Top PDF Job Satisfaction And Family Happiness: The Part-Time Work Problem

Job Satisfaction And Family Happiness: The Part-Time Work Problem

Job Satisfaction And Family Happiness: The Part-Time Work Problem

Men appear to have the highest hours of work satisfaction if they work full-time without overtime hours. However, neither their job satisfaction or their life satisfac- tion is affected by their hours of work. Life satisfaction is only influenced by whether or not they have a job. Because part-time work is advocated as making it possible for women to combine work and care we would have expected life satisfaction to be higher for part-time working women while at the same time job satisfaction would be lower for part-timers. However this is not the case. For women we are confronted with a puzzle. Hours satisfaction and job satisfaction indicate that women prefer part-time jobs, irrespective of whether these are small or large. But when it comes to female life satisfaction, hours of work hardly matter. Life satisfaction of women without children is not affected by their hours of work at all, while women with chil- dren are happier if they have a job. The puzzle seems to be present irrespective of the presence of children, the size of the family income, the educational level, the age or health status of the women, whether or not the woman viewed her hours of work as OK, the age of the male partner, or the division of domestic labour. Therefore, the puzzle remains a puzzle. Apparently British women are happy about their part-time job even though this does not increase their overall life satisfaction. It is interesting
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Job Satisfaction and Family Happiness: The Part-time Work Puzzle

Job Satisfaction and Family Happiness: The Part-time Work Puzzle

For couples with children (columns 3 and 4) family income has a positive effect on the life satisfaction of both women and men. The magnitude of the coefficient is similar for men and women. This could suggest the operation of income-pooling, but we would not wish to push this interpretation too hard. The age of the children also matters for both men and women. Young children aged 3 to 4 have a negative effect on female life satisfaction (in contrast to the positive though insignificant effect of this variable in cross-sectional estimation). 19 For men, children below the age of 5 significantly reduce life satisfaction. Children in the age range 5-15 seem to make only their mother happy. Again, own health has positive effects on life satisfaction of both partners, and own hours-of-work are relevant too. Both women and men are happier if they have a job, but for women the job should not be for more than 40 hours per week. For women, while life satisfaction is highest if they have a full-time job without overtime hours, a part-time job also increases their happiness. Indeed, having a job is the main distinguishing characteristic, for we cannot reject the hypothesis that the parameters of part-time job and full-time job without overtime hours are equal. Men with jobs are happier irrespective of the actual working hours. It is interesting that, for couples with children, female life satisfaction is greater if their partner works overtime hours, while male life satisfaction is higher if their partner works full-time (however in each case the impact is significant only at the 10% level). Somewhat surprisingly, the panel estimates show no statistically significant cross-partner effects for the other variables, for either couples with or without children. The happiness of women and men is unaffected by the health of their partner or by the other working- hours dummy variables.
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The Role of Job Satisfaction and Burnout on Work-Family Conflict and Turnover Intentions

The Role of Job Satisfaction and Burnout on Work-Family Conflict and Turnover Intentions

H4: WFCs is adversely associated with JS. Work-family Conflicts (WFCs) and Turnover Intentions(TIs) Many researchers had assumed that technological diffusion would decrease employee workload and reduce WFCs. However, they found that employees spend considerable time at home on job-related assignments (Zhao, Zhang & Foley, 2019). The studies also found that despite the technological advancement, WFCs and TIs have not decreased (Nohe, Meier, Sonntag & Michel, 2015). TIs are a critical aspect of organizational performance, as it reduces productivity and increases the cost associated with hiring and training employees (Zhang, 2016). Employees may leave a job on their own or maybe forced by the employer to resign (Luke & Munshi, 2011). Many individuals struggle to balance their time and energy between work and family. Consequently, they are unhappy at work and family (Hausknecht & Trevor, 2011). To reduce the stress due to the conflicting demand of family and work, individuals’ intention to leave the organization increase. They presume that a new job environment will be less stressful.
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PART-TIME WORK FOR WOMEN: DOES IT REALLY HELP BALANCE WORK AND FAMILY?

PART-TIME WORK FOR WOMEN: DOES IT REALLY HELP BALANCE WORK AND FAMILY?

There was also mixed support for the notion that part-time work might enhance individual well-being. Consistent with work by Barker (1993) and Lero and Johnson (1994), part-time work was associated with greater life satisfaction, perhaps reflecting the “best of both worlds” perspective. Life satis- faction, however, was the only individual out- come on which a job status effect was obtained. The remainder of the analysis indicated that job type may be as great a determinant of personal well-being as job status: women in earner posi- tions reported significantly higher depressed mood than did career women, plus significantly lower life satisfaction. This finding is consistent with previous work-family research, which has indicated that women in earner occupations often encounter unique challenges stemming from inflexible work environments, limited advancement opportunities, and financial re- sources that are insufficient to allow them to purchase services that might help them cope (Duxbury et al., 1991; Higgins et al., 1992; White, 1983).
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The effect of work-life balance and work-family conflict in determining life satisfaction and job satisfaction among employees in MPKu

The effect of work-life balance and work-family conflict in determining life satisfaction and job satisfaction among employees in MPKu

more focus on the things they do without any distraction. Study showed that when work- family interference increases, job satisfaction is decreasing (Yasbeck, 2004).This situation will later contribute to low job performance as well as low quality of life of individuals. Often successful individual is prone to face work family conflict as they spend most of their time at the workplace. How far this statement is disputable? Balance between work and family can be hardly balanced as claimed by many employees. The existence of conflict whether it is originated from family or work can tremendously affect employees’ work-life balance. When conflicts are less present in daily routine, a good quality of life can be achieved. Thus, with the presence of work interference with family (WIF) and family interference with work (FIW), employees will somehow being disturbed and lost their focus towards their work and vice versa. Results from previous research indicate that WIF is related to a lower overall job satisfaction (Boles et al., 2001). On the other hand, FIW is more likely to exert its negative influences in the home domain resulting in lower life satisfaction (Ozbag, 2014).
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Female job satisfaction: can we explain the part time puzzle?

Female job satisfaction: can we explain the part time puzzle?

Next we turn to the role of the family in explaining job satisfaction. To date most studies in economics concentrate on the job-specific determinants of female job satisfaction, focussing on the effect hours of work has on satisfaction, and avoids any detailed discussion of the role of the family. 15 We address this gap and include controls for both the number of children and marital status in our baseline specification. We find that for the older cohort the number of dependent children and being married has a positive effect on satisfaction levels. In contrast, for the younger cohort these effects are insignificant (fixed-effects estimates). 16 One possible explanation is that these events may, in the past, have shifted priorities away from career goals towards achieving a more fulfilling family life (see, Georgellis et al., 2012). The fact that this is clearly not the case for women in our younger cohort once again provides support for the finding that the younger cohort of women have very different career aspirations to those born before 1970.
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Analyzing The Role Of Quality Of Work Life And Happiness At Work On Employees Job Satisfaction With The Moderation Of Job Stress, Empirical Research Of Jiangsu University

Analyzing The Role Of Quality Of Work Life And Happiness At Work On Employees Job Satisfaction With The Moderation Of Job Stress, Empirical Research Of Jiangsu University

the disease. (Savery & Luks, 2000). At the same time, (Fogarty, 1996) pointed out that Job Stress have negative relationship with job satisfaction. Job stress and job satisfaction have positive correlation found by a research conducted in the banks of Malaysia, (Ayupp & Nguok, 2011) level of turnover with public accounting company among men and woman (Collins, 1993). Based on her research, lady workers are under greater pressure. The results show that the pressure is related to the high-level turnover of public accounting. Employee turnover increase with the increase in stress confirmed by several studies (Fogarty, 1996; Jimmieson, Terry, & Callan, 2004). Turnover is the result of stress American Institute of Stress Research (2005), 40% of turnover is due to the presence of Stress. Michael, Court, & Petal, (2009) seeks to identify the level of impact of job stress on performance of organization in the Israeli Education Guidance Organization PMP Coordinator sample. It shows that stress can hinder the coordinator's commitment to emotions. With increase in level of stress, sense of belonging of supervisor decreases. According to (Fogarty, 1996) stress relates negatively to commitment. Similarly the stress is increased due to burnout, particularly the time when an individual is in trouble or has problems, and increased environmental pressure can lead to employee burnout. (Maslach, 1982; Moore, 2000). In a study between a Malaysian nurse, emotional exhaustion has relationship with overload of work, and between role overload and burnout (Yunus, Mahajar, & Yahya, 2009). Rahman & Zanzi, (1995) argues that employee productivity is reduced by workplace stress and employee performance in the organization is indirectly effected. Thus it mitigates the organization’s
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Work-Family Conflict and Job Satisfaction: Does Organisational Support Matter?

Work-Family Conflict and Job Satisfaction: Does Organisational Support Matter?

From several previous studies, job dissatisfaction is associated with many negative structural outcomes, which includes high labour turnover rate, diminished work performance and the low assurance level towards the corporate entities (Rahman et al., 2017;2018). Apart from the existing public universities within the economy, the fundamental purpose for the establishment of private universities in Bangladesh was to provide more opportunities for the achievement of higher education. According to Rahman and Chowdhruy (2012) various private universities in the country, have on a yearly basis been involved with the employment of a number of fresh graduates with good qualifications, as academicians. However, the private universities have been experiencing major changes in working practices of the academics i.e. in terms of efforts and time, hence, the teaching profession has become more challenging with the continuous and increasing institutional demands, accountability and work pressures (Fang et al., 2011). In the various private universities, the work intensification of an academician (50-60 hours) has become the norm/customs (Greenhaus et al., 2001). The role conflict in work and family domains, which is involved when individuals cannot house the stress from the latter, is W-FC (Greenhaus and Beutell, 1985). Due to the frustration derived from conflicts, the desires to become academicians by fresh graduates are declining because of students’ denial of quality education.
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Maternal Employment and Happiness: The Effect of Non-Participation and Part-Time Employment on Mothers' Life Satisfaction

Maternal Employment and Happiness: The Effect of Non-Participation and Part-Time Employment on Mothers' Life Satisfaction

Abstract In contrast to unemployment, the effect of non-participation and part- time employment on subjective well-being has much less frequently been the subject of economists’ investigations. In Germany, many women with dependent children are involuntarily out of the labor force or in part-time employment because of family constraints (e.g., due to lack of available and appropriate childcare). Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) Study, this paper analyzes the impact of involuntary family- related non-participation and part-time employment on mothers’ life sat- isfaction. Controlling for unobserved individual fixed effects, I find that both the pecuniary effects (foregone earnings) and the non-pecuniary ef- fects (psychological costs) are significantly negative. Compensating in- come variations reveal that the residual household income would have to be raised by 182 percent (157 percent/77 percent) in order to just offset the negative effect of not being able to work because of family constraints (of being in short/long part-time employment). Moreover, in terms of overall happiness among mothers, non-participation is revealed to be a more serious problem than unemployment.
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WORK FAMILY CONFLICT AMONG FEMALE TEACHERS IN RELATION TO TYPE OF SCHOOL, THEIR NATURE OF JOB AND JOB SATISFACTION

WORK FAMILY CONFLICT AMONG FEMALE TEACHERS IN RELATION TO TYPE OF SCHOOL, THEIR NATURE OF JOB AND JOB SATISFACTION

NOV-DEC, 2016, VOL-II, ISSUE- X www.srjis.com Page 793 dinner for the family. There is not only one but working women are facing several problems in their day to day life. They have to leave their kids at home and have to go to workplace early in the morning. They are unable to give proper time to their kids and family. Bearing these double shift burdens, it is but natural that she at times becomes irritated. The dynamics of the work environment have exerted enormous pressure on working women as they need to cope with virtually two full time jobs- one at the office/ workplace and the other at home. As the number of dual- earner couples grows, women work longer hours while maintaining primary responsibility for the family. Family and work domains create the interaction and relevancy with each other. Under this trend, individuals have to face and adapt to the inter role conflict (Frone& Rice, 1992). Basically, work-family conflict is one of the sources of pressure, and it will cause a lot of negative influences, such as health problem, work performance etc. Both women and men are vulnerable to work-family conflict, although women experience more role overload, more interference from work to family and more interference from family to work (Mauno, Kinnunen & Ruokolainen, 2006). Work holism is the major cause of work- family conflict. It highly affects persons’ professional, social as well as psychological characteristics. It excludes other important life activities from a person’s life including spending time with spouse. Work-family conflict can be explained as the mutual interference of work and family roles and cause significant personal and organizational problems. Due to these factors, managing the conflict between work and family responsibilities has been recognized as a critical challenge.
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The Effect of Work-Family Conflict and Balancing Strategy towards Wive's Job Satisfaction

The Effect of Work-Family Conflict and Balancing Strategy towards Wive's Job Satisfaction

21 Introduction The increased participation of women in the public sector is caused by increasing family needs, thus causing wives to make a living outside the home. However, some wives work outside the home because they want to actualize themselves due to increased education, access, opportunities, and desires for high social needs (Christine et al., 2010). The Central Statistics Agency (BPS) divides the types of jobs into two types: formal job and informal job. Formal jobs include the business category assisted by permanent laborers/employees category, while the rest are informal (BPS, 2012). Based on the allocation of working time, workers in the private sector have set working hours in law No. 13 of 2003 concerning Manpower, particularly articles 77 through 85. In Article 77, paragraph 1, Law No. 13 of 2003, stated that every employer is obliged to implement the provisions of working hours. These working hours conditions regulated in two systems. Both systems are for employees who work six days a week, and working hours are 7 hours a day, while for employees with five working days a week, their work obligations are 8 hours a day.
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Family structure and work satisfaction : can work-life balance policies foster happiness in the workplace?

Family structure and work satisfaction : can work-life balance policies foster happiness in the workplace?

Table 2 shows the same analysis for 2003. The only difference is that in this case it was not possible to distinguish whether children over 16 years old were in full-time education due to the way the information was recorded in the survey. On the other hand, the sample size is smaller than that for the year 2000 but still enough to keep the statistical reliability of the means comparison tests carried out. As in table 1, without family characteristics, women report higher levels of job satisfaction than men. Once again, the age of the children seem to be more relevant for mothers than for fathers, even though in this case results were not as clear-cut as for the year 2000. Significant differences were concentrated between workers without children (with women more satisfied than men) and those with non-dependant children (aged 12 to 16 years old) where women were again more satisfied than men. Interestingly, although the difference was not significant the lowest level of women’s job
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Hours of Work and Gender Identity: Does Part-time Work make the Family Happier?

Hours of Work and Gender Identity: Does Part-time Work make the Family Happier?

An alternative hypothesis predicting gender differences in working hours is that partners within a household specialize in either market work or house work, as argued for example by Becker (1965). An empirical prediction of the specialization model is that there will be a monotonically decreasing relationship between the share of house work done by one partner and that partner’s share of market work. We will explore these issues empirically later in the paper, using the HILDA survey time use module. How does the gender identity model affect life satisfaction? If women do feel a loss of identity by deviating from a particular prescription of responsibility for home production, we might expect part-time work to increase life satisfaction ceteris paribus since part-time work might be preferred simply because there is a finite amount of time in each day. If the responsibility for house work rests with the woman, then there are fewer hours available for market work and for this reason women might prefer part-time commitments. The question then is whether or not – once family responsibilities have been controlled for in happiness regressions – part-time work has an independent effect on satisfaction. 7
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The Effect of Job Crafting and Job Satisfaction on Work Engagement

The Effect of Job Crafting and Job Satisfaction on Work Engagement

The development of technology and globalization which is increasingly widespread makes industrial growth is increasing so that companies strive to create competitive advantages. One of the main sources for company to face competition competitive is human resource. Professional employees are interpreted as individuals for always thinking, working hard, working full time, disciplined, honest, high loyalty, and full dedication for the success of his work (Hamid, 2003). An employee can be bound in his work when the employee is able to regulate himself in his work. Employees are bound to have enthusiasm and have effective work activities, so that they are able to put out all their abilities and feel comfortable when doing work. Bakker and Demerouti (2008) states that employees with work engagement have much better work performance compared to those who do not have work engagement. Bakker and Demerouti (2008) assert that engaged employees often experience positive emotions, including happiness, joy, and enthusiasm; experience better health; create their own job and personal resources; and transfer their engagement to others. Saks (2006) said that high work engagement of employees will provide three benefits, namely the first employee with high work engagement will have a love for the company and feel satisfied with everything that is attached to the job. Second, employees who are already tied to work will have a commitment in the hope that it will show good results for the company. Third, employees who are already bound by work will tend to choose to stay in the company. The low level of work attachment is a pretty difficult challenge for a company. Therefore, to achieve company goals, an increase in work engagement is needed among employees. The company must be able to care for its workforce, so that employees can become attached.
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Impact of Situational and Dispositional Factors on Work Family Conflict and Job Satisfaction: A Proposed Framework

Impact of Situational and Dispositional Factors on Work Family Conflict and Job Satisfaction: A Proposed Framework

Role overload is described as situations whereby employees identify themselves faced with too many responsibilities which expected to be accomplish within a little time available, yet beyond their abilities to performs, and other constraints as well (Rizzo, House, & Lirtzman, 1970). This understandable definition is most accepted in the literatures. After 20 years, Bacharach et al., (1990) conceptualized role overload as discussed employees’ inability to complete consigned tasks effectively due to time limitations (ie., the conflict between time), eventually lead employees using personal time to rectify work demands (Duxbury and Higgins, 2001). Several studies (Colligan & Higgins, 2005; Newton & Jimmieson, 2008; Judy, 2010) extremely believed that individual who heavily burden with workload will give impact on their health, attitudes, and behaviors. Other undesirable results of role overload include increase the level of work-family conflict and ultimately lower organization's overall profitability (Riley, 2012; Muasya, 2015).
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Work-family conflict and organizational citizenship behavior: the role of job satisfaction and decision authority

Work-family conflict and organizational citizenship behavior: the role of job satisfaction and decision authority

time, emotion, and behavior in work and family life (Greenhaus and Beutell 1985). As a dimension of bidirectional work-family conflict, WIF is a “ work-to-family conflict, ” mean- ing that the conflict arises due to a person ’ s working role actively interfering with his or her family role (Gutek et al. 1991). According to conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll 1989, 2002), a high level of WIF indicates that too much of an individual’s personal re- sources are used in his or her work settings, and thus insufficient resources are left to cope with family life, which causes conflict between work and family domains (Greenhaus and Beutell 1985). As WIF is a role conflict (Greenhaus and Beutell 1985) that requires employees’ attention and effort, it will additionally consume individuals’ resources. The re- sources depleting situation will trigger individuals’ resources protection mode, which may at the cost of the worsen of performance (Halbesleben et al. 2009). As a typical type of extra-role performance, OCB requests individuals ’ time and energy, which can be quit resource-demanding (Bolino and Turnley 2005). Thus, they may not want to spend extra resources on discretionary behavior beyond their job duties. For example, citizenship be- havior that needs extra resources invested towards the job may be reduced under a high WIF situation.
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Job Satisfaction and Marital Adjustment among Paramedical: Mediating Role of Work Family Conflict

Job Satisfaction and Marital Adjustment among Paramedical: Mediating Role of Work Family Conflict

The percentage of dual-earner families where both parents work full time or part-time is increase another demographic shift that has led to an increasing number of individuals having multiple work and familial duties (Gerson, 2009). When workers tries to balance both family and work responsibilities, the worker face conflicts in both family and occupation. The duties of work interferes one‟s familial duties and these duties interfere with work duties (Schwartzberg &Dytell, 1996). Some general issues of gender also effects the life satisfaction like early career, full time and part time jobs for both male and female (Higgins, Duxbury, & Johnson, et., al, 2000). Previous literature regarding the work-family conflict depicts disproportionate amount of attention paid to the negative impact of simultaneously handling work and family duties.Bedeian.et al. (1988) anticipated that conflict within each role (family and workplace) would be openly related to satisfaction within that role. That is to say that occupational roles stress might be directly related to job satisfaction, while family-related role stress might be linked to marital satisfaction.
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Job satisfaction and work–family policies through work-family enrichment

Job satisfaction and work–family policies through work-family enrichment

According to recent studies and meta-analyses in the literature (Meyer et al., 2002; Frenkel et al., 2013; Valaei and Rezaei, 2016), job satisfaction is positively related to organizational commitment, although other researchers find that job satisfaction and organizational commitment are direct outputs of the workfamily interface (Chen, 2004). We follow the first line of research instead of considering commitment as another output of the workfamily interface because we focus our analysis on affective commitment. Allen and Meyer (1990) and Meyer and Allen (1991) developed a three-component model of organizational commitment: affective, continuance and normative. We focus on affective commitment because according to Allen and Meyer (1990), it is “the most prevalent approach to organizational commitment in the literature ” (p. 2), and because we want to highlight that employees who wish to remain in the organization are those that desire to do it and not because they need or ought to do so (continuance and normative commitments). Affective commitment implies positive feelings toward the organization, whereas job satisfaction means positive feelings toward a job position. Positive feelings are more related to the affective gains and losses caused by W –F enrichment and conflict, which may influence job satisfaction. While an employee is satisfied with his/her job, he/she may be more prone to have positive feelings toward the organization, its values, and its objectives. According to social exchange theory, employees may feel obligated to exert “extra” effort in compensation for “extra” benefits from workfamily policies. At the same time, these employees may value very positively the satisfaction derived from their present job position and feel in turn more affectively committed to the organization. However, employees may not be only satisfied in their present job positions just because of the greater enrichment or lower conflict due to the use of workfamily policies. Consequently, we do not propose a direct relationship between enrichment and conflict with organizational commitment because other important job factors such as salary may influence commitment. Therefore, job satisfaction may positively influence affective commitment if employees have reasons to be satisfied at the affective level in their job positions. We consider that workfamily enrichment and conflict have direct influences at the affective level on job satisfaction, and therefore, it is this positive affection that may produce greater commitment to the organization. Thus, we propose the following:
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Work-Family Conflict and Job and Family Satisfaction. The Mediating Role of Cognitions

Work-Family Conflict and Job and Family Satisfaction. The Mediating Role of Cognitions

variables, manipulating the direction and the type of conflict. The manipulation of the type of conflict was carried out by activating the time-based conflict in the first group of participants, the strain-based conflict in the second group and the behaviour-based conflict in the third group. In elaborating the representations of situations that illustrated the three types of conflict, we used their descriptions as they appear in the literature, choosing three examples for each type. The manipulation of the second independent variable was accomplished by presenting an example of work-family conflict for half of the participants and an example of family-work conflict for the other half. Six experimental groups resulted from the combination of the levels of the independent variables. After reading the descriptions, participants completed the presented measures.
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Happiness at work: are job satisfaction, job self-efficacy and trait emotional intelligence related?

Happiness at work: are job satisfaction, job self-efficacy and trait emotional intelligence related?

Judging from this description, it could be hypothesised that individuals who have greater self- efficacy feel more confident, and thus see themselves as more capable in broader, social settings in which they may have to influence or interact with others. This postulation extends from the work of Bandura, who refers to the effect that self-efficacy beliefs have on an individual’s motivation, thoughts, feelings and ultimately behaviour (1994). Job self-efficacy was also significantly related to self-esteem on the TEIQue in line with the postulation above. This link is also in line with theories on the effects of high self-efficacy (Bandura, 1978) which logically draw a relationship between self-efficacy beliefs, an individual’s confidence in him or herself and a self-perceived sense of control with regard to the environment. It must also be noted that the opposite effect holds true, in that lower self-efficacy beliefs have been associated with depression, anxiety and negative affect (Bandura, 1994).
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