We have evaluated the intelligent tutoring system teaching cloudcomputing by presenting it to a group of teachers who specializes in cloudcomputing and another group of students. Both groups were asked to evaluate system. Then we asked them to fill questionnaire about it. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding advantages of ITS, completeness of the material, quality of the ITS design. The results of the evaluation by both groups were very acceptable.
Mladen  states that “Cloud” computing is a recent field, which came into existence after Years of research in networking and different types of computing. It uses a SOA, that minimized the information technology operating and maintenance cost for the clients, it offers greater flexibility, reduces capital costs, provides required services are along with many other characteristics. This study discusses issues associated with cloudcomputing along with Virtualization, Cyber infrastructure; Service oriented Architecture and end users. Implementation, research and security issues are studied in detail and key concerns have been identified. The study ranked security as the primary challenge in cloudcomputing. It is being observed that the users of cloudcomputing services are not satisfied with the current security mechanism in cloudcomputing. Service providers must assure the availability and reliability of services to the consumers available anytime, anywhere using internet, plus security, safety, data protection and Privacy is also exercised. The study further emphasizes that further research on security of cloudcomputing is required.
SOA is widely considered to be an enabling technology for cloud comput- ing. In the case of cloudcomputing, it requires high degree of encapsula- tion. There should not be any hard dependencies on resource location in order to achieve the true virtualization and elasticity in cloud. Also, threads of execution of various users should be properly isolated in cloud, as any vulnerability will result in the information or data of one user being leaked into another consumer. The web services standards (WS*) used in SOA are also used in the cloudcomputing domain for solving various issues, such as asynchronous messaging, metadata exchange, and event handling. SOA is an architectural style that is really agnostic of the technology standards adopted in the assembly of composite applications. The service orientation provided by SOA helps in the software design using different pieces of software, each providing separate application functionalities as services to other applications. This feature is independent of any platform, vendor, or technology. Services can be combined by other software applications to provide the complete functionality of a large software application. SOA makes the cooperation of computers connected over a network easy. An arbitrary number of services could be run on a computer, and each service can communicate with any other service in the network without human interaction and also without the need to make any modification to the underlying program itself. Within an SOA, services use defined protocols for transferring and interpreting the messages. WSDL is used to describe the services. The SOAP protocol is used to describe the communications protocols.
In 1997, Professor Ramnath Chellappa of Emory University, defined cloudcomputing for the first time while a faculty member at the University of South California, as an important new “computing paradigm where the boundaries of computing will be determined by economic rationale rather than technical limits alone.” Even though the international IT literature and media have come forward since then with a large number of definitions, models and architectures for cloudcomputing, autonomic and utility computing were the foundations of what the community commonly referred to as “cloudcomputing”. In the early 2000s, companies started rapidly adopting this concept upon the realization that cloudcomputing could benefit both the Providers as well as the Consumers of services. Businesses started delivering computing functionality via the Internet, enterprise- level applications, web-based retail services, document-sharing capabilities and fully-hosted IT platforms, to mention only a few cloudcomputing use cases of the 2000s. The latest widespread adoption of virtualization and of service- oriented architecture (SOA) promulgated cloudcomputing as a fundamental and increasingly important part of any delivery and critical-mission strategy, enabling existing and new products and services to be offered and consumed more efficiently, conveniently and securely. Not surprisingly, cloudcomputing became one of the hottest trends in the IT armory, with a unique and complementary set of properties, such as elasticity, resiliency, rapid provisioning, and multi-tenancy.
This book comprehensively debates on the emergence of mobile cloudcomputing from cloudcomputing models. Various technological and architectural advancements in mobile and cloudcomputing have been reported. It has meticulously explored the design and architecture of computational offloading solutions in cloud and mobile cloudcomputing domains to enrich mobile user experience. Furthermore, to optimize mobile power consumption, existing solutions and policies toward green mobile computing, green cloudcomputing, green mobile networking, and green mobile cloudcomputing are briefly discussed. The book also presents numerous cloud and mobile resource allo- cation and management schemes to efficiently manage existing resources (hardware and software). Recently, integrated networks (e.g., WSN, VANET, MANET) have sig- nificantly helped mobile users to enjoy a suite of services. The book discusses existing architecture, opportunities, and challenges, while integrating mobile cloud comput- ing with existing network technologies such as sensor and vehicular networks. It also briefly expounds on various security and privacy concerns, such as application security, authentication security, data security, and intrusion detection, in the mobile cloud com- puting domain. The business aspects of mobile cloudcomputing models in terms of resource pricing models, cooperation models, and revenue sharing among cloud pro- viders are also presented in the book. To highlight the standings of mobile cloud comput- ing, various well-known, real-world applications supported by mobile cloudcomputing models are discussed. For example, the demands and issues while deploying resource- intensive applications, including face recognition, route tracking, traffic management, and mobile learning, are discussed. This book concludes with various future research directions in the mobile cloudcomputing domain to improve the strength of mobile cloudcomputing and to enrich mobile user experience.
Hadoop MapReduce and the LexisNexis HPCC platform are both scalable archi- tectures directed towards data-intensive computing solutions. Each of these system platforms has strengths and weaknesses and their overall effectiveness for any appli- cation problem or domain is subjective in nature and can only be determined through careful evaluation of application requirements versus the capabilities of the solution. Hadoop is an open source platform which increases its ﬂexibility and adaptability to many problem domains since new capabilities can be readily added by users adopt- ing this technology. However, as with other open source platforms, reliability and support can become issues when many different users are contributing new code and changes to the system. Hadoop has found favor with many large Web-oriented companies including Yahoo!, Facebook, and others where data-intensive computing capabilities are critical to the success of their business. Amazon has implemented new cloudcomputing services using Hadoop as part of its EC2 called Amazon Elastic MapReduce. A company called Cloudera was recently formed to provide training, support and consulting services to the Hadoop user community and to pro- vide packaged and tested releases which can be used in the Amazon environment. Although many different application tools have been built on top of the Hadoop platform like Pig, HBase, Hive, etc., these tools tend not to be well-integrated offer- ing different command shells, languages, and operating characteristics that make it more difﬁcult to combine capabilities in an effective manner.
It’s also critical to avoid thinking of cloudcomputing as a drive to reduce your operational headcount or costs. Although lowering costs is a valid business goal, it’s also a way of taking a lot of the day-to-day repetitive work out of your operations through automation. Automation enables IT staff to do something that adds benefi t to the business, allowing them more time to focus on projects rather than business as usual. This may sound like a well-used truism that is trotted out by management, and it is often overused to justify technology spending. However, if you think about the way the IT industry is moving—increasingly making use of lower-cost headcount to perform operational tasks, often through offshoring or outsourcing—you should see an opportunity to implement cloudcomputing as a way of developing your career and mov- ing up the stack to stay relevant in a changing world rather than being left to compete with a cheaper workforce.
Enterprises that move their IT to the cloud are likely to encounter challenges such as security, interoperability, and limits on their ability to tailor their ERP to their business processes. The cloud can be a revolutionary technology, especially for small start-ups, but the benefi ts wane for larger enterprises with more complex IT needs [ 10 ]. The cloud model can be truly disruptive if it can reduce the IT opera- tional expenses of enterprises. Traditional utility services provide the same resource to all consumers. Perhaps the biggest difference between the cloudcomputing ser- vice and the traditional utility service models lies in the degree to which the cloud services are uniquely and dynamically confi gured for the needs of each application and class of users [ 12 ]. Cloudcomputing services are built from a common set of building blocks, equivalent to electricity provider turbines, transformers, and distri- bution cables. Cloudcomputing does, however, differ from traditional utilities in several critical respects. Cloud providers compete aggressively with differentiated service offerings, service levels, and technologies. Because traditional ERP is installed on your servers and you actually own the software, you can do with it as you please. You may decide to customize it, integrate it to other software, etc. Although any ERP software will allow you to confi gure and set up the software the way you would like, “Software as a Service” or “SaaS” is generally less fl exible than the traditional ERP in that you can’t completely customize or rewrite the soft- ware. Conversely, since SaaS can’t be customized, it reduces some of the technical diffi culties associated with changing the software. Cloud services can be com- pletely customized to the needs of the largest commercial users. Consequently, we have often referred to cloudcomputing as an “enhanced utility” [ 12 ]. Table 9.2 [ 5 ] shows the E-skills study for information and communications technology (ICT) practitioners conducted by the Danish Technology Institute [ 5 ] that describes the
A health care system is a smart information system that can provide people with some basic health monitoring and physiological index analysis services. It is hard to share with isolated professional medical services such as PACs (picture archiving and communication systems), EHRs (electronic health records), and HISs (hospital information systems) without Internet-based technologies. Not long ago, this kind of system usually was implemented with a traditional MIS (management information system) mode, which is not capable of implementing sufficient health care services on a uniform platform, even though it may exploit several isolated Internet technolo- gies. Currently, cloudcomputing, as an emerging state-of-the-art informa- tion technology (IT) platform, can provide economical and on-demand services for customers. It provides characteristics of high performance and transparent features to end users that can fulfill the flexibility and scalabil- ity of service-oriented systems. Such a system can meet the infrastructure demand for the health care system. With the rapid progress of cloud capac- ity, increasing applications and services are provided as anything as a ser- vice (XaaS) mode (e.g., security as a service, testing as a service, database as a service, and even everything as a service)  . Google Docs, Amazon S3
The ﬁ rst step is the development phase. An App Provider implements a service following the guidelines described in chapter “ Empirical Qualitative Analysis of the Current CloudComputing Market for Logistics ” . The hard requirements are that RESTful interfaces and service calls must be implemented. Additionally, the BO- stack including BODs and Mini-BODS, of the Logistics Mall environment must also be used for communication and the BO Instance Repository must be used for storage of processed information and data shared by different apps of a process. Furthermore, an end-user and the service App has to contain the workbasket mechanism. Additionally, points are just suggestions to the provider, like the usage of the Java enterprise stack. The developers are free to choose their own pro- gramming language, but must make sure that their apps are executable within the cloud environment. This is ensured and veri ﬁ ed during the next phase of the Logistics Mall App Life-Cycle. The development phase ﬁ nishes with submitting the created App and integrating it into the Logistics Mall Marketplace (MMP). For the integration the app ’ s description, its price model and the date of availability are registered in the MMP. A Business App is only available until the speci ﬁ ed date. But ﬁ rst of all the App is not visible or purchasable for any customer as long as the Logistics Mall Veri ﬁ cation has not been successfully completed.
John McCarthy was a visionary in computer science; in the early 1960s he formulated the idea that computation may be organized as a public utility, like water and electricity. In 1992 Gordon Bell was invited to and delivered an address at a conference on parallel computations with the provocative title Massively parallel computers: why not parallel computers for the masses? ; he argued that one-of-a- kind systems are not only expensive to build, but the cost of rewriting applications for them is prohibitive. Google Inc. was founded by Page and Brin, two graduate students in computer science at Stanford University; in 1998 the company was incorporated in California after receiving a contribution of $100, 000 from the co-founder and chief hardware designer of Sun Microsystems, Andy Bechtolsheim. Amazon EC2 was initially released as a limited public beta cloudcomputing service on August 25, 2006. The system was developed by a team from Cape Town, South Africa. In October 2008 Microsoft announced the Windows Azure platform; in June 2010 the platform became commercially available. iCloud, a cloud storage and cloudcomputing service from Apple Inc., stores content such as music, photos, calendars, and documents and allows users to access it from Apple devices. The system was announced on June 6, 2011. In 2012 the Oracle Cloud was announced (see www.oracle.com/us/ corporate/features/oracle-cloud/index.html )
Relational databases are great for online transaction processing (OLTP) activities because they guarantee that transactions are processed successfully in order for the data to get stored in the database. In addition, relational databases have superior security features and a powerful querying engine. Over the last several years, NoSQL databases have soared in popularity mainly due to two reasons: the increasing amount of data being stored and access to elastic cloudcomputing resources. Disk solutions have become much cheaper and faster, which has led to companies storing more data than ever before. It is not uncommon for a company to have petabytes of data in this day and age. Normally, large amounts of data like this are used to perform analytics, data mining, pattern recognition, machine learning, and other tasks. Companies can leverage the cloud to provision many servers to distribute workloads across many nodes to speed up the analysis and then deprovision all of the servers when the analysis is finished.
) - but almost all the businesses will be provoke and enforced by the cost efficiency and globalization vogue to admit Internet and associated technologies to be the ultimate means towards cloudcomputing approach. As a result, total Internet related security concerns are anticipated to be automatically added on top of the cloud-specific security issues (Monjur Ahmed & Mohammad Ashraf Hossain, 2014). To make the cloud services adaptable, the one important mean is portability that would also be associated with security concerns. Cloud portability enables the cloud users to switch among different cloud service providers without being affected with the necessity to change the ways to accomplish tasks in different ways (Monjur Ahmed & Mohammad Ashraf Hossain, 2014). It is a clear provision on bargaining power for the cloud users; but at the same time, the security issues with cloud portability are to be counted (Monjur Ahmed & Mohammad Ashraf Hossain, 2014).
The ‘Cloud’ is a broad, loosely-defined construct that encompasses all resources made available through the Cloudcomputing paradigm. It refers both to services accessed via, and delivered through, the Internet and the hardware and systems software in remote datacenters that provide those services .Cloudcomputing changes the way we think about computing by decoupling data processing, data retention, and data presentation in effect, divorcing components from location.
Cloudcomputing is a distributed paradigm that believes in providing on-demand and dynamic provisioning of computing resources to its end-users, investing virtualization and various other Internet technologies . In addition to this, the various opportunities provided by CloudComputing are enthralling for the consumers which are ignoring presently high competitive service environments. Larger organizations tend to switch to cloud services. However, CSPs claims at providing robust security mechanisms but again numerous incidents of security breaches has been reported in past few years. The freedom provided by Cloudcomputing is too attractive for the consumers which can easily refuses present highly competitive service environments. The features of highly distributing and non-transparency of Cloudcomputing have further generated a considerable hindrance to its acceptance. Large number of users feels that they will lose their control over the saved data. More often, users are not able to trust their Cloud provider completely. . To achieve its potential in cloudcomputing, there is a need to have a crystal clear memorandum of understanding between Cloud service provider and its consumers by taking various issues and parameters into consideration .Along with trust issue, the challenge of fault tolerance has its pivotal status and importance. Not because if we have best Clouds and its service available and not equipped with feature of fault tolerance, it becomes pointless to have desired cloud services from its providers. Therefore, fault tolerance feature means if a minute fault or a major failure interrupts a system, then it should be able to detect it, resolve it and should be capable of generating desired outputs .
From the above definition we can easily conclude that cloudcomputing provides the software and hardware support over the internet on the user’s demand. Cloudcomputing is a model providing an easy access to the shared pool of data and information, with the help of network, on the demand of the users for which the user has subscribed and use for the several times it wants. This whole process is achieved with the help of virtualization which is also cost-friendly. The user is never bothered about the physical location of the system providing the service. They also had not to worry about the configuration of the service provider
Cloudcomputing is receiving a great deal of attention, both in publications and among users, from individuals at home to all the governments. Yet, it is not always clearly defined. Cloudcomputing is a subscription-based service where you can obtain networked storage space and computer resources. One way to think of cloudcomputing is to consider your experience with email. Your computing is to consider your experience with email. Your email client, if it is Yahoo!, Gmail, Hotmail, and so on, takes care of housing
In other cases, the loss of control of where your virtual IT infrastructure resides could open the way to other problematic situations. More precisely, the geographical location of a datacenter gen- erally determines the regulations that are applied to management of digital information. As a result, according to the specific location of data, some sensitive information can be made accessible to government agencies or even considered outside the law if processed with specific cryptographic techniques. For example, the USA PATRIOT Act 5 provides its government and other agencies with virtually limitless powers to access information, including that belonging to any company that stores information in the U.S. territory. Finally, existing enterprises that have large computing infra- structures or large installed bases of software do not simply want to switch to public clouds, but they use the existing IT resources and optimize their revenue. All these aspects make the use of a public computing infrastructure not always possible. Yet the general idea supported by the cloudcomputing vision can still be attractive. More specifically, having an infrastructure able to deliver IT services on demand can still be a winning solution, even when implemented within the private premises of an institution. This idea led to the diffusion of private clouds, which are similar to pub- lic clouds, but their resource-provisioning model is limited within the boundaries of an organization.
Cloudcomputing is a concept which provide a facility to the user to delivering technology though the Internet servers. It is basically for processing and data storage. Without any use of traditional media Cloudcomputing allows vendors to convey services over the Internet. This method is called Software as a Service, or SaaS. Cloudcomputing help user to communicate more than one server at the same time and exchange information among them. Cloudcomputing can increase profitability by improving resource utilization. By improving resource utilization Cloudcomputing can increase profitability .