BLOCK-12 is a communication receiver unit, consisting of four different channels having different bandwidth. Each channel consists of a band pass filter-BPF, demodulator, decoder and Kalman filter. Channel-1 is used for receiving the signal from main control. Channel-2 is for receiving the information from on track vehicles.Channel-3 is set to pass through the information of root chart entry and channel-4 is used to receive the same band width information of JTI, CG, distance mileage data entry, and request from non-stop stations. This block gets the common input entry from a duplexer in Block14.
In a binary image, there are only two Boolean values for each pixel: ‘0’ or ‘1’. In this study, the foreground set (pixels), which comprise all objects in an image is referred to as white colour (‘1’). The foreground objects can be easily labelled and categorised by their size. The rest complement sets are called the background, which are black in colour (‘0’). To map the environment, it is necessary to obtain the inner edges of the test tank. The foreground objects are firstly dilated by a 3- STREL-octagonal structuring element to fill small holes and smooth the contour. Under the assumption that the largest object in the binary image is the test tank, all the other foreground objects can be eliminated from the binary image (refer to Fig. 8a). A sequence of logical operations is secondly executed to acquire the boundaries of the tank. Canny edge detection algorithm  is finally performed to detect the edge points of the pool in the binary image.
W. Kuo, M. Di, and H.-W. Fang, “An integrated deployment tool for ZigBee-based wireless sensor networks,” Proc. 2008 IEEE/IFIP Int’l Conf. Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, vol.1, pp.309–315, 2008.  X. Xiang and X. Guo, “Zigbee wireless sensor network nodes de- ployment strategy for digital agricultural data acquisition,” Proc. IFIP Advances Information and Communication Technology, vol.317/2010, pp.109–113, 2010.
The EPPE 3-11 project contains a series of three ‘nested’ studies or ‘tiers’ which help answer specific research questions (www.ioe.ac.uk/projects/eppe). Tier 1 answers the research question about the effectiveness of the 800+ primary schools the EPPE 3-11 children attended. It used statistical data (matched KS1 and KS2 National assessment results) for successive pupil cohorts derived from every primary school in the country (over three consecutive years 2002-2004) for English and Mathematics to provide value added estimates of the academic effectiveness of each school. Further information on Tier 1 can be found in Melhuish et al., (2006).
The sample for the surveys is randomly selected from Child Benefit records. Just under 7,100 parents in England with children under 15 were interviewed for the survey in 2008 (Speight et al. 2009) and just over 6,700 in 2009 (Smith et al. 2010). Interviews took place face-to-face in people’s homes and lasted for an average of three-quarters of an hour. Each parent was asked basic information about all children they had living with them (e.g. type of childcare they received) and then more detailed information about one randomly selected child (if there were two or more children in the household).
The general principles for cultivating CoPs are fairly well developed, with many authors promoting the view that CoPs require direct managerial support to prosper, but at the same time, due to CoPs’ organic and spontaneous nature, managers need to be careful not to impose too much control on CoPs as it may deprive the CoP members of the sense of ownership of their community, consequently leading to the community’s demise (Harvey et al., 2013; McDermott and Archibald, 2010; Probst and Borzillo, 2008; Saint- Onge and Wallace, 2003; Thompson, 2005; Wenger et al., 2002; Wenger and Snyder, 2000). Nonetheless, at more specific ‘action’ level, the problem of facilitating CoPs remains under-researched, especially with respect to the tools and techniques which could be operationalized by practitioners with interest in developing CoPs.
A Brexit would also present the UK with the problem of policing land borders. The land border with the EU – i.e. Ireland – would be 499 km, and if Brexit was followed by Scottish independence, the land border would be 653 km. As for controlling entry by non-EU nationals, the past year’s refugee crisis in Europe has shown how well-placed the UK is to close its doors. For better or worse, the UK has been able to refuse to relocate any of the refugees who have reached Europe from Greece and Italy during the crisis – and in 2015 received only 3 percent of the EU’s first-time asylum applications. Yet the UK is set to receive some €40 million a year from the EU’s Asylum, Migration and Integra- tion Fund; its allocation in 2014-2020 is the sixth highest in the EU. It is hard to see how this might be called a bad deal or how it could be improved by going it alone.
Within the NLP community, the impact of language variation in the development of language resources and NLP applications has been explored in recent years with experiments in different directions. For example, automatic classification or identification of closely related languages such as in Huang and Lee (2008) and Tiedemann and Ljubeši´c (2012); corpus-driven studies focusing on lexical variation between varieties such as the one by Piersman et al. (2010) or Ljubeši´c and Fišer (2013); and finally, the adaptation of language models in the context of machine translation such as in Nakov and Tiedemann (2012).
Another concern that motivated the investigation on the topic of financial practices among SMEs, particularly in Malaysia, is the paucity of research into the topic of financing preferences. General studies on SME financing have been primarily conducted by related institutions, either domestic or international, and focused mainly on the issues of provision of funds for SMEs. Mac an Bhaird (2010) indicates that early studies investigating SME financing predominantly comprised government-sponsored surveys and reports which concentrating largely on potential deficiencies and obstacles to the sustainability and development of the sector. Existing literature on Malaysian SMEs mainly captures development of SMEs in general (including issue and challenges faced by SMEs) while those which relate to the financial practices of SMEs in Malaysia are particularly focused on financing issues, and sources and uses of funds employed throughout the business (see Saleh and Ndubisi, 2006; Aris, 2007; Hassan, 2008; Hall, 2003; Hamid et al, 2006, Rozali et al, 2006). The topic of financing preferences among SMEs in Malaysia is still under-studied and thus there exists an open opportunity to explore this area which will consequently enhance understanding of this important topic.
It is now time to return to the situation in China at the turn of the nineteenth century. We have seen how many of the educated elite felt the creation of a national language was a crucial aspect of nation building (Gunn 1). The notion of language in the Chinese context, especially with regard its written form, needs brief explanation at this point. The literate elite wrote in a stylised form of Chinese known as wen yan. This was unintelligible to all but the most highly educated. The “common people” used a form of vernacular called bai hua, which had a written form. Indeed the most popular novels of Chinese history, such as The Dream of the Red Mansions and Journey to the West, owed their great popularity to being written in bai hua. However, scholarship—and this included the civil service exams and the eight-legged essays—were written in wen yan. So, a major aspect of language reform at this time centred around the use of wen yan and how to reform it. There were, of course, many schools of thought on what this new national language should be, of which the Tong Cheng school was perhaps the most famous. The school was named after an area in Anhui Province where the supporters came from, the best known of whom was Yao Nai (1731-1815), and who will be referred to again in the next chapter. The school was characterised by three main features, namely the promotion of the Neo- Confucian doctrine developed during the Song Dynasty and which still held sway in the Qing court, a didactic view of writing and the espousal of the guwen writing style (Chow 184). We have discussed the guwen style in earlier chapters, but it is important to remember that the name of this style did not imply that its proponents had to adopt a classical style. On the contrary, they promoted a writing style that was clear, unadorned and accessible to contemporaries. This was called guwen because this had been the style of classical prose. This was the style promoted by Chen Kui, as we saw in Chapter 3.
For the application context of this research, we have applied the corner prox- imity measure on different moving objects being captured using a surveillance camera. Moving objects include single walking person, a group of people and a vehicle. The results are shown in Figure (3). Clearly, the corner proximity image for single walking subject shown has darker spots being detected at the bottom part of the image as the leg strikes the ground. Moreover, These darker regions are observed to have mostly the same level of darkness with consistent distance between two consecutive regions. On the other side, the proximity image for moving vehicle has an almost flat pattern with arbitrary peaks located in the image. A similar algorithm to  is used to derive the positions of the peaks as local maxima.
Where cells of E. coli are grown in the absence of lactose, there is no need of β-galactosidase. An E. coli cell contains 3~5 molecules of the enzyme (Russell 2004). That is, a dozen of the repressors bind and unbind rather than just bind and stay on the mRNA. In a fraction of a second, after one repressor unbinds and before another binds, an mRNA polymerase could initiate a transcription of the operon, even in the absence of lactose. (Russell 447). In 2-3 minutes after adding lactose, there soon are 3,000~5,000 molecules of β-galactosidase per E. coli cell (Russell, Lewis). The β-galactosidase in the E. coli is more stable than the mRNA, whose half-life is more than 20 hours. The half-life of the permease is more than 16 hours (Lewis 284). So that, the β-galactosidase activity remains at the induced level for longer. To add or change codons at the 5' end of the gene to encode N-terminal amino acid within the DNA-lacZYA will provide greater resistance to β-galactosidase production (Southern Illinois Univ.). As a porter, the permease compound can be to concentrate lactose against the gradient across the cellular membrane in ad hoc manner for E. coli. The concentration of the substrate against a gradient can be achieved up to 10 3 to 10 6 -fold. The existing β-galactosidase
The survey instrument consisted of 24 questions divided into open-ended and closed question types. The open-ended questions were about the academics‟ socio-demographic characteristics. They were age, gender, academic qualifications and household expenditures for ICT devices and services. The closed questions were about the academics‟ perceptions of the effects of using e-learning environments such as online study desks on teaching and research workloads. Among the 24 questions, the academics were asked a Likert-type statement (question), which was that “the use of ICTs in teaching and learning increases teaching and research workloads”. This question was asked to explore the academics‟ reactionsregarding their perceptions of the influence of the use of e-learning environments on their academic workloads. The academics gave their replies, which were measured on a 6-point Likert scale: 1 = strongly agree; 2 = agree; 3 = uncertain; 4 = disagree; 5 = strongly disagree; and 6 = not applicable. Therefore the data used for this analysis were Likert-type quantitative data. There is a difference between Likert- type items and Likert scale items. Likert scale data are analysed at the interval measurement scale. Likert scale items are created by calculating composite scores from more than one type of items. For more detailed information, (please see Boone and Boone ,2012).
at all” (F2/1). This was supported by a colleague who suggested that “they [the investigators] would never be impartial” (F2/3). Over all, focus group participants had very little hope in the possibility of establishing a new forum that would not be influenced by corporate interests or as another participant pointed out “the weakness [of a new forum] is that corporations are very powerful in pleading their cause” (F1/4). Second, a related concern was that that the imposition of legal restrictions on corporations could have the effect of imposing an effective social wage on weaker economies (F2). For some, this “Eurocentric approach” (F1/4) could be detrimental to the economy of the host country. In the words of one participant, “[the companies] will close their operations and… because they won’t have any taxes to collect from that company or so they won’t only be tortured but unemployed and tortured!”. There was therefore widespread concern about the economic damage that might transpire by imposing binding legal norms on corporations. The concern was that by imposing a form of accountability, corporations would simply exercise their right to “forum-shop” (F1/2) for a new State with more lenient regulations.
background factors, pre-school and school experiences on a national sample of young children in England between the ages of 3 and 11 years. This Research Brief focuses on the relationships between various child, family, home, pre-school and primary school characteristics and children’s subsequent cognitive (English and Mathematics) and social/behavioural outcomes (‘Self-regulation’, ‘Pro-social’ behaviour, ‘Hyperactivity’ and ‘Anti-social’ behaviour) at age 11 in Year 6 of primary school. It also investigates children’s academic and developmental progress across Key Stage 2 (between Year 2 and Year 6). The brief explores the continuing influence of pre-school and the combined influence of pre-school and primary school experience on children’s cognitive and social/behavioural outcomes. These findings update and extend earlier analyses of pupils’ outcomes in Year 2 and 5 (see Sammons et al., 2004; 2007a; 2007b) and form the end point of the primary phase of the research.