Purpose: The purpose of study was to describe knowledge and attitude to AttentionDeficitHyperactiveDisorder (ADHD) in preschoolteachers in Korea. Methods: Survey methodology using a self administered questionnaire was employed as the research design. Knowledge and attitude were measured with a questionnaire modified from Jerome, Gordon, and Hustler (1994) and Ghanizadeh, Bahredar, and Moeini (2006). Of 223 questionnaires mailed out to 42 daycare centers in one district in Seoul, 164 questionnaires (73.5%) were used for data analysis. Data analysis was done using SPSS.WIN 15.0. Results: The mean score on knowledge for the teachers was 11.27 (59.3%) out of maximum score of 19. For ques- tion items, the percentage of correct answers related to etiology of ADHD was under 10% and the correct rate regarding treatment of ADHD was over 90%. Preschoolteachers had a mean score on attitude of 20.77 out of 33. Less than 50% of the teachers reported positive attitudes toward the child with ADHD and over 90% agreed that the child with ADHD needs a special environment and specially trained teachers. Age (r=.236, p=.002) and marital status (t=-3.661, p=.000) were significantly related to attitude toward the child with ADHD. Knowledge and attitude had a significant positive corre- lation (r=.245, p=.001). Conclusion: These results suggest that educational programs and strategies should be devel- oped to increase knowledge of preschoolteachers on ADHD. Public health nurses also need to develop and implement education programs for teachers at daycare centers and others involved in child care in the community.
According to the results of the present study, Barkley’s family‑oriented program could decrease the burden of care through increasing knowledge and improving the attitude and performance in families of children with ADHD. Therefore, predicting and providing such psychological services in the system for provision of mental health services for patients with chronic diseases such as ADHD, seems effective and necessary.
Everyday five days a week, children spend most of the time in classroom or school setting. There they are expected to follow rules, behave in socially appropriate ways, participate in social activities and not disrupt the learning process or activities of others. Teachers have to see that the skills and knowledge that form part of the curriculum become part of the learner’s own competence and teach the learners to behave in a manner that meets the organizational, cultural and social expectations. The works of the teacher are much more demanding when the learners have Attentiondeficithyperactivedisorder, as their problems with attention span, impulse control, and activity level frequently interfere with activities in the classroom academically and socially.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects about eight to ten percent of the South African population. Teachers are often the first to recognise if a child is hyperactive or inattentive as ADHD affects a child’s functioning most strongly in school. However, teachers are not trained to recognise ADHD and how to manage it, and many have misconceptions about the disorder. The purpose of this study was to explore mainstream Foundation Phase teachers’ misconceptions of ADHD. The teachers’ views of ADHD and appropriate implementation of strategies to use in the classroom were examined. This study was conducted using a generic qualitative research design. Twelve mainstream Foundation Phase teachers completed an online questionnaire and participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data and identify the themes that emerged. It was found that most of the teachers had a sound knowledge of ADHD; however, they were not informed of all the criteria used in diagnosing or identifying a child with ADHD. It was found that most teachers preferred medication as a method of intervention despite their knowing there were other factors which influenced a child’s behaviour. Teachers still had misconceptions about ADHD and how to treat it. Educational psychologists working in schools need to run workshops and conduct professional development seminars in order to better equip teachers and dispel their misconceptions of ADHD. Educational psychologists also need to be mindful of a child that has been referred by a teacher for an assessment because they suspect ADHD.
Attentiondeficitdisorder is a chronic condition that needs special parenting and school intervention. If your child seems to have a poor attention span and is over 3 years of age, these recommendations may assist you in helping your child. Your main obligations involve organizing your child's home life and improving discipline. Only after your child's behavior has improved will you know for certain if your child also has a short attention span. If he does, specific interventions to help him learn to listen and complete tasks ("stretch" his attention span) can be initiated. Even though you can't be sure about poor attention span until your child is 3 or 4 years of age, you can detect and improve behavior problems at any time after 8 months of age.
designing a school-based token economy system: (a) Classroom situations should be identified as problematic and targeted for intervention following direct observations of the child along with the completion of teacher interviews and rating scales. (b) Target behaviors are selected and typically include academic productivity or specific actions that will allow for data collection and intervention monitoring. (c) Secondary reinforcers, or tokens, are to be identified in the form of points, check marks, poker chips, stickers, etc. Younger children respond well to tangible reinforcers, such as poker chips; whereas older children and adolescents respond best to acquiring check marks or points. With preschool-aged children, the use of primary reinforcers, such as parent and teacher praise or other social attention, appear to be most effective. (d) The values of target or goal behaviors must be determined according to task difficulty and may need to be broken down into component parts in order for the child to reach a certain performance criterion and feel successful and capable of expected behaviors. (e) The teacher and child should collaboratively develop a list of privileges or
It has been shown that children with ADHD often experience a myriad of difficulties at school related to the core symptoms of the disorder, inattention, impulsivity, and overactivity (DuPaul & Stoner, 1994). In addition, or possibly as a result of ADHD-related problems, children with ADHD frequently experience lowered academic performance, are kept down, or are suspended or expelled from school (APA, 1994; Barkley, 1987). A child with ADHD may exhibit various behaviour problems within the classroom which are dependent on their ADHD symptom profile. For example, a child with inattentive symptoms might have difficulty following teacher instructions and rules, staying on task and completing set work. Whereas, a child experiencing impulsivity might call out in class without permission or talk with other students at inappropriate times. Finally, an overactive child might have problems staying seated, playing with objects not related to the set task (e.g., playing with a pencil when instructed to read silently), rocking in chairs, and repetitively tapping their hands or feet (DuPaul & Stoner, 1994). Most children with ADHD, however, exhibit behaviour problems related to at least two of these three core symptoms (APA, 1994). Educational psychologists therefore agree to a possible link between ADHD and specific learning difficulties. Many of the criteria for diagnosing ADHD (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) resemble those which may be applied to dyslexia like failing to pay close attention to details and make careless mistakes in school work, difficulty in organizing tasks and taking in what is said.
makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks. Question 2: Has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities. Question 3: Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly. Question 4: Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties. Question 5: Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities. Question 6: avoids, dislikes, or reluctantly engages in tasks requiring sustained mental effort. Question 7: loses things necessary for activities. Question 8: is distracted by extraneous stimuli. Question 9: is forgetful in daily activities. Question 10: Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat. Question 11: leaves seat in situations or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected. Question 12: Runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate. Question 13: Has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly. Question 14: is “on the go,” or often acts as if “driven by a motor.” Question 15: Talks excessively. Question 16: Blurts out answers before questions have been completed. Question 17: Has difficulty waiting a turn. Question 18: Interrupts or intrudes on others.
Children in the classrooms can manifest numerous behavior problems, but none can be so challenging to the teacher as the Attentiondeficit Hyperactivity disorders. ADHD is a chronic Neurobehavioral disorder that can persist well into adolescence and adulthood, and affects both males and females equally (Willoughby, 2003). The prevalence figures is said to affect around 3-5% of school-age children (APA, 1994). In India 4.67% of boys are reportedly 4-7 times more hyperactive than girls. (Chawla, Sahasi, Sunderam and Mehta, 1981) A large number of school based studies have focused on the various academic difficulties that these children present with.( Mash and Johnston, 1982, Coffey, 1997, Barkley, 1998,Sandberg, 1996, Porino et al 1983, O fford et al, 1989, Bussing, Zima and Perwien, 2000 and Karande and Bosrekar 2009).
This guide to attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) offers parents balanced, reassuring, and authoritative information to help them understand and manage this challenging and often misunderstood condition. It answers the common questions: How is ADHD diagnosed? What are today's best treatment options, and will my child outgrow ADHD?
ADHD affects 4 percent of adults; as many as 60 to 80 percent of children continue to have problems in adulthood with inattention and impulsivity, which adversely affect achievement and interpersonal re- lationships. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults, as in children and adolescents, is established through DSM-IV-R criteria, and coexisting mental health disorders must be considered in the diagnosis and treatment. Short-term studies have indicated im- provement in attention and impulsivity with the use of stimulants and atomoxetine, but long-term data are lacking. 55
The aim of study was to find out symptoms, diagnosis, various causes, treatment, associated risk factors among children about ADHD.ADHD is most commonly seen developmental disorder in children within 5-12 years. Children shows symptoms associate with ADHD as talk nonstop, fidget and squirm, forget things, difficulty focusing on one thing. The core behavioral symptoms of Hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) and attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are inappropriate patterns of inattentiveness, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The causes that lead to the development of ADHD include genetic and environmental factors, nutritional and psychosocial factors, chemical exposure. Children are emotionally affected when they witness violence within the family.Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is neurobehavioral disorder in children, characterized by symptoms as inattention , hyperactivity impulsivity. Dopamine deficit theory proposed for ADHD says that abnormalities in the dopamine modulated frontal-striatal circuits, effects on brain imaging and functioning. It also associate with the iron deficiency which is major cause of Restless Leg Syndrom ( RLS ), a condition related to ADHD. This study indicated that yoga may contribute to stabilising the emotions, reducing restless /impulsive behavior and reducing oppositional behavior. Negative family relationships are associated with symptoms of ADHD. Its association with the intelligence quotient reiterates the importance of the genetic and environmental basis at the origin of the disorder.
predominantly by inferior and superior parietal areas together with dorsolateral prefrontal regions [45–48, 49], Cerebellum also can be activated during visuospa- tial working memory tasks [50, 51]. Learning disorders also can be seen in ADHD children. Children with learning disorders and ADHD have more severe learning problems than children who have only ADHD. Learning disorder and attention problems are on continuum, are interrelated and usually coexist . Comorbidity with learning disorders is a modifying factor in the health related quality of life of children with ADHD . It was found that 5% of children have ADHD without learning disorder, 5% have learning disorder without ADHD and 4% have both conditions. Boys are more likely those girls to have each diagnosis. In 2006 approxi- mately 4.5 million school aged children have ever been diagnosed with ADHD and 4.6 million children with learning disorders [53, 54]. Thus ADHD associated learning and language disabilities are important comorbidities. Neurological assess- ment is recommended in children with learning disorder who fail to make academic progress despite appropriate educational intervention. The adolescents with ADHD experienced written expression impairment (17.2–22.4%) at a similar rate to reading impairment (17.0–24.3%) and at a slightly lower rate than mathematics impairment (24.7–36.3%) . Dyslexia occurs in 5–10% of school children; it overlaps with ADHD and shows similar genetic characteristics but different brain localizations .
The recognition of ADHD as a neurobehavioural disorder goes back over one hundred years, although the term ADHD was only coined in 1987. In 1902, Sir George Frederick Still (1868-1941) published a paper in The Lancet entitled, ‘Some abnormal psychical conditions in children: the Goulstonian lectures’. He described 43 children who he had come across in his practice, who displayed behavioural features that could today be attributed to ADHD, such as poor attention, difficulty with self-regulation, emotional lability, disinhibited behaviour and normal cognitive functioning. Still chose to call this constellation of features, ‘Disorders of Moral Control’.
The CSS consists of the 18 DSM-IV inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptom items, worded in the first person and with some wording modified to fit adults (e.g. “playing” changed to “engaging in leisure activities”). Patients begin by rating their behavior over the past 6 months with respect to each item on a 4-point Likert scale (Never or Rarely, Sometimes, Often, or Very Often) scored 0-3. Thus, severity scores on the CSS can range from 0-54 across all symptoms. Next, they indicate the age the onset for endorsed symptoms. Finally they rate how often these symptoms have interfered with functioning in ten areas of life.
The patient has been cared for by his physician since birth. His mother had an uncomplicated pregnancy, and he was born full term without any birth complications. His mother did not drink alcohol or use illicit drugs while pregnant but did smoke cigarettes. The patient achieved developmental milestones at appropriate times. He has been treated only for infections and for occasional accidents. He required stitches on one occasion after jumping off furniture and cutting his chin on a coffee table. During prior visits with the physician, the patient was noted to be very active, often attempting to dismantle the wall-mounted otoscope. The mother reports that her only child has always been “a handful.” He was expelled from his first preschool at age 3 years because he was disruptive, wouldn’t sit still for circle time, and would on occasion hit teachers or students when he didn’t get his way. His mother delayed his starting kindergarten until he was 6 to give him time to mature. His kindergarten teacher noted last year that he couldn’t follow directions well, had a short attention span, and was very active. His current first- grade teacher reports difficulties in getting him to sit down to read. His mother states that he will not stay focused on any activity except his Game Boy for more than 15 minutes. He is frequently loud and destructive when he plays.
to the ADHD group and this could be due to a severity issue. They represent a mixed bag o f severely psychiatrically impaired individuals, referred for having problems in attention and impulse control, that results in a loss on the core features one takes to find in the ADHD disorder. Thus, although diagnostically they are clearly not a mild ADHD group as they neither have the childhood history nor meet adult criteria, they may self-report to have problems similar to ADHD adults. For example, they differed from the ADHD group on self-reported items that could be substantiated by alternative sources, i.e. childhood variables that were supported by either parent report and/or childhood reports. Furthermore, the clinic control group had been referred to the clinic for problems with attention and impulsiveness and expected to receive a diagnosis of ADHD (Van der Linden et al, in submission). Therefore they did not represent an ideal comparison group for researching the psychosocial impact of ADHD in adulthood using a self-reported measure. Future research should use abetter control comparison, such as a personality disordered group, in order to examine the psychosocial outcome of adult ADHD
Furthermore, Parents of children with ADHD perceive themselves as less competent in their parenting role, and they perceive their quality of life as being lower than that of parents of children without problems (19; 20). One study (2) has shown that, parents of children with the disorder are more often exposed to social criticism due to the inappropriate behavior of their children. Consequently, they can feel the need to shy away from many social situations in everyday life, thus suffering social isolation. In addition, compared to parents of children without problems, parents of children with ADHD feel significantly more depressed and consider that their parenting role places more restrictions on their personal time (21).