the students will exchange answer sheets with a partner for pair work to mark the answers. In this way, the students can check the words or phrases that are wrong, thus obtaining washback, one of the five languageassessmentprinciples.
For their project, the students will give presentations, possibly during the last few class periods, so that the last few days can be used for washback, which will consist of written instructor feedback, self-feedback, and peer feedback. As this course is for students seeking employment, they will be assigned to research a company in which they are interested, summarize their research results, make PowerPoint slides, and give a presentation to the class. They will present their research on the company as if it were a real-life situation. This assignment can measure not only speaking but also reading and writing skills. When classmates listen to a student’ s speech, they contribute written peer feedback, which also enables the assessment of the students’ listening skills. Finally, they will be required to watch their own presentations, which will be recorded, thus having the opportunity to assess their own presentations objectively.
Although formative assessment seems to be promising in terms of learning about the progressive development of learners, it has been questioned for not producing reliable results as compared to summative assessment. "Teacher individuality" is echoed as one of the reasons because individual teachers have individual assessment practices, which hinders the reliability dimension of assessment (Shepard, 2000). Therefore, enabling commonality of assessment practices among teachers is one of the key points that should be considered. As highlighted by Teasdale and Leung (2000), undermining current assessment practices of teachers might be the first step of building a commonality of practice. Hence, this study aims first to describe classroomassessment practices of English language instructors teaching English at the preparatory classes of universities regarding their purpose in assessment, methods of assessment and assessment procedures. The context is limited to instructors' practices at schools of foreign languages due to their clear role description at tertiary level, which is increasing language proficiency of university students before they start their professional training at the departments. In spite of the shared mission of different universities, the way of fulfilling it may vary in different settings. Therefore, the second aim of the study is to carry out a comparison between assessment practices of instructors working at state and private universities. The type of university (whether it is state or private) is considered as a variable for this study since organizational setting may be diverse in state and private schools though their context-specific objectives in teaching presumably overlap to a great extent.
inconsistency was observed in the frequency of summative assessment as it was completely absent in their practice. The reason might be that novice teachers are usually under pressure from the supervisors and other administrators to teacher in a pre-determined way although it might different from their implicit or explicit knowledge. It follows that the context where teachers work can play a role. If they feel less imposition from the stakeholders and are more autonomous, they may act in accordance with their knowledge base. This argument has also been supported by Tsagari (2011) and Turner and Purpura (2016), who discussed the importance of local and external contextual elements while examining teachers’ knowledge and practices. Experienced teachers, on the contrary, may teach different proficiency levels, which helps them reflect on their actions in various contexts. These reflections along with more teacher autonomy might help them shape a more consistent system of knowledge and practices over time. Although the focus of this study was speaking assessment literacy, its findings also support Mertler’s (2003) research which uncovered the positive relation between teachers’ experience and assessment literacy.
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Choate and Evans (1992) , as cited in Sahyoni and Zaim (2017) , said that there
are several purposes of authentic assessment. First, authentic assessment gives multiple opportunities for students to perform their performance or work. In authentic assessment, students are evaluated in many different forms of tasks, both written and spoken and scoring systems. The tasks offer numerous chances for students to show their progress in learning. Second, it gives instructional time. It is often that the assessment is conducted at the end of the learning session. In authentic assessment, the evaluation can be carried out while the process of teaching-learning happens. It saves time. It, thus, help teachers in managing the time allocation for the teaching-learning process. The third purpose is teachers can give an assessment that is related directly to the teaching objectives. Before conducting the assessment, teachers need to consult the syllabus guidelines in formulating the learning objectives. In this way, the teachers can plan kinds of activities which precisely measure the objectives. Later, authentic assessments give direct instruction in a real and relevant task. Tasks designed in the assessments have to be as authentic as possible to the real situation. Students are trained to solve problems related to the situations/events that happen in real life. The fifth purpose is it gives students to know their self-ability towards the material. One of the authentic assessment types is self-assessment. In self-assessment, students can learn to diagnose their strengths and weaknesses in learning the language. They also can gradually check their progress in learning the language.
One part of the strategy for addressing language proficiency is, for an increasing number of universities, to introduce post- entry English language assessments (PELAs) which are often used to diagnose students’ proficiency levels in order to recommend an appropriate level of support or remedial attention. It is useful to consider these from a student perspective: having been offered a place at university, students are surely not unreasonable for assuming that the university deems them to have the capacity to succeed. To then be asked upon entry for further evidence of proficiency and potentially identified as somehow deficient seems to send a mixed message. No doubt, PELAs are useful for helping staff identify the “status” of their students’ English language abilities, but as Thomas (2002) points out, such “methods of teaching, learning and assessment provide sites for interactions between staff, students and their peers, and with institutional structures, and thus have a central role in both changing and reproducing social and cultural inequalities” (p. 433). So if PELAs
• Whiteboards: Students practice writing on a small whiteboard and then hold up their boards and compare their answers with the teacher’s answer. Works great for spelling, vocabulary, verb conjugation, etc. Alternative : Students practice in pairs with flashcards. • Scale of 1-4: The teacher evaluates a performance task (like a conversation) on a scale of
The staff educator tries to blur boundaries between different subjects in order to promote staff cooperation and facilitate the experience of learning from each other before they encourage students to do so. She supported the C- and F- context, as she said: ‘In the workshop, teachers come from across disciplines. They may have quite different knowledge backgrounds, but like teachers from dentistry may learn something from teachers from chemistry’. The staff educator holds the same opinion as the module leader in EDUA that talking is important in the learning process, so both of them prefer to encourage talk either among peers or between staff and students: ‘Encouraging tutors to talk and discuss in the workshop is a good approach to making them feel formative learning first’. However, this innovative approach is not widely used in the university at the moment, as she commented: ‘I think it’s not widely seen across the university…Staff particularly prefer to do summative assessment, give marks anonymously…I know one or two people are doing this in postgraduate programme in HASS, encouraging discourses between tutors and students, especially to ISs, using discussion as part of feedback’.
Involving language learners in a video-making project in the target language offers a feasible way to infuse constructivist pedagogical strategies into foreign language teaching. First, implementing the video projects necessitated an active participation of every group member. It required a high level of teamwork and intensive interaction and cooperation between the students. Each student was able to contribute to the project in various capacities, often alternating between being a scriptwriter, actor, director, editor, and a member of the technical support team. Instead of being passive recipients of knowledge in the familiar and somewhat ritualised proceedings of the formal classroom, the students developed their own learning situations. This makes the students’ involvement in the learning process deliberate and active. The presence of these elements satisfied two important constructivist assumptions, which are active participation of the learners in the learning process and the social nature of knowledge construction (Loyens, Rikers & Schmidt, 2007; Phillips, 1995).
Notable proportions of school staff who responded to the survey reported that one of the aims of EOtC was linking classroom-based work with the outside world and, as Table 3.1 shows, this was a particular concern for Key Stage 1 coordinators (71 per cent reported this as an aim). Heads of geography, history and mathematics departments were more likely than other subject heads to identify this as an aim at Key Stage 3, while heads of business studies, geography, art and design and English departments were more likely to identify it for Key Stage 4. Teachers’ specific aims for activities included enriching the curriculum and giving pupils a better understanding of what they were learning, and enabling pupils to have hands-on experiences, in order to apply what they have learned in the classroom to a real-world context. These aims were echoed in the telephone survey of teachers, as illustrated by the following comment by a Key Stage 1 coordinator. She stated that one of the aims of visiting the local area was ‘to bring the curriculum alive...they [pupils] need hands-on experiences to make it real’.
The process of writing effective questions for CAA is not entirely reductionist, but certainly a question author needs to be aware of very significant differences between paper-based questions that are de- signed to be marked by a human marker and those of CAA, and the possibilities that become available via CAA. See CAA (2002) for a general overview beyond assessment of mathematical topics. Simple translation of traditional questions into CAA will generally fail if one does not consider the following: A human marker can mark both objective and subjective questions, whereas a computer marking scheme can only handle objective questions. Thus, questions involving construction of a proof, or even a diagram, and those that ask for interpretation (along the lines of ‘comment on the sig- nificance of your results’) can only be mimicked by objective questions delivered by the maths e.g. CAA system at present: a proof might be laid out and students asked to identify where a mistake might lie (if any) or a multi-choice question (MCQ) might offer well-chosen (mis)in- terpretations for a student to select. This then is a rather passive form of assessment where one is asking if a student can recognize the correct response when he/she sees it rather than generating it him/herself. This is certainly a necessary skill, but it is not sufficient, and certainly not all we would aspire to in our students. It is worth noting that the STACK system does allow the testing of student-generated mathematical models in some simple cases and its wider use would be very useful, see Badger & Sangwin (2011) .
namely the tax or tax system that the tax policy should aim for in accordance with best practice. However, in the absence of internationally recognized tax standards, the positive approach, which is based on existing ordinary tax law, is the method most commonly used. However, the dichotomy between the normative and posi- tive approaches requires nuance. Strictly speaking, a perfectly positive analysis would be free from any value judgement and would merely constitute a descriptive account of “what is”. However, the process of identifying relief measures inevitably entails some normativity as it involves listing all the provisions that deviate from the norm represented by the general regime. Moreover, regarding indirect taxation, a best-practice normative approach makes it possible to define the benchmark base, in the case of VAT on imports, for example, the customs value topped up by customs and excise duties 6 . The approach used can therefore be described as pragmatic.
This questionnaire is part of a study on education outside the classroom , which the NFER is undertaking on behalf of the Department for Education and Skills, the Countryside Agency and Farming and Countryside Education. The aim of the research is to collect information on the extent and nature of education outside the classroom provision across schools and local authorities in order to obtain a greater understanding of the current situation and to inform the development of future government policy on out of classroom learning.
analyzing the examination results, we can easily notice that there is a sharp contrast of the results between before the reform and after it, showing obviously ascending trend, which mainly owes to flipped classroom model. Students has made a rapid progress in English learning, which strongly reveals the fact that flipped classroom model exert a tremendous fascination on students and has aroused their enthusiasm for learning English. According to the analysis of the questionnaire, it can be concluded that most students accept this kind of new teaching model and think they have benefitted from it. Of course, we should seriously take the suggestions students put forward on flipped classroom teaching into consideration. We should treat the teaching reform objectively, and adjust teaching plan and contents in time to make it fit into the development and changes more flexibly.
Consumers’ Association recognises that high quality commercial activity in schools can yield considerable educational rewards. Consumers’
Association believes that these principles will safeguard the interests of young consumers by providing a framework within which business and schools can work in partnership to the highest standards.
Although no policy or procedure can guarantee child safe environments, by implementing these good practiceprinciples, organisations may promote child safety and well being while minimising the risk of harm to children. The principles provide clear guidance on appropriate standards of behaviour around children and what an organisation can do if it becomes aware of inappropriate behaviour on the part of others. In addition, by establishing child-safe practices, organisations may deter those who would wish to abuse children from joining the organisation.