Top PDF Islamic Microfinance: an Interest free Microfinance Model for Poverty Alleviation

Islamic Microfinance: an Interest free Microfinance Model for Poverty Alleviation

Islamic Microfinance: an Interest free Microfinance Model for Poverty Alleviation

enhance it. These effects are: the high rate of return (compared to a fixed interest rate), the holistic approach in supporting businesses and productive activities, a more effective mobilization of excess resources, a fairer society. Montgomery, H. and Weiss, J. (2005) surveys the evidence from Asia by carrying out a rigorous study and states that microfinance may have had positive impacts on poverty but its reach to the core poor is very limited. Swope, T. (2005) shows that microfinance can lead to an increase in income, better nutrition for families, greater high school attendance, empowerment of women and alleviation of poverty. Moreover, there is abundant support to demonstrate that micro- finance can lift families out of poverty and is also able to expedite the completion of sex of the seven millennium development goals. Segrado, C. (2005) expresses that Islamic banks have grown recently in the Muslim world but still constitute a very small share of the global economy compared to the Western debt banking paradigm. Misra, A. (2006) brings out the missing link impact assessment in the Indian context, which is a precondition for poverty reduction on account of the influence of new paradigm of institutional viability under commercial microfinance.
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The role of Islamic Microfinance in Poverty Alleviation: Lessons from Bangladesh Experience

The role of Islamic Microfinance in Poverty Alleviation: Lessons from Bangladesh Experience

A BSTRACT : In the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, the poverty has been a main challenge since the last decades and its alleviation is one of the country’s strategic goals to achieve MDGs by 2015 to fight poverty and improve the standards of living of underprivileged population. Micro and SME financing have been playing important role in poverty reduction by creation a gainful employment opportunities. The Islamic banks and the Islamic windows of conventional banks in Bangladesh should pursue vigorous promotion of Islamic micro and medium scale enterprise (SME) finance, in step with the country's concerted efforts for faster poverty eradication with deeper, wider financial inclusion. This paper determined the role of the Islamic microfinance in poverty alleviation efforts in Bangladesh and how this role can be enhanced. It was intended to establish and recommend Islamic microfinance and its principles that could raise poverty reduction and economic development in the country. Especially, this paper tries to answer the following questions: Can Islamic microfinance help alleviate poverty? Should Islamic finance “innovation” include innovative ways to alleviate poverty? Because an institution is “Islamic” does this mean it has a particular obligation to invest in economic or community development? How does the concept of Islamic microfinance operate to serve the goal of poverty alleviation in Bangladesh? For this purpose, this paper tries to give some possible reflections that help us to develop the analytical tool that may help us to improving the way towards the amplification of the analysis paradigm.
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The Role of Islamic Microfinance in Poverty Alleviation: A Case of Esaar Microfinance Program of Helping Hand for Relief and Development (HHRD)-Pakistan

The Role of Islamic Microfinance in Poverty Alleviation: A Case of Esaar Microfinance Program of Helping Hand for Relief and Development (HHRD)-Pakistan

This study shows that Islamic microfinance has a significance role in poverty alleviation strategies. On the other hand, the product of conventional microfinance has been a fruitful impact in Muslim countries, but those products do not fulfill the requirement of all the Muslim clients. Integration of Islamic social values of caring for the less privileged with microfinance power to deliver financial services to the poor has the potential to cover the millions more needy people, many of them prefer Islamic products over conventional microfinance due to Interest (Riba). This research paper undertakes a case study of Esaar Microfinance Program of Helping Hand for Relief and Development, an Islamic microfinance program operating in Pakistan. After the critical financial examination of Esaar Microfinance shows that it is providing services for all living below the poverty line including the “extremely poor” and Interest free loans can be used as a powerful tool against poverty. Yet Loan portfolio growth of Esaar Microfinance declines with the sharp decline of equity growth over the last six years that might pose some constraints on its financial stability in future. This challenge could be overcome by combining Islamic microfinance with NGOs (Non Government Organization), NPOs (Non Profit Organization) and RSPs (Rural Support Programs) with the specialized resource mobilization institutions and capacity building centers will enhance the financial stability of organizations and will be supportive of achieving the targets of providing Islamic microfinancial services to the poorest of the poor under the umbrella. It will also help to uplift the living standard of people and ultimately contribute towards the economic development and enriched prosperity of the country. References
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The Role of Islamic Microfinance for Poverty Alleviation in Mogadishu, Somalia: An Exploratory Study

The Role of Islamic Microfinance for Poverty Alleviation in Mogadishu, Somalia: An Exploratory Study

An interest in the microfinance sector in Africa has been growing since the 1990s (Buckley, 1997). Buckley (1997) studied the microfinance sector in Kenya, Malawi and Ghana; the author concluded there is little evidence to suggest that microfinance brings significant positive impacts on the growth and development of entrepreneurship in these African countries. Years later, Basu et al. (2004) found that the number of entrepreneurs seeking microfinance assistance is relatively small compared to those seeking deposit services. Consistent with the findings of Buckley (1997), Van Rooyen et al. (2012) reported that microfinance in sub-Saharan Africa does not have uniform positive impacts on entrepreneurship development or poverty alleviation; in some countries, microfinance brings more harm than benefits. Van Rooyen et al. (2012) found that microfinance also brings negative impacts such as the exploitation of women or causing the borrowers’ children to drop out of school.
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Islamic Microfinance System and Poverty Alleviation in Somaliland

Islamic Microfinance System and Poverty Alleviation in Somaliland

Salaam Financial Services, K-MFI and prospective microfinance providers should adopt full-fledged -compatible products, processes and activities and they should be perceived to be so by [r]

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AFFORDABILITY OF ISLAMIC MICROFINANCE

AFFORDABILITY OF ISLAMIC MICROFINANCE

Time magazine has reported indebtedness of borrowers. No more 99% repay; it is increasing (Knowledge@Wharton, 2012). The magazine has reported over-indebtedness and over borrowing from several MFIs, default on repayment, due to “exorbitant interest rates” or expensive credit by not-for-profit and for-profit MFIs and banks’ “increasing competition”. Borrowers have also committed suicide. The borrowers from Grameen Bank borrow from others to service their debt to the bank, which was later considered to be “sucking blood from the poor in the name of poverty alleviation”. In India, the repayment system of 50 weekly equal instalments is considered not practical because the poor do not have stable jobs or if the communities are agrarian. Pressure for high repayment drives members to moneylenders (Vetrivel & Kumarmangalam, 2010). Jain, and Mansuri (2003) put it in this way: “Since the borrower knows that repayment must begin almost immediately after loan disbursement, and typically much before project returns are realized, she must be able to access funds to finance the instalment”. The negative effect of this is reported too; a string of borrowers have committed suicides over alleged “exploitation”, and “harsh collection tactics”.
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Poverty Alleviation via Microfinance using the Concept of Mudharabah

Poverty Alleviation via Microfinance using the Concept of Mudharabah

Islamic microfinance is a process of building social capital and trust (Abdul Rahim, 2010; Hassan, 2014). Unlike conventional banking, microcredit institutions fund their loans to those who are typically perceived as not credit worthy by traditional bankers, without collateral or guarantor (Abdul Rahim, 2010). Based on equity-based financing contracts of Mudharabah and Musharakah, Islamic microfinance have the potential to alleviate poverty by reaching out to the poor, developing a wide range of productive economic sectors as well as sharing of risks and profits generated. The great scholar, Taqi Usmani (1998) recognized that Musharakah and Mudharabah as ‘real and ideal instruments of financing’ as the money contributed by the financier is to be converted into assets with intrinsic utility and the profits are generated through the sale of these real assets. Table 1 below shows a brief comparison on the features of Mudharabah and Musharakah contracts and the following section discusses why Mudharabah financing contracts are deemed suitable for microfinance programmes.
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Adopting Zero Interest Financing Model (ZIFM) in Islamic Microfinance Institutions: The Case of Shariah People Credit Bank (BPRS), Indonesia

Adopting Zero Interest Financing Model (ZIFM) in Islamic Microfinance Institutions: The Case of Shariah People Credit Bank (BPRS), Indonesia

However, despite being able to demonstrate successes in the activity, conventional microfinance is not without controversy. Many studies have examined empirically to test the effectiveness of microfinance (Hulme & Mosley, 1996; Wright, 2000). The findings revealed microfinance is not fully reaching its effectiveness and impacts. For example, Hulme & Mosley (1996), while acknowledging the role microfinance can have in helping to reduce poverty, they concluded from their research that most contemporary microfinance schemes are less effective as expected. They stated that microfinance is not a remedy for poverty- alleviation instead of making the poorest people to become worse-off.
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Impact of Microfinance on Women Empowerment, Poverty Alleviation and Employment Security in Rural Areas of Rajasthan

Impact of Microfinance on Women Empowerment, Poverty Alleviation and Employment Security in Rural Areas of Rajasthan

Micro Finance due to its potential merits of timely supply of financial services and flexibility of products can provide a necessary boost to potential sectors such as agriculture, micro-enterprises, animal husbandry, wool and mutton processing, tourism etc. In addition to harnessing potential sectors of development, microfinance may play a vital role in reaching out to the vulnerable segments of the society like Women, SC and ST, which are outside the purview of formal financial institutions. The agencies operating under the Microfinance Sector can be basically grouped in two classes namely- the SHG-Bank Linkage Programme (SLBP) which is a saving led model and the Microfinance institution, which is a credit, led model and includes NBFC-MFIs, trusts, societies etc., whereof NBFC-MFIs hold more than 80% of the outstanding loan portfolio. The impact studies have proved that the community based approach of microfinance and livelihood has high positive impact whereas the MFI model has not impacted poverty to that extent. As per the report of Centre for Microfinance Rajasthan, Jaipur as of March, 2011, the performance of Microfinance Institutions in Rajasthan could be assessed bytable 10.
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MICROFINANCING THROUGH SELF HELP GROUPS-A CASE STUDY OFBANK LINKAGE PROGRAMME OF NABARD

MICROFINANCING THROUGH SELF HELP GROUPS-A CASE STUDY OFBANK LINKAGE PROGRAMME OF NABARD

Since independence, the formal banking institutions had ignored the poor due to perceived high risks, high transaction costs involved in small-scale rural lending to a large number of poor households and absence of collateral securities. Against this backdrop of failures of earlier poverty alleviation schemes and the financial institutions to reach the real needy, microfinance schemes using self-help groups (SHGs) were designed and NABARD considered this „SHG- Bank Linkage‟ model as a core strategy for rural development. In the earlier schemes like IRDP, DWCRA, the beneficiaries perceived the loan as grant. The poor did not feel the responsibility of repaying the loan and the bankers only concentrated on disbursement of loan which led to poor recovery and the schemes became non-viable. But microfinance through SHGs has proved the notion wrong and showed that even the poor are bankable. The SHG members thrift, mobilize the savings and invest in microenterprises. The recovery rate was reported around 95 percent. Hence, microfinance though SHGs has evolved as an accepted institutional framework to provide financial services to the poors. Further, it is regarded as better mechanism to reduce poverty gradually as against giving one time loan for productive assets which may or may not lead to sustained increase in income (Madheswaran and Dharmadhikary, 2001).
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Towards a Sustainable Islamic Microfinance Model in Pakistan

Towards a Sustainable Islamic Microfinance Model in Pakistan

According to SDPI estimates, poverty rate in Pakistan has roughly returned to the mid-thirties level of the 90s era. Some 58.7 million Pakistanis are classified as poor while Microfinance beneficiaries are only 2.35 million people. The progress and penetration of Islamic Microfinance is even more insignificant in relation to the enormous underdevelopment challenges faced by Pakistan. In this paper, we document the progress of Islamic Microfinance in Pakistan and build the case for its importance for Pakistan and for the Islamic finance industry. We also document the various business models and institutional structures in vogue in offering Islamic Microfinance products and services. We also document the regulatory environment under which Islamic Microfinance products can be offered in Pakistan. We explain the two basic models of Islamic Microfinance using a mathematical representation. The paper highlights the reasons why Islamic Microfinance in particular and Microfinance in general is not growing as rapidly as it should have given the level of underdevelopment and poverty in the country. Lastly, we propose how standardized screening and complimentary operations of NGOs and commercial IMFIs together with fiscal and monetary support can make Islamic Microfinance sustainable and commercially viable.
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Empirical Review of the Role of Microfinance Bank’s Operations on Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria

Empirical Review of the Role of Microfinance Bank’s Operations on Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria

The scourge of poverty and the rate at which the figure is growing has necessitated the establishment of many anti-poverty programmes by different administrations in Nigeria. As at 2010 the number of Nigerians living below poverty line stood at 72 million, this then means that nearly half of Nigeria Population of 160 million is living below poverty line with all the anti-poverty programmes put in place. This figure is still on the increase. Microfinance Banking is the most recent and the only anti-poverty programme that combines financial intermediation with provision of financial services to the poor in the society. This paper therefore examined the role of Microfinance Bank’s operations on poverty alleviation in Nigeria. Data for the study were generated via secondary sources. The study built a regression model in line with the hypotheses. SPSS package version 17.0 was used. We tested for and corrected Autocorrelation and Muiticoliinearity. Our findings were as follows: the operations of MFBs have played significant role in poverty reduction in Nigeria, loans and advances of MFBs have significant negative impact on poverty alleviation. Some of our of our findings were in agreement with the objectives of MFB, while those that were not in agreement reflect the peculiar circumstances of the operations of microfinance banking in Nigeria. Since the government of Nigeria is interested in alleviating poverty, this work will be of immense help. The government can support Microfinance development by promoting macroeconomic stability, and avoiding interest rate caps and high inflation, ensure that the benefits of Microfinance banking are targeted at the core poor.
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Microfinance and Poverty Alleviation Programmes in Nigeria -The Needed Paradigm Shifts

Microfinance and Poverty Alleviation Programmes in Nigeria -The Needed Paradigm Shifts

There is a need to clarify the functions of government-funded development banks like Nigerian Agricultural, Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB), Bank of Industry (BOI), People’s Bank of Nigeria (PBN) and the privately-owned rural banks. The NACRDB should focus on financing agriculture and agro- allied industries, while BOI should concentrate on small and medium-scale enterprises. The People’s Bank of Nigeria and community banks should focus on micro small and medium-scale enterprises (MSMEs), including small loans to the very poor. Moreover, the ownership structure of the People’s Bank of Nigeria (PBN) should be redefined to give the government a minority shareholding. The currently pervasive urban-biased policies should be discarded. It has been shown that rural development has been held back in almost all developing countries by policies that favour industry over agriculture and over rural areas (Schiff and Valdes, 1992). The model in Figure 2 summarises the role of government and micro-credit institutions in the transformation of Nigerian rural communities. The government is expected to provide basic social and economic infrastructure (e.g. schools, health centres, roads, bridges, electricity and water). In fact these functions can be handled by a Rural Development Agency. The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) should create a Department of Rural Sector to collate, analyse and publish all relevant data for measuring outreach, self-sustainability and welfare impact of microfinance institutions (MFIs). The current Microfinance Regulatory Framework issued by the CBN should be reviewed based on the results of a bottom-top household survey in Nigerian rural communities.
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Microfinance: A Tool of Poverty Alleviation with Bank Linkage Programme in Himachal Pradesh

Microfinance: A Tool of Poverty Alleviation with Bank Linkage Programme in Himachal Pradesh

. Microfinance institutes are the mainstream institute for providing microfinance. Some of the MFIs have organised as non-banking finance companies are also making contribution. But these MFIs need collateral and high documentation procedure like that of banks in which lot of time is consumed during the processing of loan. Due to certain limitation banks can never fill the gap thus microfinance plays strong and vital role. Poor are thrown into the vicious cycle of poverty by informal financial institutions. So microfinance is a way to get rid of that. It acts as an intermediary for bridging the gap by providing the facility of saving and getting credit so as to become socially and economically independent. In order to get the poor household free from the shackles of informal credit system microfinance has contributed a lot. Micro financing through SHG is one of the best methods followed by government. Not only the government but also the NGOs are doing their part by formulation of self-help groups.
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POVERTY AND MICROFINANCE IN ERITREA – A DISCOURSE

POVERTY AND MICROFINANCE IN ERITREA – A DISCOURSE

As number of poor people is still large in the world, the poverty is still become a major problem. In the countries like Niger, people are badly suffering from poverty (Abena, and Sowa, 2002; Rena, 2005 b ). Calorie value of food is normally a base to calculate poverty. It is believed that an adult person requires minimum 2,200-2,300 calorie of food value per day, based on this, income is calculated. Any person or family is having less than minimum income, the person/family is considered living Below the Poverty Line (BPL). Economists believe that impact of growth-oriented development did not trickle down the poor. In view of this, many countries have initiated poverty alleviation programs from time to time which showed a positive result (Rena, 2006 a ). The case of India may be referred in this context. Poverty rate was very high in India during 1973-74 as out of the total population, 54.9 per cent people were living Below the Poverty Line (BPL). The poverty ratio in rural and urban areas was 56.4 percent and 49.0 percent respectively during the same period. Considering the seriousness of the problem the Government of India initiated several steps to eradicate poverty from the country. These inter alia, include launching of self-employment and wage-employment programs, construction of houses at free of cost etc. As a result, poverty ratio declined to 36 percent by 1993-94 further to 26 percent in 2002 (Dantwala, 1979; Bardhan, 1984; Jagdish, 2001). One of the most pathetic features of the Eritrean economy today is that a majority of its populace is living in a state of destitution while the remaining relatively insignificant minority is living in affluence (Rena, 2006 a ). Further, poverty, which has no geographical boundary,
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Impact of Microfinance on Poverty Alleviation: A Global Analysis

Impact of Microfinance on Poverty Alleviation: A Global Analysis

The cross-section estimation shows the positive impact of microfinance on poverty alleviation at the macro level. The larger impact of the percentage of female borrowers has been observed in multidimensional poverty. The impact of the number of active borrowers and gross loan portfolios is much higher than that of any other explanatory variable included in the analysis. We also find that the key variables of our analysis remain negative and statistically significant after including the regional dummy. Results for regional dummies show that East Asia and the Pacific, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East and North America have negative and statistically significant coefficients with reference to South Asia at a 5% level of significance. In the meantime, Africa has a positive coefficient although statistically insignificant, suggesting that in Africa, the effect of MFI activities on poverty is not great. Table 8 shows the impact of microfinance on poverty in terms of head count ratio and poverty gap using level data of explanatory variables instead of log variables. The different columns represent the estimation showing the microfinance activities effect with and without regional dummies on poverty. In all specifications, the results are statistically significant but magnitudes are relatively small. Table 9 shows the microfinance effect on three dimensions of poverty: living standard, health and education. We use a log-level model for this estimation. The cross-sectional regression shows a significant impact of microfinance activities on these three dimensions of poverty. Table 10 demonstrates the cross-sectional regression interaction between poverty and legal status of MFIs and region. The estimated coefficient shows that a higher number of female borrowers can decrease the poverty head count ratio. Table 12 shows the cross-sectional regression for instrumental variables used to remove the simultaneous equation problem from our model. Our main objective with the instrumental variable estimation is to remove or solve the problem of endogeneity of the microfinance activities and poverty incidence. The coefficient of the number of active borrowers is negatively and statistically significant at a 5% level, overcoming the heteroscedasticity with and without regional dummies. We conduct three tests: an F test for weak identification, Sargan’s test for over-identification, and an under-identification test. We observe from these tests that we fail to reject the null hypothesis, which is that our instrument has no correlation with the error term. Table 11shows the validity of our instruments; if we use only one instrument - legal origin - we observe that poverty reduces the impact of the number of active borrowers.
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Microfinance in Nigeria and the prospects of introducing its Islamic version there in the light of selected Muslim countries' experience

Microfinance in Nigeria and the prospects of introducing its Islamic version there in the light of selected Muslim countries' experience

Today widespread poverty is one of the major problems of mankind and its alleviation one of her major agendas. In recent years microfinance has emerged as an important instrument to relieve poverty in the developing countries. Today there are more than 7000 micro lending institutions providing loans to more than 25 million poor individuals across the world, their vast majority being the women. However these institutions face some serious challenges, especially in less developed countries where the proportion of people in poverty is high. The existing microfinance in Nigeria serves less than 1 million people out of 40 million being the potential number that need the service. Also, the aggregate micro credit facilities in Nigeria, account for about 0.2 percent of the GDP and is less than one percent of total credit in the economy. Addressing this situation inadequately would further accentuate the problem and slow down growth and development of the country. We find that the microfinance institutions charge interest rate as high as up to 100% for lending and pay as low as 5% on savings. This aggravates the existing inequalities in the distribution of wealth and income in Nigeria. Finally, Nigeria being a country with a Muslims majority, represents a potential for Islamic microfinance especially that most Muslims reject the conventional interest based micro financing, which is not tailored in line with their faith. This might cause failure of government project to combat poverty in the country through micro financing. Under the circumstance Islamic micro financing has potential to serve the country better. The paper has relied on the sources of Shari`ah law, secondary data from journals, periodicals, conference proceedings, text book , internet search and other sources of published data to support the argument.
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Microfinance Non-Financial Services: A Key for Poverty Alleviation? Lessons from Mexico

Microfinance Non-Financial Services: A Key for Poverty Alleviation? Lessons from Mexico

NFS effects on the natural logarithm of monthly net household income per capita 8 are estimated using OLS. The probability of being under the three 9 official Mexican poverty lines will be estimated using a binary logit model where living below the poverty line =1 and living above the poverty line =0. The poverty lines, estimated by CONEVAL (2009) in Mexican Pesos for August 2009 10 , assign monetary values to basic food and non-food baskets. The food poverty line is derived by estimating the per capita income levels required to purchase a basic food basket with the minimum nutritional requirements for a healthy living, in urban and rural contexts 11 . The capabilities poverty line includes the costs of healthcare and formal education. Finally, the asset poverty line captures a moderate degree of deprivation by estimating the level of income necessary to purchase the basic food basket plus other non-food items necessary in a social context: healthcare, formal education, clothing, housing and public transport. Table 2 presents the incidence of poverty in the sample by access and willingness to participate. It also presents the poverty gap measure for each of the different poverty lines. The results for the impact estimations are presented in Table 3 and Table 4.
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Microfinance and Poverty Alleviation

Microfinance and Poverty Alleviation

unbankable (Brandsma and Chaouli 1998:12). It has since been demonstrated that group lending can be used in the place of concrete collateral (Brandsma and Chaouli 1998:11; Morduch 1999:1570). In group lending, the loan is made to a self-selected group of approximately five villagers who may or may not be involved in the same business enterprise. A group treasurer is elected among them to collect weekly repayments and deposit them at the village bank (Brandsma and Chaouli 1998:33). Often, the first loan is a signature loan made out only to the treasurer. If he/she demonstrate the capacity to repay, loans are given to two others in the group, and upon repayment, loans are promptly disbursed to the final two clients. These groups of five meet weekly with bank staff to discuss progress and issues at hand (Morduch 1999:1575). The group treasurer is responsible for repayments by the rest of the group, which alleviates the burden of responsibility from the bank and puts it into the hands of the people. If any one member of the group fails to pay his/her weekly portion of the loan, the entire group is denied subsequent loans (Morduch 1999:1575). Groups have been found to function best when they are free to choose their own members, and members may only leave the group after the loan has been repaid in full (Peace Corps 2000:51). Collective responsibility
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Microfinance and its Impact in Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: A Case Study of some Microfinance Banks in Edo State.

Microfinance and its Impact in Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: A Case Study of some Microfinance Banks in Edo State.

From the research results, the people’s preferences tended towards privately operated micro finance services basically because of their proximity and lack of administrative hitches before loans can be obtained. In designing a model for micro credit, local participation should be encouraged. The benefit lies in the prospect of cost reduction. As Hoddinott (2002) puts it, this benefit is likely to occur where knowledge of local condition is especially important, where moral hazard or adverse selection concerns play a part, or where verification of actions is needed. Communities may also have ways of lowering costs that are not available to outsiders. A further benefit is that beneficiary participation offers the potential for the design and implementation of interviews that more closely reflect the preferences of the population that they are designed to serve. The point here is that since micro finance has a greater potential of alleviating poverty by promoting the economic activities of the poor, engendering employment of resources, raising their income levels, the right approach should be pursued. The Government should ensure that the targeted population is reached, there should be adequate sensitization, the model of operation should be divorced from all political interests whatsoever and the government should put the right machinery in place to ensure proper regulation/ control. Specifically, the following recommendations are important:
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