Top PDF Large-Scale Production and Use of Biomethane

Large-Scale Production and Use of Biomethane

Large-Scale Production and Use of Biomethane

1 1 Introduction The ambition to create a more sustainable society in the European Union drives the transition towards a circular economy [1-4], that is based on renewable energy and the reuse of materials. The implementation of these sustainability principles requires the development of technologies that transform renewable resources into energy-carrying products and biomaterials. In particular, biomass gasification represents a key technology for achieving sustainability targets, as it represents a scalable and highly efficient route for the production renewable hydrocarbons, especially biofuels (e.g., biomethane, ethanol dimethyl ether, hydrogen) and bio-based products (e.g., platform chemicals, biomaterials). Given the ambition to attain sustainability in the heavy transport sector, a joint venture involving the energy industry, academia, and vehicle manufacturers in the Gothenburg region of Sweden has looked into the possibility of using biomethane. This co-operation has created the GoBiGas plant, which is a first-of-a-kind, industrial-sized demonstration unit that applies indirect gasification to produce biomethane. The production capacity of the GoBiGas plant is 160 GWh biomethane/yr [5]. The plant is owned by the local heat and electricity utility in the City of Gothenburg (Göteborg Energi AB), and was brought into operation in 2014. In the meanwhile, Volvo AB has developed two advanced engine technologies for the combustion of gaseous fuels [6-8], for use in heavy-duty applications. The establishment the GoBiGas process represents a world-first achievement for large- scale production of biofuels, as it is a substantial scaling up of the gasification technology and proves the feasibility of biomethane production on a commercial scale. However, to ensure the desired breakthrough of biomass-based products, it is necessary to improve the profitability of gasification plants, through increasing their size and efficiency, as well as identifying opportunities with greater economic feasibility for the transport, energy, and chemical sectors [9-11].
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Indirect gasification production of biomethane for use in heavy-duty state-of-the-art gas engines

Indirect gasification production of biomethane for use in heavy-duty state-of-the-art gas engines

11 with as part of the operation of the plant, as they can cause fouling of the downstream equipment and deactivation of the catalyst in the methanation step [40-42]. Therefore, they must be removed upstream of the biofuel synthesis steps in the gas-cleaning section. The total yield of tar and OC affects not only the efficiency of the process, but also its complexity. The technical and economic feasibilities of gasification processes can be susceptible to the performance of the gas-cleaning steps upstream of fuel synthesis [11]. Gas cleaning is the most complex part of the process, as it involves the separation of solid particles (entrained ash and bed material), sulfur compounds (hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide), alkali (chlorine), tars, and OC, which can cause fouling in pipes and heat exchangers. The particles are removed using cyclones and filters at a temperature higher than that needed for water condensation. A wet cleaning system for drying the raw gas is usually necessary. The wet cleaning process can be combined with tar removal by scrubbing the gas with oil or rapeseed methyl ester (RME), as in the GoBiGas case. Methods for reforming the tar and OC should be implemented if effective. Reforming can be achieved in the gasifier through the use of a catalytic component in the bed material or through an external reformer. In the latter case, the raw gas is introduced into a secondary reactor that contains active bed material for reforming the tars, although other measures, such as thermal cracking, can be used. The main advantages of reducing the tar content of the gas are reduced consumption of the scrubbing agent and increased chemical efficiency of the process, since the OC can contain up to 10% of the fuel energy [37]. In the GoBiGas process, the consumption of RME depends on the concentration of the removed tar, which consists of naphthalene and a small fraction of heavier compounds. Lighter tar compounds, such as benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX), together with chlorine are sequestered in the active carbon, which is regenerated with steam, and subsequently injected into the after- burner.
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Large scale production of rubella precipitinogens and their use in the diagnostic laboratory

Large scale production of rubella precipitinogens and their use in the diagnostic laboratory

A CFnegative serum from a patient who experienced rubella 2 years previously HAI, 64; anti-theta, 8 U/ul; anti-iota, 0 U/iA gave a sharp theta immunoprecipitin line with our antigen pool[r]

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Biohydrogen and Biomethane (Biogas) Production in the Consecutive Stages of Anaerobic Digestion of Molasses

Biohydrogen and Biomethane (Biogas) Production in the Consecutive Stages of Anaerobic Digestion of Molasses

Stage 1 of the system was the source of acidic effluent being processed by a methane-yielding microbial community in stage 2. Stage 2 constituted two 50-liter upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASB). The seed methanogenic inoculum was activated sludge from the Warszawa Południe municipal waste treatment plant in Warsaw, Poland, sampled in September. The director of municipal water and sewage enterprise in the capital city of Warsaw in Poland issued the permission to sample activated sludge and use it for scientific research. The inoculation procedure was analogous to that described previously [12], taking into account the enlarged scale of the bioreactors. Substrates for hydrogen- and methane- yielding fermentations were supplied to bioreactors using peristaltic pumps (Rael Motori Elettrici, Italy). The acidic effluent from molasses fermentation was supplied to the UASB reactor continuously, the HRT was 140-180 hours. In some periods the effluent was neutralized with calcium hydroxide (50 g/L) before processing to methane. The system is still operating in Dobrzelin Sugar Factory (KSC S.A.). The data presented in this paper come from the experiments done in the selected periods of the continuous monitoring of the bioreactors' performance during 12 months of operation.
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Biomethane Production from Biodegradable Plastics

Biomethane Production from Biodegradable Plastics

years of research funding. I also thank the Virginia Institute of Marine Science for providing bioplastic samples. I’m appreciative for the ongoing assistance, both in the lab and office, from Dr. Kaushik Venkiteshwaran and value his friendship. His expertise in microbial community analysis were vitally important in deciphering the anaerobic digester microbiome. Thanks also to Julián Velazquez, Dylan Friss, Seyedehfatemeh (Saba) Seyedi, and Dr. Daniel Carey for lending a helping hand with lab work. Their assistance allowed me a break from research and gave me much needed time for travel and outdoor recreations. Mike Dollhopf’s aptitude for managing a laboratory is not without notice and his efforts keep the day-to-day operations running smoothly. Tom Silman’s assistance in the Marquette University opus College of Engineering Discovery Learning Center is much appreciated and his work to construct our lab digesters was vital to this and future projects’ successes. Dave Newman’s allowance to use his equipment was very helpful for processing
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Biomethane production from food waste and organic residues

Biomethane production from food waste and organic residues

Municipal biowaste often referred to as the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) consists of food and garden waste from domestic, commercial and street cleanings. It is the main cause of smell and nuisance in municipal solid waste (MSW) and is responsible for most of the environmental hazards associated with municipal waste management, such as the formation of polluting leachate and methane gas under anaerobic conditions. As EU countries are obliged to divert biodegradable waste from landfill under the terms set out in the Landfill Directive 1999 [1], new treatment methods are sought in many countries to treat OFMSW in the most environmentally and economically sound way. The use of anaerobic digestion (AD) in treating OFMSW is becoming increasingly popular across Europe [2]. However OFMSW is a complex and heterogeneous material and many questions still remain about the most effective AD process for OFMSW digestion and even if it is suitable for long term continuous mono-digestion [3]. A significant portion of OFMSW consists of food waste with a total solids (TS) content of 20-30% [4]. As of June 2010, commercial premises in Ireland which produce greater than 50kg of food waste per week are legally required to provide designated bins for source separated food waste (SSFW) [5]. It is estimated that over a million tonnes per annum of OFMSW will have to be diverted from landfill in Ireland by 2016 to meet the EU Landfill Directive [1]. Currently alternative waste treatment infrastructure is insufficient to meet this demand [6]. Due to the recent EC proposal [7] to limit biofuels from food crops to 2011 levels (ca. 5%) the potential to upgrade biogas from food waste to biomethane [8] and use as a transport fuel [9] can help EU states to meet the 10% renewable energy in transport target.
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Using Ulva (Chlorophyta) for the production of biomethane and mitigation against coastal acidification

Using Ulva (Chlorophyta) for the production of biomethane and mitigation against coastal acidification

79 et al., 2009; Mohammad and Chakrabarti, 2009; Paul and Tseng 2012). Currently over 92 % of the world’s macroalgae production by weigtht comes from aquaculture species (Ozer, 2005; Chopin and Sawhney, 2009; Paul and Tseng 2012). Macroalgae aquaculture in South Africa started as an off shoot of the abalone (Haliotis midae L) farming industry (Troell et al., 2006). Since its inception in the 1990s, abalone aquaculture in South Africa has developed rapidly and the country is currently the second largest producer outside Asia (FAO, 2000; Troell et al., 2006). This rapid development was partly achieved due to demand being driven by the decline of South African wild abalone collection due to poaching. By 2006 several South African seaweed concession areas had harvested up to 99 % of their MSY (Troell et al., 2006). This lead the industry to explore alternative abalone feed. One of the alternatives proposed were seaweeds cultivated in aquaculture effluent (Robertson-Andersson 2007). Since then over 2000 tons of Ulva spp. were cultivated as feed. Researchers performed a strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis of the seaweed cultivation industry and stated that Ulva product diversification is needed to increase its potential in South Africa (Bolton et al., 2009). The objective of this work was to investigate the potential for large scale anaerobic digestion of Ulva spp to produce methane gas from a readily available aquaculture product. If the large scale production of biomethane proved environmentally and economically feasible and sustainable, it could serve as an alternative to the dwindling oil supply and help mitigate global CO 2 emissions.
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Large-Scale Production of Algal Biomass: Photobioreactors

Large-Scale Production of Algal Biomass: Photobioreactors

4 Conclusions This chapter has reviewed the various parameters which one should consider in designing and operating large microorganism cultivation systems. Open systems constitute a simple and mature technology already deployed at industrial scale. By contrast, closed PBRs can be regarded as more complex systems, mainly due to the in fluence of light on the process. However, the main challenges have been iden- ti fied and some robust engineering solutions have been recently proposed. Their use in the design and control of solar PBRs was illustrated in this chapter. Research efforts have to be pursued to develop solar PBR technologies in order to achieve their maximum theoretical performance. This is a prerequisite to compensate for the higher cost associated with the con finement of the culture to prevent contamination. These efforts should focus on the closely connected areas of biophysical modeling, engineering design, and operation and control.
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Onix: A Distributed Control Platform for Large-scale Production Networks

Onix: A Distributed Control Platform for Large-scale Production Networks

The throughput of our memory-based DHT is effec- tively limited by the Onix RPC stack. Figure 6 shows the call throughput between an Onix instance acting as an RPC client, and another acting as an RPC server, with the client pipelining requests to compensate for network latency. The DHT performance can then be seen as the RPC performance divided by the replication factor. While a single value update may result in both a notification call and subsequent get calls from each Onix instance having an interest in the value, the high RPC throughput still shows our DHT to be capable of handling very dynamic network state. For example, if you assume that an application fully replicates the NIB to 5 Onix instances, then each NIB update will result in 22 RPC request-response pairs (2 to store two copies of the data in the DHT, 2∗5 to notify all instances of the update, and 2∗5 for all instances to fetch the new value from both replicas and reinstall their triggers). Given the results in Figure 6, this implies that the application, in aggregate, can handle 24,000 small DHT value updates per second. In a real deployment this might translate, for example, to updating a load attribute on 24,000 link entities every second – a fairly ambitious scale for any physical network that is controlled by just five Onix instances. Applications can use aggregation and NIB partitioning to scale further.
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Biohydrogen and biomethane production from lignocellulosic biomass

Biohydrogen and biomethane production from lignocellulosic biomass

Biohydrogen production from carbon-rich substrates through fermentation produces volatile fatty acids (such as acetic, butyric, propionic acids) and alcohols (such as ethanol) as by-products of the process (Nasr et al., 2012). These metabolites are present in the effluent from this process which can be fed into an anaerobic digester as substrate for methane production. This two-stage anaerobic digestion process separates the acidogenic from methanogenic steps so as to enhance overall process performance, stability and efficiency (Li et al., 2015). The aim of a two-stage anaerobic digestion process is to produce VFAs in the first stage (acidification) which are converted to bioenergy in the form of methane in the second stage from the effluent of the first stage (thus extracting more net energy) while also reducing final COD concentration in effluent which is necessary for discharge (leading to further degradation of the waste) (Park et al., 2010). As resource recovery, hydrogen produced in the first stage, can be purified for use in fuel cells or liquefied and sold as industrial gas while methane from the second stage can be used to generate electricity and heat.
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Valorization of mango waste by biomethane production in Burkina Faso

Valorization of mango waste by biomethane production in Burkina Faso

Three inoculums were used for mango waste anaerobic digestion with regard to methane production: pig manure sludge (PMS) and cow dung sludge (CDS) collected from two digesters of the National Biodigester Program (NBP) at Nioko II and Loumbila (peripheral districts of Ouagadougou city), respectively and wastewater (WW) obtained from the slaughterhouse of Ouagadougou. The inoculum samples were anaerobicaly collected into serum bottles, carried to laboratory according to Trine and Jens [11] and then, stabilized during seven (7) days without adding a substrate to avoid biogas production during storage. After stabilization, they were stored at 4 °C until use.
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Biomethane production from grass silage: laboratory assessment to maximise yields

Biomethane production from grass silage: laboratory assessment to maximise yields

An advantage of grass silage for biomethane is the familiarity of the crop with farmers and the avoidance of arable land use (Smyth et al., 2009). Grass is a perennial crop that negates the need for tillage. When including for carbon sequestration in pasture land, grass biomethane has been shown to effect a 75 % reduction in GHG emissions compared to the full life cycle analysis of diesel when used as a transport fuel (Korres et al., 2010). Grass is now utilised in over 50 % of digesters operating in Germany and Austria (Prochnow et al., 2009), although very rarely in a mono-digestion process. Although timothy, cocksfoot and tall fescue are sometimes used, perennial ryegrass is the principal species used in many countries (Smyth et al., 2009; McEniry and O’Kiely, 2013). The digestion of grass silage has been widely reported in literature (Prochnow et al., 2005; Lehtomäki et al., 2008b; Seppälä et al., 2009). Various digestion systems have been examined for maximising biomethane output from grass silage; these include batch leach-bed reactors (LBR) (Jagadabhi et al., 2010), two-phase continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) (Thamsiriroj and Murphy, 2010) and sequencing LBRs coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (SLBR– UASB) (Lehtomäki et al., 2008a; Nizami et al., 2011). The yields reported for mono-digestion of grass are quite varied, ranging from 200 to 450 L CH 4 kg -1 VS (Pakarinen et al., 2008; Koch et al., 2009; Nizami and Murphy, 2011). Grass silage has, however, been reported to be deficient in some essential trace elements for longterm mono-digestion (Thamsiriroj et al., 2012).
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Enhancement of Biohydrogen and Biomethane Production from Wastes Using Ultrasonication

Enhancement of Biohydrogen and Biomethane Production from Wastes Using Ultrasonication

Mixed and pure cultures: In general, for a full-scale application the selection of mixed cultures is considered to be favorable, at least from an engineering standpoint. This is due to the fact that the control and operation of the process is facilitated when no medium sterilization is required, reducing thus the overall cost, while it also allowing for a broader choice of feedstocks [131]. The mixed consortia can be derived from a variety of different natural sources, such as sewage sludge [132], anaerobically digested sludge [133], acclimated sludge [134], compost [135], animal manure [136] and soil [137] or even from the indigenous microorganisms found in certain wastes [138]. Alternatively, many researchers have focused on the use of pure cultures of selected hydrogen producing species. The main arguments for their advantageous use are the selectivity of substrates, the ease of metabolism manipulation by altering growth conditions, the higher observed hydrogen yields due to the reduction of undesired by-products, as well as the repeatability of the process. On the other side of the coin, pure cultures can be quite sensitive to contamination and thus their use demands, in most cases, the presence of aseptic conditions, which significantly increases the overall cost of the process [139].
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Economic-Energetic Parameters of Biomethane

Production from the Agricultural Plant Biomass

Economic-Energetic Parameters of Biomethane Production from the Agricultural Plant Biomass

use (selling). Sales revenues gained from produced electrical energy are important part, both for the economic profit and ecological balance of the biogas plant. Optimization of economic results of production is based on the concept of economic effectiveness (gaining of maximal economic effects per unit of invested assets). Starting from the assumption that the production surfaces are divided into the four parcels (with included crop production), installed power of CHP unit will be 269,58 kWh, calculated yield of the bio- methane will be 14.671,05 m 3 /ha, while the variable costs will be around 5.035,74 €/ha.
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Machine translation of TV subtitles for large scale production

Machine translation of TV subtitles for large scale production

In our machine translation project, we use a par- allel corpus of Swedish, Danish and Norwegian sub- titles. The subtitles in this corpus are limited to 37 characters per line and to two lines. Depending on their length, they are shown on screen between 2 and 8 seconds. Subtitles typically consist of one or two short sentences with an average number of 10 to- kens per subtitle in our corpus. Sometimes a sen- tence spans more than one subtitle. The first sub- title is then ended with a hyphen and the sentence is resumed with a hyphen at the beginning of the next subtitle. This occurs about 36 times for each 1000 subtitles in our corpus. TV subtitles contain a lot of dialogue. One subtitle often consists of two lines (each starting with a dash) with the first being a question and the second being the answer.
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Machine Translation of TV Subtitles for Large Scale Production

Machine Translation of TV Subtitles for Large Scale Production

In our machine translation project, we use a par- allel corpus of Swedish, Danish and Norwegian sub- titles. The subtitles in this corpus are limited to 37 characters per line and to two lines. Depending on their length, they are shown on screen between 2 and 8 seconds. Subtitles typically consist of one or two short sentences with an average number of 10 to- kens per subtitle in our corpus. Sometimes a sen- tence spans more than one subtitle. The first sub- title is then ended with a hyphen and the sentence is resumed with a hyphen at the beginning of the next subtitle. This occurs about 36 times for each 1000 subtitles in our corpus. TV subtitles contain a lot of dialogue. One subtitle often consists of two lines (each starting with a dash) with the first being a question and the second being the answer.
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Towards marketing biomethane in France—French consumers’ perception of biomethane

Towards marketing biomethane in France—French consumers’ perception of biomethane

around five to 14 Eurocent (EuroCt) per kWh—levels considered generous in comparison to those in the German and Austrian markets where biomethane prices that plants can realize are below 8 EuroCt per kWh [3, 16, 17]. Con- sumers who use biomethane for heating or cooking are ex- empt from the gas tax (Taxe intérieure de consommation sur le gaz naturel) [18]. Moreover, producers receive guar- antees of origin (GOO) for the biomethane they produce. These GOO can be used to create green gas products targeted at businesses and consumers [19], as is already the case in other European markets. In Germany, for example, approximately 170 such products were being marketed to private households as of 2014 [2]. Customers in the UK, Belgium, and Austria can likewise chose biomethane- based products. In Switzerland and Belgium, utilities have adopted a nudging strategy where they blend natural gas with biomethane and market these blends as their stand- ard offerings [20, 21].
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Development of Coconut De husking Machine for Large Scale Production

Development of Coconut De husking Machine for Large Scale Production

Abstract: According to recent studies India ranks third in the world among top coconut producing countries with 11.9 million tons of coconuts coming out every year. However the fruit produced is not of much use unless it is de-husked and the husk is separated from its shell. This step is mandatory as it is an important step in the extraction of the coconut’s various products such as the outer husk, shell, coconut water and the softer internal kernel or endosperm. Although modern machinery is available to simplify this process and speed up production, it is restricted to large scale industries where the produce is of a larger quantity. Small scale farmers even now rely on manual and conventional methods to de-husk coconuts and its components. Due to these laborious and time consuming activities and lack of cheaper alternatives, the coconut industry is depleting in the agricultural field. This presentation provides an alternative and cheaper method to effectively de-husk the coconut, extract the inner shell, and grind out the soft internal kernel using the machine.
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A Dual Nanostructured Approach to SERS Amenable to Large-Scale Production

A Dual Nanostructured Approach to SERS Amenable to Large-Scale Production

A Wasatch Photonics 638 nm Raman spectrometer utilizing a backscattering geometry, a static grating, and a TEC cooled CCD detector is shown in Figure 2. This type of instrument is vastly lower in price than a typical Raman microscope and is extremely compact. The use of a static holographic transmission grating to produce a linear dispersion onto the CCD detector eliminates moving parts in addition to lowering the size requirement of the optical bench. This broadens the range of environments the instrument is able to handle by reducing its physical size, susceptibility to interference from vibrations, and improving portability. The design of this compact spectrometer was first developed at Old Dominion University Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and was first described in US Patent 6,373,567 by Wise, et al. 16
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Use of Nanostructures in Fabrication of Large Scale Electrochemical Film

Use of Nanostructures in Fabrication of Large Scale Electrochemical Film

Control of electrochemical parameters when preparing small-scale samples for academic research is not difficult. In mass production environments, however, maintenance of constant current density and temperature become a critical issue. This article describes the design of several molds for large work pieces. These molds were designed to maintain constant current density and to facilitate the occurrence of electrochemical reactions in designated areas. Large-area thin films with fine nanostructure were successfully prepared using the designed electrochemical molds and containers. In addition, current density and temperature could be controlled well. This electrochemical system has been verified in many experimental operations, including etching of Al surfaces; electro-polishing of Al, Ti and stainless steel; and fabrication of anodic alumina oxide (AAO), Ti-TiO2 interference membrane, TiO2 nanotubes, AAO-TiO 2 nanotubes, Ni nanowires and porous tungsten
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