Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027; and b National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute of Space Studies, New York, NY 10025
Increasing food production and mitigating climate change are two primary but seemingly contradictory objectives for tropical landscapes. This special feature examines synergies and trade-offs among these objectives. Four themes emerge from the papers: the important roles of both forest and agriculture sectors for climate mitigation in tropical countries; the minor contribution from deforestation-related agri- cultural expansion to overall food production at global and continental scales; the opportunities for synergies between improved food production and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions through diversion of agricultural expansion to already-cleared lands, improved soil, crop, and livestock management, and agroforestry; and the need for targeted policy and management interventions to make these synergistic opportunities a reality. We conclude that agricultural intensi ﬁcation is a key factor to meet dual objectives of food production and climate mitigation, but there is no single panacea for balancing these objectives in all tropical landscapes. Place-speci ﬁc strategies for sustainablelanduse emerge from assessments of current landuse, demographics, and other biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics, using a whole-landscape, multisector perspective.
Most recently in 2017 the U.K. national mapping agency (Ordnance Survey) has produced a fine-scale vector dataset of urban green space using spatial data at the highest available resolution for the United Kingdom. The data are available under licence (OS Mastermap Greenspace Layer [ 52 ]) as well as in open-access format (OS Open Greenspace Layer [ 53 ]). The latter is less detailed, including fewer landuse classes, but benefits from a greater extent, covering some peri-urban and rural areas not considered in the Mastermap Greenspace Layer. It overcomes a number of the limitations presented by previous datasets but its focus is on identifying green and blue land parcels and associated landuse. It is much less refined in terms of its consideration of form (land cover) and, therefore, the quality of green spaces and how green and blue spaces come together in landscape types. The need to develop more integrated and detailed measures of landscape character than those offered by contemporary measures of landuse or land cover presents a current research imperative. A landscape-oriented dataset should provide not only increased interpretability in terms of resolution, but equally a classification schema that supports the creation of meaningful landscape metrics and subsequent typologies. A novel method for incorporating both landuse and land cover into a landscape-oriented representation of a large city catchment (Greater Manchester, UK) is presented here as an example of how such a shortcoming can be addressed. The method has three elements: (1) the use of remote sensing and GIS techniques to combine measures of landuse, land cover and associated landscape metrics in the characterisation of neighbourhoods according to census units; (2) employing data reduction methods to identify common attributes of urban landscapes for the creation of meaningful typologies for social–ecological research; and (3) a demonstration of the merit of the approach through analysis of social–ecological relationships in a large U.K. urban conurbation.
The results of the k-means clustering of LSOAs into landscape types demonstrated both visually (Figures 9–11) and statistically (Table 4, Figure 12) that combining data on land cover and landuse, even when limited to a small number of categories, offers an effective means to describe urban environments using only a minimal amount of geoprocessing time. Such analyses can be conducted over large areas and more frequently than has been possible in the past. There are further datasets that can be used to replicate some of the local datasets used here, such as the U.K. National Tree Map produced via Lidar although, as in the case of the latter, not all of these are open-source. Table 4 shows the range of combinations of landuse and land cover that can be observed for LSOAs in the landscape of Greater Manchester as an example of a large urban city region. The results illustrate the heterogeneity in urban landscapes, which can be captured and used in a data-driven delineation of neighbourhood types. Figure 12a–d demonstrate that classification of neighbourhoods according to these combinations may reveal greater levels of nuance in the associations between landscape configurations and social–ecological conditions. The simple stratification of the study area according to overall green cover was closely mirrored by an inverse trend in IMD score (Figure 12b). However, stratifying by a typology based on amount, use and cover revealed that IMD was sensitive to configurations of green space qualities as well as total cover. This suggests that a simple one dimensional metric such as overall percentage green space, as used in numerous social-ecological health and well-being studies to date, may fail to capture the true relationship between landscape and social–ecological conditions.
the supply of multifunctional agriculture and social demands for multiple uses of the farms. The study conducted in Belgium starts from the fact that the agricultural sector is becoming increasingly faced with the pressures of population, environmental policies or spatial planning, but still farming in peri-urban areas undoubtedly has a role in preserving the landscape, improving local socio-economic quality of life, filling the ecological function and so on. In order to maintain this role, it is necessary that “urban areas in agriculture be sustainable” (SPSD II, 2005). This research on the example of Brussels showed that agriculture in peri-urban zones is faced with numerous difficulties (more than it is the case with ‘rural’ agriculture), which makes the sustainability of these farms vulnerable, so farmers have to deal with the opportunities and threats brought about by the city.
Received: 12 September 2012 / Accepted: 19 February 2013 / Published online: 8 March 2013 Ó The Author(s) 2013. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com
Abstract Periodic monitoring of biodiversity changes at a landscape scale constitutes a key issue for conservation managers. Earth observation (EO) data offer a potential solution, through direct or indirect mapping of species or habitats. Most national and international programs rely on the use of land cover (LC) and/or landuse (LU) classification systems. Yet, these are not as clearly relatable to biodiversity in comparison to habitat classifications, and provide less scope for monitoring. While a conversion from LC/LU classification to habitat classification can be of great utility, differences in definitions and criteria have so far limited the establishment of a unified approach for such translation between these two classification systems.
The focal issues are very different depending on the scale of the area/policy level, of which each has its own document concerning structure planning. For instance, the ‘Spatial Structure Plan Flanders’ and its legal framework, the Spatial Planning Decree of 24 July 1996 (Belgisch Staatsblad, 27 July 1996), were introduced because the instruments used at the time were too centralistic and static. In the meanwhile, there was a need for at least 400,000 additional housing units. Business as usual – taking up 12 additional hectares of open space every day for housing, industry, commerce, transport infrastructure, recreation, etc. – was recognized to be unsustainable. The Law on the Organisation of Town and Country Planning (Belgisch Staatsblad, 12 April 1962) had been amended several times to give more opportunities for landowners to build on plots outside areas designated as building land. “The country had ended up with a patchy kind of spatial planning and land-use allocation that was not sustainable in the long run and that had in practice become an ad hoc “first come first served” approach” (Van den Broeck et al., 2014, p. 171). The spatial disorder, e.g. ribbon development and almost arbitrary parcelling, caused an excess of traffic jams and had a huge impact on biodiversity, environmental quality, water management, etc. In order to solve this issue, a strategic plan was needed for both the regional (NUTS 1), provincial (NUTS 2) and municipal/local level. All interviewed stakeholders agreed on this.
As for the econometric models, Vu et al. (2006)  explored the effects of access management on accessibility and patronage. Safety and congestion impacts were concentrated along six major commercial corridors in Western Washington State with simultaneous logit model. The findings show that business type and operational variables, corridor and street environment variables, as well as willingness-to-pay measures are significant factors affecting commercial corridors. Xu et al. (2013)  identified access management factors associated with safety of urban arterials mid-blocks with panel data simultaneous equation models. The interaction between landuse and transport was addressed from the perspective of access management, which is the base of this study. Generally speaking, most of the studies presented econometric models oriented on accessibility and travel efficiency, but due to the assumptions, complicated modeling and harsh terms, it is difficult to put the models into practice and realize the real value.
We found edges are hot beds of potentially disease vectoring species and that they have an important role in facilitating disease transmission across the landscape. Disturbed and degraded habitats are avoided by numer- ous forest species [47–49]. However some, especially invasive and generalist species seem to prefer these habi- tats [50, 51] which may explain why the mosquito com- munity composition was significantly different between man-made grasslands and forest interior sites in our study. A previous, short-term study we conducted in the same area  also showed that grasslands supported a markedly different community to inside forests. These distinct differences in mosquito community composition between grassland and forest interior sites may be because certain mosquito species (e.g. An. farauti and Cx. gelidus) find open habitats such as grasslands more attractive than closed habitats.
Forest managers should be targeted with support to realize the potential of adopting additional management objectives. Ideally this would be done at the FMU level but could also be done through national meetings of forest managers. Greater effort is needed to eliminate unfair competition from operators whose sole objective is to extract timber, with little or no concern for multiple uses such as NTFP production, social welfare or the provision of ecosystem services. Such unfair competition could be tackled through legal means that, for example, require evidence of forest legality and the mandated implementation of criteria and indicators for SFM, harvesting codes of practice and forest certification. In most countries, the demarcation of a PFE and development of national land- use plans would increase investment in long-term forest management and lend support to MFM. Improving the value of logged-over forest through silvicultural treatments such as enrichment planting would improve the chance of these forests being managed for multiple uses. Training and awareness-raising to address the entrenched mindsets of some existing forestry stakeholders would also help.
fruit. Such land-use change could result in GHG emissions of more than three times higher than from fossil diesel (212).
GHG emissions from land-use change is a one-off emission and can be off-set as more biofuels are produced from the land over the years (208). One study estimated that GHG emissions from land-use change for the production of US corn ethanol take 167 years to pay back while ethanol from Brazilian sugarcane can pay back its carbon debt from land-use change in around 4 years if only tropical grazing land is used and 45 years if rainforest land is converted (208). It is believed that a good integration of land-use change with sustainable agriculture and forestry systems (213). The production of biofuels can increase the sustainability of the agricultural system by applying certain feedstocks. The use of perennial feedstocks generally provides an opportunity for the integration of bioenergy production and agricultural systems by reducing soil erosion, retaining nutrients and increasing organic matter while breaking pest and disease cycles (213) (214). In general, second generation biofuels, such as cellulosic ethanol (e.g. from perennial feedstocks), renewable diesel from biomass and bio-methane, have lower GHG emissions compared to their first-generation counterparts and appear to have the best long-term potential to provide sustainable, low life-cycle GHG fuels (215).
(notably in bumblebees). Studies which have manipulated hab- itats to examine the eﬀect on pollinators tend to focus on counts of workers (e.g. Kells, Holland & Goulson 2001; Carvell et al. 2007; Heard et al. 2007), but ideally we would like to know how these manipulations impact on nest density and survival. One approach by which it is possible to indirectly measure nest number is via DNA sampling of workers. If workers are typed at suﬃcient microsatellite loci, it is possible to identify groups of sisters each representing a nest. These data can then be further analysed to estimate how many nests were foraging at a site but by chance were not represented in the sampled bees; the approach used for this has been to ﬁt the data to a Poisson distribution. This method has previously been used to quantify the numbers of nests visiting particular ﬂower patches (Chapman, Wang & Bourke 2003), to quantify foraging range by examining the distribution of sisters along a transect (Darvill, Knight & Goulson 2004; Knight et al. 2005) and to estimate population size in isolated populations of a rare bumblebee (Ellis et al. 2006). These studies have provided valuable insights into aspects of bumblebee ecology that had previously proved to be intractable.
Based on a case study in Guangzhou, China, He and Jia (2007) proposed a framework of three dimensions for implementing sustainable concepts in residential landscapes in the urban context, which includes ecology, socioeconomic and cultural aspects. Then, Lau and Yang (2009) have discussed introducing the natural space; which contain prominent amounts of real nature content such as green vegetation, flower and water, and its potential role with the objective of creating a health-supportive and sustainable campus environment through four design strategies. 1. Enhance visual connections of the natural green spaces and their surroundings, 2. Manipulate space morphology to improve user perception, 3. Careful tree selection and, 4. Use of green roof gardens and green walls. These four strategies are relevant to the area with compact and high-density profiles when the existing green spaces do not encourage large groups of people to access them and recently acknowledged as the common phenomenon in urban areas.
Urbanisation, EU common agricultural policy, pres- sures from global economic trends and climate change infl uence the landuse development (Commission 2001). Also the changing social perceptions of land- scape (i.e. the ways people view nature and landscape) have a landscape altering effect. It is worthwhile to notice that the images of nature and landscape have changed throughout time and will continue to change, and thus so will also landscape (Buijs et al., 2006). Sustainability of landuse has been discussed broadly but a focused European policy approach has not been achieved yet. Reason to this lays in the complex nature of landuse dynamics (Commission 2001).
Landuse trajectory analysis provides both the time and kind of land cover changes to monitor landuse dynamics. Land cover change trajectories for three different dates (1965, 1989 and 2014) extracted from satellite images by vectorization of the thematic information were studied This study was carried out on a cultural landscape (São Carlos municipality, SP, Brazil) with three ma- jor landuse-cover classes (forest, agriculture and other uses). The results showed the spatio- temporal variability of landscape pattern and forest and agriculture change trajectories. Analysis based on these landscape trajectories demonstrates that agriculture and forest cover changes have been caused by human activities. The results reflect the conflicting interactions between en- vironmental and human systems in the study area. A key question is that the pressure exerted on forest landuse-cover depends on the incentives that move society from a conflicting relation with a municipal territory. A more sustainablelandscape transition and trajectory for São Carlos muni- cipality are extremely dependent on the regulatory role of the government through strategies re- lated to the implementation of specific categories of legally protected areas (Legal Reserves and Areas of Permanent Preservation).
The material and spatial qualities fostering sustainable urban development, both as living environments suitable for new life styles and as common resources encouraging resilient urban solutions, are only to a small extent valuable as singularities—they need to be contained in a common landscape. This is the entity in which it should be possible both (for everyone) to perceive significant changes in one’s surroundings and (for planning authorities) to measure and estimate the change of common values as consequence of urban development, i.e., the increase of urban density. The opportunity to make informed choices is now taken for granted in the rich parts of the world, as part of the global trade and economy, and as an aspect of individual freedom. In the 20th century, however, we have witnessed a vast and consequent transposition in both the cities and the countryside, from roads and streets with a mix of vehicles and pedestrians (and with a variety in width and qualities), combined with an expanding railroad net, to a streamlined transport infrastructure more or less completely serving ever-expanding car traffic. The individual freedom, connected with an own, fast vehicle, soon became a passion. However, the common infrastructure construction, making the passion of the individuals realizable, has in many places accomplished a nightmare of congestions and air pollution, people finding themselves trapped in lines instead of living their dream of freedom. This is maybe the most flagrant example of how the consequences of disregarded landscapes, through structural changes, can appear as a surprise.
Setting a regional or local system of landuse regimes presents a separate problem in which the principles of legal conventionality, preference of broad public interests, insurance of landscape quality, functional convergence and planning hierarchy must be kept. The strictest regime systems are always deﬁned as territories predomi- nated by most valuable protected areas. It is important that accord- ing to the new edition of the Lithuanian Law of Territorial Planning in 2004, the solutions of landscape management tasks became ob- ligatory for all levels of general (master) plans. A useful experience in landscape management by many countries was gained, as usual, in the sphere of planning of protected areas, national and regional parks in particular. The Standard Territorial Regime System for Diﬀerent Landscape Management Zones (Saugomų..., 2004) was adopted in Lithuania by its Government in 2004 on the basis of ex- perience in the planning of protected areas.
Methodical Aspects of Aggregate Size Fractionation
Soil aggregation can decrease accessibility of enzymes to substrate and thus contributes to the physical protection of soil C (Sollins et al., 1996). Several methods have been developed to fractionate soil into different aggregate size classes. Their results depend on water content in the field, sample pretreatment and the sieving procedure (Gollany et al., 1991; Christensen, 1996; Beare and Bruce, 1993; Six et al., 2000b; Ashman et al., 2003). The most widely used approach to separate aggregate size classes is rapid immersion of air-dried samples in water with subsequent wet- sieving of the soil (Kemper and Rosenau, 1986). When air-dried aggregates are rapidly immersed in water, water enters the pores of the aggregates and air gets entrapped inside the aggregate. Increasing pressure may destroy the aggregate and air bubbles emerge, a process called slaking (Kemper and Rosenau, 1986). In addition, the combination of wet-sieving of air-dried and rewetted soil is used to separate stable and unstable aggregates (Six et al., 2000b; Denef et al., 2002). Several methods have been suggested to rewet soil before aggregate size fractionation: rewetting by tension, vapour, under vacuum, or capillary wetting to field capacity plus 5% (Kemper and Rosenau, 1986; Beare and Bruce, 1993; Puget et al., 1995; Le Bissonnais, 1996; Six et al., 1998). Differences between these rewetting methods are comparatively small to the large differences found between rewetted and air-dried slaked treatments (Beare and Bruce, 1993). In temperate climate soils, wet-sieving of air-dried and slaked soil is considered to be the most appropriate procedure to separate aggregate size classes which differ in soil C storage and stability (Puget et al., 1995; Six et al., 2000a).
There is considerable incertitude about the effectiveness of SURs in reducing fire use or con- trolling fire management, and little is known about the impact of reserves on fire dynamics (compared against a pre-designation baseline). First, none of the previous research effort exam- ines the impact of reserve creation on the spatial density of fires, nor on local fire management practices. Creation impact, i.e., a de jure shift born by policy change, is important to assess in order to understand the effectiveness of such an intervention independent of pre-existing land- scape attributes (e.g. ). Second, few studies incorporate the temporal relationship between fire and rainfall [20,21] and none do this specifically to evaluate reserves. Yet, from an environ- mental perspective, fire management (i.e. when you burn, relative to rainfall events and wind speed etc,), may be more important than aggregate measures of fire occurrence due to the higher risk of fire escape (i.e. transition from intentional agricultural fire to accidental wildfire) in drier conditions. Furthermore, there is evidence that smallholders use environmental cues such as rainfall as an active fire management practice [22–25]. Third, much of the research effort evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas focusses on deforestation (e.g. [19,26 – 29]) or hunting (e.g [19,26–28,30,31]), while relatively few studies address fire occurrence (e.g. [32– 37]). These studies are often limited in the inference they can make on reserve effectiveness due to reliance on direct comparisons between reserve and buffer areas or reserve and “every- where else ” . Finally, the studies that do examine fire activity offer mixed evidence regard- ing the effectiveness of SURs at ameliorating fire. Studies show that fire activity may be lower in reserves relative to the surrounding landscape [34,39], yet the inverse can also occur . Other studies highlight the importance of the institutional model (such as funding & reserve
proposes a multi criteria assessment model and analyzes prominent site factors meant at promising the feasibility of industrialized areas with their surrounding areas. The spatial spirit built-in to the problem leads to construction of a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a platform of Geographic Information System (GIS),the integration and the design of other well-matched tools. The method is applied to a district located in (Northern Spain) of 646.2 km2. The outcome is talked about with digital maps which distinguish the zones according to their appropriateness for industrialized area position using criteria of sustainability. Rahman et al. (2009) the cities of India are growing quickly, causing a broad diversity of ecological pressure. In this article an systematic approach by using satellite statistics and GIS methods in concurrence with socio-economic information is used to evaluate environmental problems in urban city of Delhi. Delhi‘s present population is growing rapidly with 13.8 million and is expected by 2021 to reach 22.4 million. The problems addressed in this study include as: changes in land cover/landuse, changes in temperatures of surface for 2001 and 2005; industrial pollution (i.e. waste water, air and noise),solid waste generation, its management and collection. The outcomes reveled that Delhi is on the rise very rapidly mainly in the south-west ,west and through eastern sides. The paper reveled that a in highly dense populated residential area 122% increase in Delhi was recorded throughout last decade. Because of the result of urban expansion the reduction of (17%) was recorded in the fringe areas in fertile agricultural land. The load of pollution has amplified in terms of solid waste generation, air, noise, water