Top PDF Late Bronze age metallurgy in the Italian Eastern Alps: copper smelting slags and mine exploitation

Late Bronze age metallurgy in the Italian Eastern Alps: copper smelting slags and mine exploitation

Late Bronze age metallurgy in the Italian Eastern Alps: copper smelting slags and mine exploitation

As Perini pointed out, the copious evidence of ancient Cu-metallurgy activity in Trentino during the Chalcolitic Period and Bronze Age are referred to two different Trentino areas. In the central area, at the valley floor smelting sites located in Valdadige and Alta Valsugana are distributed the most ancient metallurgical sites. These sites - such as Romagnano Loc, Vela Valbusa, Acquaviva di Besenello and Montesei di Serso - can be dated between the Chalcolitic Period and the initial stages of the Early Bronze Age. During the Recent and the Final Bronze Ages the most important smelting sites were found in Val dei Mocheni, Fiera di Primiero Area and in Valsugana, especially in the Lavarone/Vezzena Plateau area, where more than one hundred of smelting sites were identified. In these smelting sites, the extractive metallurgy of copper, based on the polymetallic Cu-Fe sulphides, achieved a peak of technological efficiency and mass production that is testified by the huge amount of slags found in the smelting sites. Since a smelting process from sulphides is always connected with production of the durable slags, they are often the only witnesses of the metallurgical processes (Bachmann, 1982). For this, the slag characterization constitute a relevant issue of archaeometallurgical researches. In fact, the analyses of the slags could provide substantial information about the process, such as their composition, the smelted charge materials, the reached temperatures, the viscosity of the slags and the red-ox condition. All of these parameters result in the identification of the global efficiency of smelting process as the grade of metal/slag separation, the velocity of the process and the use of different working-steps in metal production. Additionally, the analyses of the slags could be provide important information on geographic provenance of the charge component.
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Eneolithic copper smelting slags in the Eastern Alps: Local patterns of metallurgical exploitation in the Copper Age

Eneolithic copper smelting slags in the Eastern Alps: Local patterns of metallurgical exploitation in the Copper Age

The Italian Eastern Alps are a well-known source of copper metal that was exploited since prehistory, possibly since Late Neolithic times. Due to the large amount of archeological evidence, especially the widespread and abundant occurrence of copper smelting slags (e.g. Cierny et al., 2004; Cierny, 2008 ), the climax of the mining activities and copper production is currently attributed to the Recent and Final Bronze Age ( Marzatico, 1997; Weisgerber and Goldenberg, 2004 ), and subsequently to Roman and Middle Age times, when large groups of German miners moved to some of the Alpine valleys to organize and carry out the mining operations ( Sebesta, 2000; Zammatteo, 2009 ). However the copper metal was circulating well before the Bronze Age, as the archeological evi- dence clearly shows ( Pedrotti, 2002 : p. 213): metal objects were circulating at least from the late neolithic ( Angelini et al., 2013 ) and a number of Copper Age sites in the Trentino and Alto Adige areas yield evidence of smelting activities in the form of metallurgical slags, tuyeres, a multitude of copper objects including the Iceman's
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Archaeometallurgical studies on the slags of the Middle Bronze Age copper smelting site S1, Styria, Austria

Archaeometallurgical studies on the slags of the Middle Bronze Age copper smelting site S1, Styria, Austria

In accordance with all other smelting sites in the Eastern Alps, the Middle Bronze Age copper-works consist of two furnaces and one roasting hearth. In the north-west- ern part of the site three different construction phases for these have been revealed. The double furnaces 9/10 with roasting hearth 7 date back to the earliest phase of the smelting site. In the following phase these furnac- es were levelled and the double furnaces 4/5 with roast- ing hearth 4 were built to the north of these early fur- naces. The latest phase is represented by the double furnaces 1/2 with the roasting hearths 1, 2 and 3. The stratigraphy of the central and eastern part of the site is more complex. This is partly due to extensive distur- bances which resulted from the construction of a large pit for charcoal production at the end of the 13 th to the early 15 th century AD, the late mediaeval period (Klemm et al. 2005); the Bronze Age features in this central and eastern area of the site cover a period from the 15 th to the 12 th century BC.
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An Overview of Copper Smelting in Southern Africa

An Overview of Copper Smelting in Southern Africa

of 32% copper, and that cupola furnaces were in place. Production by the Cape Copper Company ceased in 1919 as a result of the post-war economic slump, and Okiep soon became a ghost town. The operations of the Namaqua Copper Company continued for slightly longer, but its mines finally closed in 1931. The O'okiep Copper Company Limited was later formed in 1937 and acquired the assets of both the Cape Copper Company and the Namaqua Copper Company. Fluctuating copper prices, coupled with a remote and hostile setting, have resulted in varying degrees of success and failure in the 150-year modern history of the Okiep district mines (Smith, 2006). In 1984, Newmont sold the Okiep Copper Company to Goldfields of South Africa. More recently, assets from the O’okiep Copper Company were acquired by Metorex in 1998. Reprocessing of the slag dump over a seven-year period by flotation methods started in 2002. Metorex managed the mine and smelter, sourced concentrate feed for the smelter, and marketed the resulting blister copper. O’okiep smelted its own concentrate, as well as concentrate from Maranda and Chibuluma. Concentrate was converted to blister copper at the smelter, and the product was exported, with the metal being refined in Europe. In order to maintain smelter efficiency, a further 50 000 t/a of other concentrate material was required. These concentrates were imported through Cape Town, smelted under toll agreements, and returned to commodity traders by the same route (Mining Weekly, 2004).
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How To Study The Italian Alps

How To Study The Italian Alps

The Julian Alps, in the southeastern most sector of the alpine chain, still preserve some very small glaciers and glacierets. The peculiar local climate characteristics, enhanced by topo-climatic and morphological effects, allow the existence of these glacial evidence at a very low altitude respect to the rest of the Alps. In the very last years the study of such very small glaciers and glacierets received a renewed interest, especially thank to the ongoing development of geophysical and geodetical techniques. The eastern and western branches of Canin glacier and the Prevala glacieret were surveyed for the first time with ground penetrating radar (GPR) between 2011 and 2014. In autumn 2013 a GPR survey was also performed on Zeleni Sneg glacieret (Triglav, Slovenia). Dedicated LiDAR surveys and geodetical campaigns allowed to obtain accurate DTMs, crucial for a correct estimation of thickness, areal extension and volume of the glacial bodies, and for the understanding of their recent evolution. Glaciological campaigns conducted between 2011 and 2014, all together allowed the calculation of the first mass balances for this alpine sector. The thickness of some of the very small glaciers of the southeastern Alps is close to 30 m. Generally they are characterized by repeated layers of ice, firn, snow and debris, often equally distributed. The additional analysis and acquisition of archive non-metrical images were used to reconstruct the area’s evolution of Canin and Triglav glaciers from 1893 and 1897 respectively. Following the period of intense glacial reduction between the half 1980s and the early 2000s, we observed a general stabilization, or even increase, both in area extension and volume in the last ten years. This is mainly due to an increase in the winter precipitation which counteracted the observed general warming trend of the summer months.
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Handmade Burnished Ware in Late Bronze Age Greece and its makers

Handmade Burnished Ware in Late Bronze Age Greece and its makers

The interpretation of the presence of this ware in the LH IIIB-IIIC contexts is still open to debate: as either reminiscent of the local tradition (Kilian) or as linked to the presence of Italian population (Belardelli 1999; Belardelli, Bettelli 1999; 2005; Jung 2006: 47-50). The presence of Grey ware in Greece is well attested until the LH I period (Pavuk 2007), but opinions diverge on whether it continues to be present in very small quantity until the LH IIIB –C periods or if it stops and then appears again in those later periods as a result of the presence of population from the Italian peninsula. Indeed, Grey ware forms part of the Italian corpus during the end of the 14 th century, having been introduced by Mycenaeans (Vagnetti 1999a: 71; 3.3.2.2).
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Hydrogeomorphic processes and torrent control works on a large alluvial fan in the eastern Italian Alps

Hydrogeomorphic processes and torrent control works on a large alluvial fan in the eastern Italian Alps

Abstract. Alluvial fans are often present at the outlet of small drainage basins in alpine valleys; their formation is due to sediment transport associated with flash floods and debris flows. Alluvial fans are preferred sites for human set- tlements and are frequently crossed by transport routes. In order to reduce the risk for economic activities located on or near the fan and prevent loss of lives due to floods and de- bris flows, torrent control works have been extensively car- ried out on many alpine alluvial fans. Hazard management on alluvial fans in alpine regions is dependent upon reliable procedures to evaluate variations in the frequency and sever- ity of hydrogeomorphic processes and the long-term perfor- mance of the torrent training works. An integrated approach to the analysis of hydrogeomorphic processes and their inter- actions with torrent control works has been applied to a large alluvial fan in the southern Carnic Alps (northeastern Italy). Study methods encompass field observations, interpretation of aerial photographs, analysis of historical documents, and numerical modelling of debris flows. The overall perfor- mance of control works implemented in the early decades of 20th century was satisfactory, and a reduction of hazardous events was recognised from features observed in the field and in aerial photographs, as well as from the analysis of histor- ical records. The 2-D simulation of debris flows confirms these findings, indicating that debris flow deposition would not affect urban areas or main roads, even in the case of a high-magnitude event. Present issues in the management of the studied alluvial fan are representative of situations fre- quently found in the European Alps and deal with the need for maintenance of the control structures and the pressures for land use changes aimed at the economic exploitation of the fan surface.
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A historical, geographical and archaeological survey of the Jordan Valley in the Late Bronze Age

A historical, geographical and archaeological survey of the Jordan Valley in the Late Bronze Age

This brief and perhaps overly simplified reasoning for including the Biblical accounts of Numbers through Judges and Ruth will certainly bring some argument from those who question the use of these Biblical accounts as history or placing the events recorded to such an early date. This author is aware of the critical works of Moore, Fritz (on Joshua) and Hertzberg (on Judges) that negate the use of these narratives as history. The works of these authors, as well as Fohrer, Eissfeldt and Gottwald, must be considered when debating the argument of using the Bible as history. 6 This thesis avoids this debate and simply begins with the assumption that the Hebrew Bible contains historical material relevant to the narrative’s intent and this researcher’s investigation. Section 1.9 (Limitations and assumptions of the study) explains the author’s awareness of the various positions critical of a historical maximalist approach to the Hebrew Bible and why alternative theories, as in the emergence of Israel (i.e. peasant revolt or peaceful/gradual infiltration) are not discussed in this paper. Returning to the reasoning of including the Joshua/Judges accounts into this study according to the ‘early school’ (Keil & Delitzsch 1970; Bimson 1981; Waltke 1990), a simple pragmatic answer, beyond comparing the two arguments, rests on the ‘late school’ compression of Judges placing the narrative clearly in the 12 century BC, in the Iron Age. Only the Joshua/Judges 1 and 2 conquest model(s) would fall at the Late Bronze Age/Iron Age transition. Therefore, if these Biblical narratives are to be examined at all in this study, an early conquest and Judges era must be assumed. Model chronologies of ‘early’ or ‘late’ conquest and the implications for which parts of the Biblical narratives to include in the Late Bronze Age, are covered in section 3.3.2, Figures 3.19 and 20.
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Experiments Concerning the Mold Materials Used in the Production of the Copper Ingots from the Late Bronze Age Shipwreck Excavated at Uluburun, Turkey

Experiments Concerning the Mold Materials Used in the Production of the Copper Ingots from the Late Bronze Age Shipwreck Excavated at Uluburun, Turkey

large amounts of sand and organic materials such as grass and charcoal (roughly 40% sand and 20% organics by volume). Stone Molds The only mold for casting oxhide-shaped ingot mold dated to the Late Bronze Age was discovered in the north palace at the site of Ras Ibn Hani, near Ugarit in Syria. The mold dates to the 15 th century BC (Lagarce et al. 1983: 279), more than a hundred years prior to the sinking of the shipwreck excavated at Uluburun. The mold is cut from a slab of limestone measuring 155 cm long, 80 cm wide, and 18 cm high. The center of the slab holds an 8 cm-deep carved cavity in the shape of an oxhide ingot. The cavity is irregularly worked (likely from tool marks used to create it), yet smooth to the touch. Lagarce et al. (1983: 277) claim the craftsmanship of the mold is fine and expertly done, similar to the cut-stone walls of the palace at Ras Ibn Hani. At one corner of the slab is a channel that leads from the edge of the slab to one of the corner projections of the carved ingot mold (Lagarce et al. 1983: 277). It is likely this channel was used either as a means of directing molten copper into the mold, or for providing a low leverage point to lever out solidified ingots. Finds near the mold pertaining to metallurgy include crucible fragments, tuyeres, a portion of an earthen oven, fragments of bone, and small droplets and pieces of copper (Lagarce et al. 1983: 277).
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Health and society in Southeast Asia: the transition from the late Bronze Age to Iron Age

Health and society in Southeast Asia: the transition from the late Bronze Age to Iron Age

of weapons found in archaeological contexts indicates that conflict was not common. However, this has been disputed (Higham, 2002). The argument that the Bronze Age was conflict free is debatable, as violence has been part of modern human makeup for thousands of years (Walker, 2001). Domett and Tayles (2006) did identify an increase of trauma, possibly from inter- personal violence, at Ban Lum Khao, but the majority of trauma in skeletons may have been the result of a change in activity from the Neolithic, such as increased farming and metallurgy. Archaeological data relating to Bronze Age sites is dominated by cultural material excavated from graves. Occupational deposits compose a minor element of the knowledge base. Burials are the most common source of information regarding the Bronze Age and, as such, are mainly used to characterise the Bronze Age. Items found in burials include animal remains, ornaments, stone tools, shell jewellery, bronze and stone ornaments, terracotta jewellery, ceramics and clay figurines (Higham, 1996). Changes can be seen between early, middle and late phases of the Bronze Age within grave offerings. At Ban Chiang, in the early phases copper-alloy metals are used to make a wide range of implements and ornaments (Stech-Wheeler and Maddin, 1976). Later phases see bronze reserved for the manufacture of ornaments, many which are elaborate (White, 1982). Differences can also be seen between archaeological sites. Ban Lum Khao is contrary to many other sites as bronze ornaments were not used as grave offerings (Chang, 2004).
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Pottery firing technology in the Late Bronze Age & Early Iron Age in NW Romania

Pottery firing technology in the Late Bronze Age & Early Iron Age in NW Romania

Among the cultural layers excavated at Vlaha “Pad” site (Cluj County, NW Romania) there were settlements dated to the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age. Pottery and other materials were recovered from a large variety of features (e.g., dwellings and pit) in these levels. It should be noted that the populations of the two phases from which the pottery came were capable of producing high temperature fires, in particular for processing metal ores, such as copper and iron, respectively.

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A late bronze age/early iron age urnfield at Goirle, prov. Noord-Brabant

A late bronze age/early iron age urnfield at Goirle, prov. Noord-Brabant

Besides the long ditches to be described below, in the western part of the excavation a tumulus. nearly one meter high, was investigated. It was surrounded by a single, widely spaced post-circle with another circle of close-set stakes, outside of which two ringditches had been dug. In the centre there had been a rectangular gravepit containing cremated bones. These features all belonged to one period, according to Remou- champs, and could be dated in the Late Neo- lithic period or slightly later. W. Glasbergen correctly distinguished three periods; the first

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Shifting Relations in Bronze Age Gaza: An Investigation into Egyptianizing Practices and Cultural Hybridity in the Southern Levant During the Late Bronze Age

Shifting Relations in Bronze Age Gaza: An Investigation into Egyptianizing Practices and Cultural Hybridity in the Southern Levant During the Late Bronze Age

with beer production and consumption that are typically found at sites with strong Egyptian connects, such as nearby ‘Ajjul, Beth Shan, Megiddo and Jaffa. 76 Clearly the material world of the southern Levant (the Gaza region) was transformed through contact with Egypt at various levels. The pottery assemblage illustrates the integration of Egyptian-style materials in quotidian traditions associated with household activities and the consumption of food and drink. More unusual were the bronze lotus jug and platter from Tomb 114 (Fig. 4) and wine set, comprising a bowl strainer and jar, 77 from Tomb 118, which both belong to an Egyptian cultural register. Indeed, Stockhammer has suggested that in the Levant wine was largely restricted to the elite and more usually people consumed beer from large jars drinking through straws, 78 from which we might deduce that the presence of the Egyptian drinking
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Reconstructing the Arsenical Copper Production Process in Early Bronze Age Southwest Asia

Reconstructing the Arsenical Copper Production Process in Early Bronze Age Southwest Asia

copper with arsenic sulphide minerals such as realgar (AsS) and orpiment (As 2 S 3 ) (Özbal et al. 1999; Özbal et al. 2008). However, these publications do not report the time necessary for the procedure or the mass balance of copper sulphide formation. Although it is certainly worth mentioning as a possible production process, the affinity of copper for sulphur, as discussed in the next section, means that the formation of matte is likely to be problematic under reducing conditions while unacceptable arsenic volatilization would be certain in an oxidizing atmosphere. Other experiments by the same author (Özbal et al. 2002) have also shown that it is possible to add significant amounts of arsenic to copper through the direct addition of arsenopyrite. By adding 1.5g of this mineral to 10g of molten copper, he produced an alloy containing 6-13 wt% arsenic. However, he does note that the final products also contained approximately 3-5 wt% iron and 1.5 wt% sulphur. This high iron content would have made the product nearly impossible to cold or hot work (Craddock and Meeks 1987). In fact, this elevated content is the direct result of the presence of sulphur, such that in a system at 1200°C, iron solubility in copper rises from approximately 3% in pure copper to more than 20% when just 2% sulphur is present (Craddock and Meeks 1987; Rosenqvist 1983). It is possible that the presence of sulphur and iron together also makes them more difficult to remove without also removing most of the arsenic, and this will be discussed further in the next section on speiss, but demonstrating this would require further experimentation. The absence of sulphur in iron arsenides (leucopyrite, or löllingite) could easily skirt the issue of increased iron solubility, and these minerals may therefore be more suitable for such an alloying process. However, their scarcity means that if they were ever used in such a fashion it was probably on a localized and small scale. The use of synthetic forms of these minerals, speiss, will be further discussed in the next section.
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Kinetics of Copper Reduction from Molten Slags

Kinetics of Copper Reduction from Molten Slags

2CuFeS 2 (chalcopyrite) + 5/2O 2 + SiO 2 (flux) = Cu 2 S·FeS (matte) + 2FeO·SiO 2 (slag) + 2SO 2 (g) + heat When the suspension leaves the reaction shaft, the reacted molten concentrate particles and inert flux particles are separated from the gas stream and hit toward the settler, forming molten slag and matte. In the molten bath, matte and slag will be separated in the settler of the furnace as respective layers due to their difference in density. The matte is sent for further treatment to converter to obtain blister copper. The slag is sent for valuable metals recovery to electric furnace or disposal. Slag cleaning electric furnace integrated in the Outokumpu Flash Smelting Furnace (FSF) plant is schematically illustrated in appendix A and a typical schematic process flow sheet involving the slag cleaning is shown in Figure 2.
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Distribution of bismuth between copper and FCS slags

Distribution of bismuth between copper and FCS slags

ii) Noranda process The Noranda Process employs a single rotating cylindrical furnace with many submerged tuyeres through which air or oxygen-enriched air is introduced into the matte layer. It approximates to a well-mixed reactor due to the resulting intense turbulence. This process is energy efficient and able to smelt a broad range of copper-bearing materials such as sulphide concentrates, scrap, and recycled substances. Essentially, as pointed out by Moskalyk and Alfantazi (2003), it can smelt a wide range of recycled materials, complex concentrates and secondary feed such as industrial waste, electronic scrap, and metal-bearing residues. Concentrates and flux are directly injected into the highly turbulent bath above the tuyeres, resulting in very efficient heat and mass transfer. It is speculated by Kellogg (1974) to be the design feature responsible for the high specific capacity, hence low fuel consumption and low capital investment per unit of capacity. Other advantages of the Noranda process include its ability to keep magnetite suspended in low-silica slag and the ability of collecting an off-gas of high SO 2 concentration despite the variations in feed composition and supply. As such, the
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Recirculation of Chilean Copper Smelting Dust with High Arsenic Content to the Smelting Process

Recirculation of Chilean Copper Smelting Dust with High Arsenic Content to the Smelting Process

Dust generation behavior of two types of experiments was compared. The generated dust for both experiments showed the same tendency up to about 10% of recirculation, and when the dust recirculation ratio increases more than 10%, the dust generation of second type of experiments increased. On the other hand, generation of dust was almost unchanged on such conditions for the first type of experiments. These results suggest that bath-smelting processes such as the Teniente converter or the Noranda reactor are especially favorable for a process with a recirculation of high impurity content dust. A process with injection of charge from the top,
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Following the Life Cycle of Base Ring Female Figurines in Late Bronze Age Cyprus

Following the Life Cycle of Base Ring Female Figurines in Late Bronze Age Cyprus

The LC IIC–IIIA transition has been seen as marking a major turning point in the history of the island, traditionally attributed to the arrival of Aegean newcomers who fled from the Mycenaean mainland due to disturbances at the end of the LH IIIB. In general, the end of the 13th century is characterised by the ‘collapse’ of the major civilisations of the Eastern Mediterranean. Site abandonments occurred in Cyprus at the end of the 13th century as well; the excavation record, however, does not provide evidence for a deliberate destruction of these settlements prior to their abandonment (Georgiou 2011, 109-112, 116-117; Iacovou 2013, 589; Steel 2013, 586), nor a destruction due to natural catastrophes or to violent actions of enemies, as it was the case in Mycenae or Ugarit (Iacovou 2013, 592). Moreover, they did not lead to a sudden and total replacement of LC IIC material culture, as seen through the continuity in ceramics and other aspects of the archaeological record. The archaeological record seems rather to display a blending of local, Levantine and Aegean features; this is used as an argument contradicting previous suggestions of an incursion of a dominant population from the Mycenaean mainland which led to a Greek colonisation of the island (Webb 1999, 6; Iacovou 2008, 230; Satraki 2012, 84-88, 153-154).
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Cattle and martiality. Changing relations between man and landscape in the Late Neolithic and the Bronze Age

Cattle and martiality. Changing relations between man and landscape in the Late Neolithic and the Bronze Age

Now we try to formulate social models of Stone and Bron/c Age societies - mod- els that integrate- the data from graycs and hoards with tin- data from settlements, models that try to cre[r]

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Towards reconstruction of the lost Late Bronze Age intra-caldera island of Santorini, Greece

Towards reconstruction of the lost Late Bronze Age intra-caldera island of Santorini, Greece

On the other hand, the presence of abundant lithics, especially clasts of a chemically distinctive black glassy andesite, in the pyroclastic deposits of the Minoan eruption (see below) suggested that the central part of the caldera bay was occupied by an intracaldera island 10 , 14 – 16 . We use the term ‘Pre-Kameni’ 14 , 17 for this pre-Minoan edifice, which may have been similar to the present-day, post-Minoan islands of Palaea and Nea Kameni, but completely destroyed during the Minoan eruption. The size and age of such a Pre-Kameni island have remained uncertain, although broad estimates of 3 to 5 km 3 were proposed 3 , 15 based on the poorly constrained total lithic
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