Top PDF Language Learning as Problem Solving

Language Learning as Problem Solving

Language Learning as Problem Solving

LANGUAGE LEARNING AS PROBLEM SOLVING LANGUAGE LEARNING AS PROBLEM SOLVING Modelling logical aspects of Inductive learning to generate sentences in French by ma n and machine M i c h a e l Z O C K Gil[.]

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Learning Recursive Control Programs from Problem Solving

Learning Recursive Control Programs from Problem Solving

Future work should also address a related form of overgeneralization we have observed on the Tower of Hanoi puzzle. In this domain, the approach learns reasonable hierarchical skills that can solve the task without problem solving, but that only do so about half the time. In other runs, the learned skills attempt to move the smallest disk to the wrong peg, which ultimately causes the system to fail. Humans often make similar errors but also learn to avoid them with experience. Inspection of the behavioral trace suggests this happens because one learned skill clause includes variables that are not mentioned in the head but are bound in the body. We believe that including contextual conditions about variables bound higher in the skill hierarchy will remove this nondeterminism and produce more correct behavior.
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Assessment of teachers beliefs and their problem solving views in the teaching and learning of mathematics in second cycle primary schools (grades 5 8): the case of oromia regional state, Ethiopia

Assessment of teachers beliefs and their problem solving views in the teaching and learning of mathematics in second cycle primary schools (grades 5 8): the case of oromia regional state, Ethiopia

they had any questions or if there was anything they did not understand. This took 25 minutes. Next he gave the students class-work of five tasks. All were exercises that could be solved following the same procedure as the examples. He copied them from the students’ textbook. He moved around in the classroom while the students were doing the exercises. The researcher counted that he checked three students’ class-work. Then he went to the blackboard and did all five exercises. He finally gave the students homework exercises from their textbook. It is evident that Chala’s class is completely teacher- led and is based on the transmissional approach. The students were passive recipients of knowledge. He used the textbook as his source of knowledge. The transmissional approach to teaching describes instructional methods as a set of procedures that a teacher would precisely follow to produce student learning. The researcher observed that much of the instruction provided in the textbook and the teachers’ manual is of this kind. The teachers’ manual provides directions on how to conduct the lesson, includes the questions to ask students, and makes suggestions for student assignments and assessments. Teachers like Chala who follows the transmissional approach rely extensively on textbook teaching to select instructional methods and material for their students. Unfortunately, by relying so much on the textbook and using these instructional approaches teachers often fail to meet the unique needs of their students. What they do achieve are rote learning skills and static textbook information. The transmissional view also perceives the teacher as a kind of inert conduit for the flow of information from teacher to student. Transmissional teaching minimizes the needs, interests, and motivations of both teachers
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The cognitive construction of programs by novice programmers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Computer Science at Massey University

The cognitive construction of programs by novice programmers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Computer Science at Massey University

• Tactical plans created by subjects in the control group will most likely make language commitments to the language used in solving problem 1 and therefore will not work at the implemen[r]

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Student Worksheets Design To Improve Problem-Solving Ability With Problem-Based Learning

Student Worksheets Design To Improve Problem-Solving Ability With Problem-Based Learning

This research uses research and development methods, with the ADDIE development model. ADDIE development model consists of five stages: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation [25] [26][27][28][29].The product developed in this study will be used to improve problem-solving skills in 7th-grade students, namely designing students based on problem-based learning (PBL) worksheets). The analysis stage in this study consisted of performance analysis and needs analysis. Performance analysis is done by observing mathematics learning in class and interviewing the mathematics teacher. The results of the performance analysis will be used as a needs analysis. A needs analysis is carried out to determine the mathematics subject matter to be included in the teaching material, which includes the SD (basic competency), target learning outcomes, and the design to be used. Furthermore, at the design stage, this research was carried out through the preparation of a teaching material framework. The experts will validate the product in the form of teaching material design. Design validation was carried out to determine expert judgment and input as revised material so that the model for developing suitable quality teaching materials The subjects in this study were 7th-grade students of state 12 Yogyakarta 2019/2020 academic year. Data collection instruments include guidelines for observation and interviews.
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CHALLENGES FACED BY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN TEACHING

CHALLENGES FACED BY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN TEACHING

The way people view the world is determined wholly or partly by the structure of their native language. Following this way of reasoning, it seems obvious that in a situation when two people being users of different native languages meet, their view of the world, patterns of behavior and beliefs differ. Nowadays, in the era of globalization, more and more people move to another country to work or study and different cultures come into contact. Multiculturalism is an entrenched reality at university nowadays. Those who do not love it bear it, and those who accuse it are few. It defines the core of the moral mission of the contemporary university. Students, and also their tutors, seem to encounter problems concerning cultural clashes. Teaching and learning in a multicultural environment has, undoubtedly, advantages and disadvantages. As far as the negative aspect of learning and teaching in a multicultural environment is concerned, there are various problems encountered while two, or more different cultures come into contact. The problems are encountered not only by students, but by tutors and lecturers as well. As far as it concerns the students, and state that students enrolled in courses taught by professors coming from different ethnic or linguistic backgrounds experience discomfort, tension and conflict. It also applies to professors who experience such reservations towards foreigners and may encounter problems while marking them and trying to be honest. There are students who do not appreciate
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Authentic learning contexts for action based problem solving

Authentic learning contexts for action based problem solving

What practical work do you give your students to test water or change water quality. What actions, linked to environmental concerns, could students develop[r]

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Problem Solving Applied to Language Generation

Problem Solving Applied to Language Generation

But since physical goals give rise to other types of goals as subgoals, which may in turn be satisfied by speech acts, they are important to a language planning system.. Goals that bear [r]

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Solving Multiple-Instance Problem: A Lazy Learning Approach

Solving Multiple-Instance Problem: A Lazy Learning Approach

As opposed to traditional supervised learning, multiple-instance learning concerns the problem of classifying a bag of instances, given bags that are labeled by a teacher as being overall positive or negative. Current research mainly concentrates on adapting traditional concept learning to solve this problem. In this paper we investigate the use of lazy learning and Hausdorff distance to approach the multiple- instance problem. We present two variants of the K -nearest neighbor algorithm, called Bayesian- K NN and Citation- K NN, solving the multiple- instance problem. Experiments on the Drug discovery benchmark data show that both algorithms are competitive with the best ones conceived in the concept learning framework. Further work includes exploring of a combination of lazy and eager multiple-instance problem classifiers.
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The Impact of Problem Based Learning versus Conventional Education on Students in the Aspect of Clinical Reasoning and Problem Solving

The Impact of Problem Based Learning versus Conventional Education on Students in the Aspect of Clinical Reasoning and Problem Solving

effective clinical reasoning strategies has come to much controversy. It appears that the learning of new concepts through a problem-solving process in PBL fosters the development of reasoning strategies (30). In the same conclusion, Pluta et al. (31) found that the new integrated PBL medical curriculum at the University of Liverpool is producing graduates with better communication and clinical reasoning skills than does the old traditional curriculum. Schmidt et al. (32) proved that students in PBL curriculum do better in diagnostic performance and competence compared to students in conventional school. Authors ended up with this conclusion when they compared diagnostic reasoning skills for 612 students from three different schools with PBL and conventional curricula through 30 short clinical cases. Students in PBL performed better and scored higher for diagnostic performance compared to students in conventional medical school. A local study of using PBL to enhance the clinical reasoning has been performed by Shamsan and Syed (30) in college of medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia in 2009. They showed that the PBL system helps developing the students in problem solving skills. The majority of students were agreed that PBL is much better than the conventional system (30). A comparison study from two medical schools with traditional and PBL-based curriculum to diagnose a clinical case with examination of reasoning processes has been conducted (33). The PBL students advanced many more causal explanations than did those following the conventional curriculum. PBL students were able to integrate basic science and clinical knowledge compared to other conventional system students.
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Problem-Solving Among English Language Learners: A Cognitive Linguistic Approach

Problem-Solving Among English Language Learners: A Cognitive Linguistic Approach

Abstract: New mathematics standards ask teachers to strengthen mathematics instruction while still building upon communication skills. In today's classroom, this is complicated by the growing number of English language learners (ELLs) across the country who because they are still learning English struggle with the language of mathematics. Researchers who have addressed the question of problem-solving among ELLs have explored schema-based instruction or the use of math journals. Of these two approaches, a discussion of the ELL population is not included in research on math journals and problem solving. Within the research on schema-based instruction, research limit their findings to ELLs with math difficulties (MD). This study addresses the gap in the research on problem-solving among ELLs. A writing structure referred to as Source, Path, Goal (SPG) was used as a linguistic scaffold and type of schema-based instruction. Instruction was set in an elementary ELL classroom. Each group received a different level of scaffolded instruction: 1) instruction only treatment group, 2) instruction plus practice treatment group. Three non-parametric sign tests were conducted (one for each group) to compare pre- and post-test results and indicated strong support for the use of scaffolding plus practice. An analysis of the students’ written explanations of how they solved their math problems only indicated an increase in problem-solving skills for instruction only treatment group, but both treatment groups increased in the depth of their mathematical thinking. Implications for practice and future research are shared.
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Problem based learning through laboratory work and authentic assessment: empowering critical thinking abilities in indonesia students

Problem based learning through laboratory work and authentic assessment: empowering critical thinking abilities in indonesia students

In Indonesia, one of the problems with learning is that only learning lecture or direct instruction, discussion, question and answer are emphasised. Rarely does learning involve direct student activity with the result that studentscannot hone their critical thinking skills optimally. According to Susanto (2002), there are 3 problems in science learning: (1) science learning tends to be knowledge-oriented and not process-oriented, (2) science teaching is merely about transferring knowledge, in terms of facts, concepts, and scientific principles that are mostly transferred by lecture, inquiry, or discussion without any practical work outcomes, and (3) science teaching focuses on answering questions, teachers tend to implement inquiry method, and the answers are in form of facts, concepts, and standard principles taught by the teachers or written in the text books. Baskoro (2009) stated that one of the shifts in learning in the twenty-first century has been from memorizing concepts to self-finding and self-constructing concept learning. These can enhance students’ higher-order thinking skills, critical thinking, creative thinking, and problem-solving ability.
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Promoting Tolerance Through Learning about Human Evolution and Creation Myths

Promoting Tolerance Through Learning about Human Evolution and Creation Myths

Jacobse and Harskamp’s (2009) study examined how to improve students' metacognitive and problem-solving skills with a computer program consisting of word problems and metacognitive hints. A total of 49 students comprised the sample with 23 students in the experimental group and 26 students in the comparison group. Students in the experimental group practiced with the computer program, which also incorporated a choice of metacognitive hints during problem solving. The comparison group did not work with the computer program. All the participants had comparable socioeconomic status, had similar average mathematical performance scores on a norm-referenced test, and did not differ statistically significantly on the word-problem-solving pretest. During the course of the study, the comparison and treatment groups used the same mathematics textbook and received instruction on the same content of the textbook at the same pace. Think-aloud protocols of 10 randomly selected students were used to measure the metacognitive skills of the participants. The results indicated that the groups differed statistically significantly on the posttest; the treatment group that used the computer program with metacognitive hints outperformed the comparison group in metacognitive skills and problem-solving skills. Additionally, there were statistically significant effects indicated between mathematical-problem-solving performance and metacognitive-hint use. The results, therefore, support other studies (Bayat & Tarmizi, 2010; Desoete et al., 2006; Maccini & Hughes, 2000; Montague, 2003, 2007, 2013; Montague, Bos, &
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Direction of collaborative problem solving-based STEM learning by learning analytics approach

Direction of collaborative problem solving-based STEM learning by learning analytics approach

Moreover, situated cognition theory recognizes that not only the cognitive aspect but also the social aspect of learning activities are critical to the learning process. It is em- phasized the opinion that, rather than constructing knowledge on one’s own, people’s knowledge is constructed through socially communicating and interchanging with others (Lave & Wenger, 1991). In situated STEM learning, it is considered that know- ledge is organized around ideas, concepts, or themes, and evolved through social dis- course, thus, as one of the key elements of situated learning, a community of practice is considered as the rope of all dimensions of STEM, which connects science inquiry, technological literacy, mathematical thinking, and engineering design (Kelley & Knowles, 2016). It is indicated that not only acquiring the knowledge and skills itself, but also the process of how to acquire them through the authentic contexts and the ex- change of ideas, and how to use them to solve authentic problems, which including both cognitive and social aspects, should be considered in STEM education.
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From Learning to Knowing: A Psychological Neurological Approach to Explain the Human Capital Formation Process

From Learning to Knowing: A Psychological Neurological Approach to Explain the Human Capital Formation Process

knowledge accumulation enhancing effect and the second a knowledge decay delaying effect. Regarding the first effect, empirical studies have demonstrated that there is some positive association between past knowledge and subsequent knowledge even after controlling for the genetics of individuals (Ghisletta & Lindenberger, 2003). The main rationale behind this enhancing effect is the idea that new knowledge might be encoded through the establishment of similarities and differences between new and old information, making particular features or instances more or less memorable or influencing patterns of inductive generalisation (Keil, 1989; Wittenbrink, Hilton & Gist, 1998). Heit (1994, 1998) suggests that prior knowledge may represent the patterns of known knowledge which are retrieved and combined with observed examples while learning something new. Similarly, Johnson and Keil (2000) argue that prior knowledge can conceivably affect the way a person combines and uses concepts to communicate while solving problems (Markman & Makin, 1998). Kaplan and Murphy (2000) found that having prior knowledge about just one of six features present in individual exemplars facilitates category learning by adults. The overall idea implies that any subsequent learning will result in more knowledge or skills if the individual's prior stock of knowledge and skills is relatively great. The stock of knowledge coming from non-formal learning will, for instance, be higher when the same non-formal learning programme is undertaken after formal education.
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Learning without limits: from problem solving towards a Unified Theory of Learning

Learning without limits: from problem solving towards a Unified Theory of Learning

Siegler (1996) criticizes the stage, level and phase models by pointing out that the idea of a stage may well be an artifact of the way developmental psychologists collect their data. Typical experiments involve studying how two or more age groups of children perform a certain task, and contrasting their respective approaches. According to Siegler, however, it is a mistake to think about the way children think about a certain problem at a certain age. The result of these approaches are staircase models. For example, several strategies to do simple additions have been identiÞed in children: small children tend to count both addends from 1, slightly older children start with the largest addend (the min strategy), and even older children retrieve the answer from memory (Ashcraft, 1987). A ÒstaircaseÓ interpretation of these differences is depicted in Þgure 5.9: Þrst children use the sum strategy, then they switch to the min strategy, and Þnally to the retrieval strategy. Closer inspection of what strategies children use reveals that children do not use a single strategy to solve addition problems, but instead use several strategies. What changes with age is the frequency with which they use a certain strategy. The bottom graph of Þgure 5.9 illustrates this aspect using a study from Svenson and Sjoberg (1983). In this longitudinal study, the strategy use of 13 children was followed from Þrst to third grade. As can be seen in the graph, at each point in time children use several strategies, and the frequencies of particular strategies ßuctuate over time.
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Vol 4, No 1 (2019)

Vol 4, No 1 (2019)

Furthermore, Bruner mentioned that Discovery learning is an inquiry-based, constructivist learning theory that takes place in problem-solving situations where the learner draws on his or her own past experience and existing knowledge to discover facts and relationships and new truths to be learned. Students interact with the world by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments. As a result, students may be more likely to remember concepts and knowledge discovered on their own (in contrast to a transmissionist model). Models that are based upon discovery learning model include guided discovery, problem-based learning, simulation-based learning, case- based learning, incidental learning, among others.
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The Development Of Learning Instruction Based On Problem Based Learning To Improve Problem Solving Ability Of Students In Grade VII (Preliminary Research)

The Development Of Learning Instruction Based On Problem Based Learning To Improve Problem Solving Ability Of Students In Grade VII (Preliminary Research)

Abstract— The problem encountered in school is that students' mathematical problem solving abilities are not optimal. It can be improved by using learning instruction based on Problem Based Learning. The purpose of this study is to develop learning instruction based on Problem Based Learning (PBL) to improve students' mathematical problem solving abilities. The type of research is development research using Plomp’s model which consists of three phases namely preliminary research, development or prototyping phase, and assessment phase. This article discusses the preliminary section. Questionnaires, teacher interview guidelines, field notes, educational test questions were used as a instruments. The results of data analysis show that 1) Students mathematical abilities was low, 2) the learning process focused on the teacher, 3) Students’ involvement in the learning process was lack, 4) The learning instruction used by teachers are not facilitating students to improve mathematical problem solving skills , 5) Students feel difficult to understand the language used in learning resources.
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The problem of motivation in French language learning

The problem of motivation in French language learning

assume that a child would learn another language best by the same method used in learning his native tongue., it followed the natural order in which the child learns to speak more or les[r]

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RELEVANCE OF CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH IN TEACHING & LEARNING

RELEVANCE OF CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH IN TEACHING & LEARNING

their own understanding of the world they live in. People need to come out of rote learning to discovery, enquiry, and problem solving learning where they learn through themselves, with their peer group, family and field experiences. In this competitive world learning is more comprehension includes both knowledge and attitude. In a constructivist classroom knowledge is constructed, pupils are active learners and collaborative work is done.

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