulariaextensa belongs to a milky weed family of Asclepiadaceae. The family asclepiadaceae includes more than 2000 species which are classified under 280 genera 9 . They were distributed worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions. It is widely grown along the roadsides of India and also present in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa. Most probably it is grown as a covering on the other shrubs and trees and it is also cultivated as an ornamental plant on the penthouses. It is very commonly found in hedges through cut most of cenfry to an altitude about 1000m in Himalayas and 900m in southern India 10 . The name Pergularia in English is called veliparuthi in tamil, uttaravaruni in sanskruit, uttaranjutuka in hindi, dustaputeega in telugu is a perennial twinning herb. In the ayurvedic system of medicine the aerial parts of the plant are reported to have pharmacological activities like antifertility , antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular effect, antibacterial activity, antiseptic, antivenin, emmanagogue, emetic, expectorant etc. The aim of the present study was to identify the antiarthritic potential & anti-inflammatoryactivity of ethanolicextract of Pergulariadaemia through invitro methods such as membrane stabilization assay, protein denaturation assay and albumin denaturation assay.
The present study is carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of Ethanolicextract of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Anti-inflammatoryactivity was evaluated by using Egg Albumin, Turpentine Oil & Formaldehyde as phlogistic agents. The animals were treated with doses 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg of extract and Diclofenac Sodium at a dose of 10mg/kg is used as a standard drug. The Bryophyllum Pinnatum showed a significant anti- inflammatoryactivity in a dose dependent manner in all the models when compared with the standard treatment. The extract (500mg/kg) exhibited maximum antiinflammatory activity i.e., 46.25%, 44.30%, 46.40% (P<0.001) like standard Diclofenac 47.02%, 46.50%, 48.57% in Egg albumin, Turpentine oil and Formaldehyde induced methods respectively. Based on the above results, we conclude that the Bryophyllum pinnatumhas significant anti- inflammatoryactivity and might prove efficacious for further design and development of agents with significant biological activity.
plant are used in folklore medicines for a number of ailments. The freshly collected leaves of above plants were screened. Shade dried & firstly defatted with petroleum ether & then ethanol respectively and the leaf extracts were subjected to various physicochemical studies. The percentage yield of both plant of extract was (5.1%) for Calotropis obtained with ethanol. The obtained extracts separately inflammatory action. Achyranthes aspera leaf extractinflammatoryactivity. The obtained result showed that the EE at dose of 300 mg/kg showed 28.74% inhibition in carrageenan induced paw oedema, 14.64% inhibition of ht & 11.11% inhibition against formalin induced paw edema. Calotropis inflammatoryactivity. The obtained result showed that the EE at dose of 300 mg/kg showed 34.97% inhibition in carrageenan induced paw edema, 18.82% inhibition of granuloma dry weight & 15.77% inhibition against formalin induced paw oedema. leaf extract in combination also exhibited anti- inflammatoryactivity. The obtained result showed that the EE at dose (300+100) mg/kg showed 43.62% inhibition in carrageenan induced paw oedema, 25.81% inhibition of granuloma dry weight &
Inflammation is a normal protective response to the infectious agents, antigen-antibody reactions, thermal, chemical, physical agents, and ischemia.  All inflammatory diseases have almost a common pathway of generation of disease, which involves generation of various inflammatory mediators at various stages. Inflammation can be classified as acute and chronic. Acute inflammation is the initial response to the harmful stimuli resulting in redness, pain in the area of infection or injury. Chronic inflammation is also known as prolonged inflammation involves the lymphocytes and macrophages resulting in fibrosis and tissue necrosis. This increases the development of diseases such as arthritis, heart disease, asthma etc. [2, 3]
Michelia champaca L. (Magnoliaceae) commonly known as svarna champa, a tall handsome tree with yellow fragrant blossoms, is commonly used by many traditional herbal preparations. The plant is also reported to have significant wound healing (Dwajani and Shanbhag, 2009), antimicrobial (Khan et al., 2002), antidiabetic (Jarald et al., 2008) antitumor (Hoffmann and Torrance, 1977), anti-inflammatory (Vimala et al., 1977) antioxidant (Hasan et al., 2009) and antiinfective (Oumadevi, 2011) properties. The present study demonstrates the FT-IR analysis and Invitroanti-inflammatoryactivity of Michelia champaca leaves by inhibition of albumin denaturation and HRBC Membrane stabilization activity.
The present study showed that among the phytochemicals both the mangroves revealed presence of flavonoids, tannins, triterpenes, alkaloids and saponins. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatoryactivity of leaves, stems, pods and fruits of ethanolicextract of Derris trifoliata and Sonneratia alba mangrove species were studied. Total flavonoid content (TFC) was found to be maximum in S.alba fruits of ethanolicextract (792.6 mg quercetin equivalent QE/g) as well as the total phenolic content (TPC) was found to be highest (630.39 mg gallic acid equivalent GAE/g). Ethanolicextract at a concentration range (20-100 μg/mL) showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assay where free radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging potentials of S. alba fruits IC 50 value (62.62 and 66.73 μg/mL) was greater as compared to other extracts respectively. The reducing power of all the extract of
The crude ethanolicextract of the leaves of Spilanthes paniculata Wall.ex DC (Family: Asteraceae) was evaluated for its possible anti-inflammatoryactivity as well as total flavonoids and tannins content growing in northeast part of Bangladesh. The anti-inflammatoryactivity was studied using carrageenan and histamine-induced rat paw edema test at different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) of the ethanol extract. At the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight, the extract showed a significant anti-inflammatoryactivity both in the carrageenan and histamine-induced oedema test models in rats showing 55.63% and 56.52% reduction in the paw volume (P<0.01) comparable to that produced by the standard drug indomethacin (61.27% and 63.35%) at 4h respectively. The percentage inhibition of the oedema paw volume by the 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract was also statistically significant (P<0.05; P<0.01) compared favorably with the indomethacin treated animals at 1, 2 and 3 h in both models. The total flavonoids and tannins content were calculated as quite high in ethanolicextract (112.98 mg/g of quercetin equivalent and 187.27 mg of gallic acid equivalent respectively). Acute toxicity test showed that the plant might be safe for pharmacological uses. Therefore, the obtained results tend to suggest the acute anti-inflammatoryactivity as well as total flavonoids and tannins content from the ethanolicextract of the leaves of Spilanthes paniculata and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of this plant as a remedy for toothache, pain and inflammations.
From the data given in Figure 1, there was a dose dependent increase in percentage protection of HRBC membrane by hydro-ethanolicextract of C. intybus leavesextract. The results showed that C. intybus leavesextract at concentration 500 μg/ml give protection to the erythrocyte. However, the percentage inhibitions of lysis shown by the extract doses were lower than that obtained for 100 μg/ml of Aspirin. As the human erythrocyte membrane resembles the lysosomal membrane the HRBC membrane stabilization has been used to study the in-vitro anti-inflammatoryactivity. The lysosomal contents of the neutrophils include bactericidal enzymes and proteinases, which on further extracellular release cause tissue inflammation and damage. Therefore, stabilization of the lysosomal membrane is important in limiting the inflammatory response (Leelaprakash et al., 2011).
Antileishmanial activity: Infections caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania are a major worldwide health problem, with high endemicity in developing countries. The incidence of the disease has increased since the emergence of AIDS. L.G. Rocha et al., refered in a review on a plant extracts that a chemically defined molecules (coumarin, quercetin) of natural origin showing antileishmanial activity 23, 24 . Quercitrin, a flavonoid is responsible for the antileishmanial activity of B. pinnatum. The quercetin aglycone-type structure, as well as a rhamnosyl unit linked at C-3, seem to be important for antileishmanial activity. Da Silva et al., investigated the antileishmanial properties of three flavanoids (quercitrin, quercetin and afzelin) of leaf extract in mice against L. amazonenis amastigotes and found oral route was more effective than other (i.v. or tropical) routes. The protective effect of plant in leishmaniasis may not be due to a direct effect on the parasite itself but rather activation of the reactive nitrogen intermediates pathway of macrophages. Hepatoprotective and Nephroprotective: Juice of the fresh leaves is used very effectively for the treatment of jaundice in Bundelkhand region of India. Yadav et al studied that the juice of leaves was found more effective than ethanolicextract as evidenced by invivo and invitro histopathological studies for hepatoprotective activity of plant and justifies the use of juice of plant leaves in folk medicine for jaundice. The protective effect on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats which may involve its antioxidant and oxidative radical scavenging activities 25 . It is also used for the treatment of kidney stones in India where is goes by the name of Pather Chat or Paan-futti 26 . The Quercetin has neproprotective and antioxidant role 25 . Neuropharmacological activities: B. pinnatum has been used since 1921 in traditional medicine as an antipsychotic agent. Salahdeen et al showed that the aqueous leaf extract possesses depressant action on CNS. The animals treated with 50 -200mg/kg was
The stable 1, 1-diphenyl-2picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) was used for determination of free radicals-scavenging activity of the extracts.  Different concentrations of each herbal extract were added, at equal volume, to ethanolic solution of DPPH (100µM). After 15 min at room temperature, the absorbance was recorded at 518 nm. The experiment was repeated for three times. Ascorbic acid were used as standard control. IC50 values denote the concentration of sample, which is required to scavenge 50% of DPPH radicals
Methods: a total of twelve animals of both sexes weighing (60 - 130 g) were randomly divided into three groups consisting of 4 animals each. Group I served as control and receive distilled water, while group II and III received the ethanolicextract of Acacia eherbengiana (300 mg\kg body weight) and diclofenac sodium (20mg\kg) respectively. Inflammation was induced by injecting carrageenan (1% w\v) in the sub-plantar tissues of the rat hind paw.
Aim is to study the invitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action of the ethanolicextract of leaves of Cocculus hirsutus. Preliminary Phytochemical anlalysis showed the presence of flavones, flavonoids, triterpenoids, anthocyanins, coumarins, proteins, reducing sugars, alkaloids, tannins, glycosides and quinines. The invitro antioxidant study was done by DPPH, Nitric oxide radical generation and reducing power assay. The anti-inflammatory study was done by HRBC (Human Red Blood Cell) assay. Ethanolicextract of the leaf of the plant showed significant antioxidant activity and the antiinflammatoryactivity. The maximum percentage of inhibition by DPPH method was found to be 56.73 % at the concentration of 800 µg/ml and the maximum percentage of inhibition by Nitric oxide method was found be 58.6 %. The invitroanti inflammatoy activity was found to 79.77 % at the concentration of 25 µg and it increases with increase in concentration at the concentration of 800 µg it was found to be 94.74%. The antioxidant and the antinflammatory activity is may due to the presence of flavonoids. From the above it was concluded that the ethanolic leaf extrac of cocculus hirustus having in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatoryactivity. Further investigation has to be done in experimental animals to find out the mechanism of action.
Plant research has been intensified worldwide in the recent times. A large number of medicinal plants and their purified constituents have immense therapeutic potentials and have been reported to exhibit anti- diabetic activity of ethanolicextract Andrographis paniculata. In vitro anti-diabetic was investigated by using alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase, tyrosinase, glucose uptake in yeast cells, heamoglobin glycosylation, extracts on heamoglobin glycosylation, extracts at physiological glucose concentration. The preliminary phytochemical analysis is also carried out. The results of the present study clearly depicted that ethanolicextract of Andrographis paniculata has potent antidiabetic activity.
418 The edema and inflammation induced by carrageenan is shown to be mediated by histamine and 5-HT during first 1 h, after which increased vascular permeability is maintained by the release of kinins up to 2.30 h and from 2.30 to 6 h, the mediators appear to be prostaglandins, the release of which is closely associated with migration of leucocytes into the inflamed site (24). The Carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats is known to be sensitive to cycloxygenase (COX) inhibitors and has been used to evaluate the effect of non-steroidal anti- inflammatory agents (NSAIAs). All NSAIAs are effective in late phase and do not inhibit early phase oedema (25). Our results are consistent with these facts. In the early stage of asthma, release of inflammatory mediators like histamine, tryptase, acetylcholine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins are triggered by exposure to allergens, irritants, cold air or exercise (26). Some of these mediators directly cause acute bronchoconstriction. Spasmolytic drugs like beta adrenergic agonists, xanthine derivatives and anticholinergics are used as quick relief medications in such acute asthmatic attacks (27).
ABSTRACT: The free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic root extract of Aporosalindleyana (EREAL) was evaluated in-vitro with the spectrophotometric method based on the inhibition of hydroxyl radical, the reduction of stable DPPH free radical, inhibition of superoxide anion radical, total antioxidant activity and reducing power. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. EREAL showed significant activities in all free radical scavenging assays compared to standard antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyl toluene and vitamin E. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC 50 value of EREAL
Inflammation is a protective response which is intended to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury as well as the necrotic cells and tissues resulting from the original insult 7, 8 . The leukocytes attracted to the inflamed area are responsible for specifically eliminating the noxious agent 9 . Anti-inflammatoryactivity of ECD was studied in carrageenan induced paw oedema, fresh egg white induced paw oedema, formalin induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma model in albino rats. Carrageenan and egg white induced paw oedema represents acute models of anti-inflammatoryactivity, where as formalin induced and cotton pellet granuloma represents chronic models of anti-inflammatoryactivity. In all the models the test ECD significantly inhibited inflammation at P<0.05 and the results were comparable to the standard Diclofenac.
Mentha arvensis Linn. family Lamiaceae, it is used as a food seasoner, household remedy, and industrial purposes it is traditionally used in hypertension and in patients with ischemic heart disease. Juice of leaves is given in diarrhea and dysentery. The leaves medicinally used for stomach problems and allergy. It is also used for the treatment of liver and spleen disease, asthma and jaundice. The infusion of these leaves is used in indigestion, rheumatic pains, arthritis, and as remedy for inflamed joints. Menthol derived from its essential oil is used in pharmaceutical, perfumery, and food industries. Menthol is antiseptic, carminative, refrigerant, stimulant and diuretic in properties and is used against skin infections. It has been reported to possess diverse medicinal properties, and hence there is a need to explore its medicinal properties to support the traditional claim. This review shed a light on extensive experimental work carried on its extracts to validated classical claims.
The rapid emergence of resistance bacteria toward various antibiotics may associate with higher medical cost and increase mortality rate. Hoya diversifolia was used to cure skin diseases and alleviate rheumatism pain. The aim of this study is to evaluate in vitro antibacterial properties of H. diversifolia ethanolicleaves extract against several Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The antibacterial study was determined based on pattern of inhibition zones using disc diffusion assay and also minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). It is shown that the extract can inhibit the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,Escherichia coliandBacillus cereus.The lowest MIC values of extract were 25 mg/mL for MRSA and E. coli as well as 100 mg/mL for B. cereus at 24 and 48 hours of incubation period. The plant had potential to act as antibacterial agent that can be applied in pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields.