Hogan and colleagues have argued that a variety of personality factors serve as important moderators in the leaderdevelopment process ( Hogan & Warrenfeltz, 2003; Hogan et al., 2010 ): First, that individuals must be high on self-control in order to pay attention for prolonged periods and be good students in general. Second, that self-con ﬁdence has a non-linear relationship with leaderdevelopment feedback such that individuals who are either too high or too low on self-con ﬁdence will be less inclined to bene ﬁt from the feedback process. In general, self-conﬁdence is beneﬁcial in that it allows individuals to bounce back from negative feedback or criticism and to be self-assured of their ability to overcome such obstacles. However, highly overcon ﬁdent individuals are less likely to accept negative feedback and may be dismissive of it. Individuals with low self-con ﬁdence are overly defensive and may lack the psychological resources needed to respond and adapt to perceived setbacks. According to Hogan ( Hogan & Warrenfeltz, 2003 ), a third individual difference that impacts responses to performance feedback is the psychological mindedness of the individuals receiving the feedback. Psychological-mindedness is the degree to which these individuals consider or think about the motives and feelings of themselves and others. Perceptive individuals will modify their patterns of behavior in order to best suit those around them while inattentive individuals typically behave in a very transactional manner with little concern for the feelings of those around them. Hogan argues that individuals with high psychological-mindedness will be more responsive to feedback because they are intrinsically motivated to be both self-aware and aware of how others perceive them. Finally, it has been argued that rationality, or the capacity for scienti ﬁc thinking, is needed in order to respond well to feedback. Individuals who are dismissive of feedback tools or external data and who prefer to use their own intuition will resist having their opinions changed by others.
There are several potential directions for future research. Firstly, the study employing three separate Dark Triad measures is needed. As psychopathy and narcissism are described as complex, multidimensional, heterogeneous constructs (Maples, et al., 2014), using well-established, full-length question- naires would allow carrying out more detailed, facet-level analysis. It may be also useful to include in the research plan grandiose and vulnerable narcissism (Cain, Pincus, & Ansell, 2008) or other ‘dark’ personalities, including everyday sadism, which (along with Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy) constitutes the “Dark Tetrad” of personality (Buckels, Jones, & Paulhus, 2013). These personality traits may be associated with different aspects of selÞ e- related behaviours and self-disclosure online. Given the preliminary nature of the current study, our results should be replicated when using alterna- tive operationalizations of self-disclosure online. Moreover, additional infor- mation would provide the analysis based on the sample consisting of people from different age groups, not only adolescents and young adults. It is also worth noting that the recent study of Döring et al. (2016) demonstrated the existence of gender stereotyping in selÞ es. Therefore, including in the research plan psychological gender differences among those who share selÞ es online could bring interesting results.
Another “dark” personality trait that possible inhibits innovation processes in the corporate world is the Diligent characteristic. As with the Sceptical quality, people with the Diligent trait seem to be at the periphery of innovation network. They were less likely to become central players or information gatekeepers when it came to discussing innovative ideas. In addition, highly scoring Diligent peo- ple were less likely to seek others’ help when it came to discussing novel opin- ions. It is possible that their perfectionist nature and desire to control everything that happens inhibit new ideas coming towards them. People scoring high on this trait are known for their rigidity towards rules and regulations, all of which might hinder their lateral thinking and imaginative approach to problem solv- ing. This finding is consistent the evidence of increased psychological flexibility being associated with labour market growth, productivity, and ability to adapt to fierce and competitive markets (Nicoletti & Scarpetta, 2003; Malhotra, Grover, & Desilvo, 1996). It also supports the previous findings of highly dependent indi- viduals being unable to poses structural hole positions in networks (Burt et al., 1999) and perfectionism correlating negatively with innovation potential (Zi- barras, Port, & Woods, 2008).
The connections between the humor styles and personality traits have been examined in previous studies. The affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles have generally been found to be positively associated with the basic personality traits of extraversion, agreeableness, and openness, whereas the aggressive and self-defeating humor styles have often been shown to be negatively correlated with agreeableness and conscientiousness but positively correlated with neuroticism (e.g., Galloway, 2010; Greengross & Miller, 2008; Martin et al., 2003; Saroglou & Scariot, 2002; Vernon, Martin, Schermer, Cherkas, & Spector, 2008; Vernon, Martin, Schermer, & Mackie, 2008; see Mendiburo-Seguel, Páez, & Martínez-Sánchez, 2015, for a review). Further, the humor styles have also been found to be linked with darker aspects of personality. For example, the aggressive and self-defeating humor styles have been linked with psychopathy and Machiavellianism (Martin, Lastuk, Jeffery, Vernon, & Veselka, 2012; Veselka, Schermer, Martin, & Vernon, 2010) as well as borderline personality features (Schermer et al., 2015). However, it is important to note that not all darkpersonality features are associated with aggressive and self-de- feating humor styles because narcissism has been shown to be positively correlated with the use of affiliative humor but it is not associated with aggressive or self-defeating humor (Martin et al., 2012; Veselka et al., 2010). The goal for the present study was to extend what is known about the connections between humor styles and the darker aspects of personality by examining the broad array of pathological personality traits that were described in Section III (“Emerging Measures and Models” in need of further study) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This alternative model of personality pathology focuses on maladaptive variants of the Big Five personality
After the development of bright and dark measures of job crafting (see Figure 1b), we propose to examine their relationships with other dimensions of performance and common predictors of crafting. As seen in Figure 2, needs and personality are depicted as being related to OCBs (behaviors that are considered discretionary, and facilitate the goals and values of the organization and may or may not be recognized and rewarded by the organization; Dalal, 2005; Organ, 1997), CWBs, and the revised approach to job crafting. For this study, individual needs will include relatedness (the desire to feel connected and close to others) and competence (the desire to feel that one can engage in activities and have a positive impact on the environment around them; Gagne & Deci, 2005). Personality will include conscientiousness (exhibited through being dependable, careful, responsible, achievement-oriented, and persevering; Barrick & Mount, 1991) and the Dark Triad, Machiavellianism (manipulativeness, a lack of morality, and general suspicion of others’ intentions), psychopathy (lack of remorse, callousness,
The present research investigated the relationship between innovative characteristics, assessed by the IPI, and dysfunctional traits, assessed by the HDS, within an occupational sample. In previous studies, negative personality traits have been inadequately defined and assessed. The constructs of the Eysenck Model are broad, with the trade-off that assessing these reduces fidelity in understanding the personality-innovation relationship. Therefore this research uses the Hogan Development Survey (HDS) designed to assess eleven common dysfunctional dispositions of employed adults (Hogan & Hogan, 1997). These qualities are referred to as ‘darkside’ characteristics, and are extensions of normal personality but not pathological per se (Hogan, 1994). The dimensions of the HDS have their roots in the personality disorder taxonomies (see Hogan & Hogan, 1997). However, the HDS is used in every day contexts within careers; reflecting themes from the work environment (Hogan & Hogan, 2002).
associations of darkpersonality traits (i.e., Machiavellian- ism, psychopathy, narcissism, sadism, and spitefulness)
with PIU through speci ﬁc online activities (i.e., social
media, online gaming, online gambling, online shopping, and online sex). Previous studies have mostly focused on the relationships of three darkpersonality traits (i.e., Machia- vellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) across different online behaviors. However, no study has ever considered ﬁve different traits (i.e., the Dark Triad in addition to sadism and spitefulness) with uses of different online activities and PIU simultaneously. It was expected that there would be a mediating effect from online activities between personality constructs and PIU. Based on the theoretical assumptions of I-PACE model (which asserts that interrelated core factors
The present study is a cross-sectional correlational study. To answer the main question of the present study, the participants of the study completed two questionnaires. First, they completed the Dirty Dozen for Youths (DD-Y), this is a questionnaire to measure the Dark Triad personality traits. The Dirty Dozen that was used in this study has proven to be reliable and valid in previous research 8 . The DD-Y is derived from the adult version which
This study examined the relationship between the “bright” and “dark” side of work personality, as well as their relationship to cognitive ability. In all 374 working adults completed three tests at work: Hogan Development Survey (HDS) (Hogan & Hogan, 2009); Saville Consulting Wave Professional Styles (Saville Consulting, 2005); Ra- ven’s Progressive Matrices (Raven, Raven, & Court, 1998). The four behavioural clusters (Thought, Influence, Adaptability, Delivery) of the “bright side” test were independent of one another. Three of the four correlations between intelligence and personality were significant. Regressions showed that gender, intelligence, and the “darkside” factors measured at facet and higher order levels accounted for between 7% and 37% of the variance. The thought cluster was best predicted by intelligence and high scores on Leisurely, Bold and Imaginative. The influence cluster was best predicted by intelligence (negatively), skeptical, reserved (negative) and colourful. The adaptability cluster was most related to diligence (negatively). Finally, delivery was predicted by intelligence (negatively), excitability (negatively), skeptical and diligence. Limitations and implications are considered.
Past research has exclusively examined direct bivariate relationships between DT traits and workplace outcomes limiting our understanding of the true nature of the association between darkpersonality and performance. For example, in their meta-analysis based on self-assessments of DT traits and their impact on task performance, O’Boyle and colleagues found multiple significant relationships (O’Boyle, Forsyth, Banks & McDaniel, 2012).They found that task performance significantly relates to both psychopathy (ρ = -.10) and Machiavellianism (ρ = -.07), but not narcissism (ρ = -.03 n.s.). Their research demonstrates significant correlations between DT traits and task performance when studied in the aggregate; however, the aggregated data may be masking important explanations for the impact of these traits as the primary studies included in their analysis vary greatly. For example, Gable and Deangello (1994) show a correlation of .29 between Machiavellianism and performance; yet Duffy, Shiflett and Downey (1977) reported a correlation of -.13. Judge, LePine and Rich (2006) found a correlation of .05 between narcissism and performance, but Johnson et al. (2010) showed a correlation of -.66 between the two. Bartol (1991) reported a correlation of -.16 between psychopathy and performance whereas McDonald et al. (1994) found a correlation of .03. These findings could be explained in part by sampling error, but other factors may be a driver of the differences in correlations between studies which explains the range of results found between the traits and task performance. Other research has tried to link DT traits and citizenship behaviors with conflicting results (e.g., Becker & O’Hair, 2007; Judge et al., 2006). Therefore, the current evidence suggests that people who are
In the present study we found only limited evidence that the Dark Triad personality traits are associated with various dimensions of general self-disclo- sure online. Our results indicate that people high in narcissism and Machiavel- lianism disclose more personal information online and their self-disclosures are more intentional. This pattern of associations might re ß ect “cheater strat- egies” employed by them to successfully attract and exploit others through online social interactions. Speci Þ cally, highly Machiavellian and narcissistic individuals may be more likely than less Machiavellian and narcissistic Inter- net users to employ SNSs to identify, attract and deceive potential short-term mates (Fox, Rooney, 2015). More intense self-disclosure online may also bene Þ t some Machiavellian women by helping them to control online social audiences (Brewer, Abell, & Lyons, 2014). Similarly, according to Ilan Aviram and Yair Amichai-Hamburger (2005), narcissists may use their self-disclosures online as a way to manipulate their interpersonal interactions to boost subjective omnip- otence. In addition, it is possible that presenting higher amount of intentional self-disclosures online re ß ects to some extent the narcissistic self-regulatory strategies, such as using by them social networking sites to maintain their in ß ated, positive self-views (Mehdizadeh, 2010; Ong, et al., 2011).
Axis II approaches to darkpersonality
More recently, interest has begun to coalesce around subclinical versions of the DSM-IV Axis II PDs (American Psychological Association, 1994), often measured with the Hogan Development Survey (HDS; Hogan & Hogan, 2001). The HDS assesses 11 subclinical traits, which may be expected to lead to poten- tial short-term advantages, but could be associated with problems over the long term (Hogan, 2007; Hogan & Hogan, 2009; Hogan & Kaiser, 2005). These traits, and their clinical counterparts, are further detailed in Table 1, which also provides our estimation of where the Dark Triad should be located, with Machiavel- lianism aligned with Paranoid, the best place we can determine for it on the basis of its association with cynicism and distrust. The HDS uses euphemistic naming in place of the rather more negatively termed DSM-IV Axis II disorders. Consider Skeptical, which roughly corresponds to Paranoid PD. Individuals scoring high on Skeptical are described as having chips on their shoulders and are cynical, distrustful, easy to anger, and suspicious of others’ motives. Individuals low on Skeptical are perfectly capable of trusting others. In other words, high-Skeptical individuals display behavior patterns that are similar to Paranoids but not at levels so debilitating to necessitate clinical intervention (for a more detailed descrip- tion of the clinical vs. subclinical distinction, the reader is directed to LeBreton, Binning & Adorno, 2006; Wu & LeBreton, 2011).
Outra limitação do nosso estudo foi a falta de inclusão da dimensão psicopatia na variável dark triad, pois é uma variável com efeitos impactantes em diversas variáveis nas Organizações e também por fazer parte integrante do estudo do constructo dark triad. No entanto, optamos por esta opção, pois já existe literatura que comprova a forte relação negativa entre a psicopatia e os CCO (Szabó et al.,2018), não sendo isso o nosso objetivo de estudo e também por considerarmos que a população alvo não está preparada para a agressividade dos itens desta dimensão, fator de enviesamento, o que não faz de momento sentido para um estudo piloto desta variável em Portugal (e.g. “Eu gosto de me vingar das autoridades”)
Table 2: Logit regressions investigating the effect of personality on investor decisions to trust (T) in the presence compared to the absence of the option to punish. The dependent variable in all columns is the investor’s decision to trust. PT is a dummy variable reflective of the option to punish. To assess the influence of personality on trust, all five factors were included in the model, including emotional reactivity (EMO), anti-sociality (ANTI), sensation seeking (SS), trait anger (ANG), and impulsivity (IMP). Differential effects of personality in the presence compared to the absence of punishment were modeled by interacting all personality factors with the dummy variable reflective of the presence of punishment (factor x PT). Constant, treatment-order dummies, round-one dummy, session size, sex, city, Swiss, age, MDBF and PSS are not reported in the table. Results from model 3 are reported in the main paper. Marginal interaction effects were derived by calculating the discrete differences with respect to the dummy variable PT of the single derivatives with respect to the continuous factor variables (Norton, Wang & Ai, 2004). All covariates were fixed at their means. Significance levels: *** = 1%, ** = 5% and * = 10%.
DarkSide Traits. Hogan Development Survey (HDS; Hogan & Hogan, 1997) is a measure of the personality disorders expressed in non-clinical language. The survey includes 154 items, scored for 11 scales, each grouping 14 items. Respondents are requested to “agree” or “disagree” with the items. The HDS has been cross-validated with the MMPI personality disorder scales. It has considerable evidence of satisfactory reliability and validity (Fico, Hogan, & Hogan, 2000; Hogan & Hogan, 1999, 2001). Furnham & Crump (2005) show the overlap of the HDS and DSM-IV disorder terminology. The HDS assesses dysfunctional interpersonal themes. It is argued that these dysfunctional dispositions reflect distorted beliefs about others that emerge when people encounter stress or stop considering how their actions affect others. Over time, these dispositions may become associated with a person’s reputation and can impede job performance and career success. The HDS assesses self-defeating ex- pressions of normal personality.
This study is concerned with which, and how much, the PDs are related to self- and other-rated EI. One way of deriving hypotheses is to examine the literature on the relationship between EI and the Big Five Personality Traits and the relationship between the Big Five and the PDs. Many studies have examined Big Five correlations of EI scores at both total and facet level and have tended to show that all five factors are related to EI but par- ticularly Emotional Stability, Extraversion and Conscientiousness (Vernon, Villani, Schermer, & Petrides, 2008). Studies have also looked at big five correlates of the PDs. Furnham & Crump (2005) showed Neuroticism most strongly correlated with Borderline (Excitable) and Avoidant (Cautious) PD; Extraversion with Avoidant and Schizoid (Reserved) and Conscientiousness with Dependent (Dutiful). No direct hypotheses were derived as this study was exploratory however it was assumed based on the above literature that the relationship between the PDs and the EI subscales would be significantly negative, particularly with respect to Avoidant, Borderline and Schizoid PD.
This speculative work was updated in an important review by Samuel and Widiger (2008) who combined the data from 16 studies with a total N of 3207. Most of the participants were students (12 groups) and some outpatients. Fur- ther, they had completed very different personality disorder instruments, yet nearly always the same personality instrument (NEO-PI-R) was used (as in this study). They analysed their results at both the domain and facet level and com- pared their results to an earlier and similar study by Saulsman and Page (2004). They showed that OCPD was correlated positively with Neuroticism (r = 0.18) and Conscientiousness (r = 0.24). What was most interesting about the facet lev- el analysis was that OCPD was correlated with all six Conscientiousness facets (r between 0.19 and 0.25). Four other correlations were r > 0.10 and they were N1. Anxiousness (0.16), N2. Angry Hostility (0.10), N3. Self-Consciousness (0.13) and E5. Excitement seeking (−0.12). More recently Bastiaansen, Rossi, Schotte and De Fruyt (2011) also did a review and suggest there are five facets that are (very) highly positively associated with OCPD: E3, C1, C2, C3 and C4 and two that is highly negatively associated with OCPD: O6 and A4. Bastiaansen, Rossi and De Fruyt (2012) reviewed five papers that suggested overlap between the PDS and C facets. Some suggested that facets of C would be related positively to Narcissistic PD but negatively with Borderline, Anti-Social and Dependent, but very clearly associated with OCPD.
Harris, Reiter-Palmon, and Kaufman (2012) found that people with lower emotional intelligence were more likely to have malevolently creative ideas . In addition, creativity has been associated with the broad perso- nality factor of disagreeableness and the related facets of hostility and arrogance. Creativity in the arts has also been associated with being low in conscientiousness, a factor that is associated with the tendency to be irres- ponsible, prone to take risk, and acting impulsively (Wolfradt & Pretz, 2001) . But in the realm of creative behavior, there is a necessity for a certain level of sensible risk-taking and impulsivity . It is important to realize that some concepts, such as impulsivity or low conscientiousness, illustrate ways that someone primed to be creative may also be more at risk for demonstrating malevolent creativity since some of the same personality traits overlap with those associated with low integrity.
entitlement, defined as the feeling that one deserves to do well in school with minimal effort, is related to the Dark Triad and predicts maladaptive causal attributions (Turnipseed & Cohen, 2015). This type of entitlement can lead students to believe they can argue and demand higher grades, externalize the responsibility of their grades outside of personal effort, and to have inflexible expectations about their grades and the professor’s marking (Chowning & Campbell, 2009). Academic entitlement can also lead to aggression in response to negative feedback about school work, where students engage in major confrontations in attempts to negotiate higher grades by threats and demands (Twenge & Campbell, 2009). Secondly, entitlement can produce negative consequences in the workplace. Workers who reported higher levels of entitlement also reported higher levels of turnover threat and higher levels of conflict with their supervisor (Harvey & Martinko, 2009). In general, the level of conflict and hostility is higher in those who are higher in levels of entitlement (Moller, Crocker, & Bushman, 2008). Lastly, looking at romantic relationships, entitlement can have similar aggressive, adverse effects on intimate individuals. A study conducted on college males found that those who were high in self-reported sexual aggression scores were significantly higher in entitlement as measured by the entitlement subscale of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Hall, 1988), the General Entitlement measure (NPI plus author-created items), and Sexual Entitlement (Hurlbert, Apt, Gasar, Wilson, & Murphy, 1994). Other implications can be noted in the relationship between sexual aggression and entitlement: entitlement has been shown to be positively correlated with rape myths, adversarial heterosexual beliefs, exposure to pornography, and number of sexual partners, and in contrast, negatively correlated with egalitarian sex roles (Bouffard, 2010 ) . Theoretically, since jealousy can be found in romantic as well as non-romantic domains, such as in academic settings and the workplace, it is important to study entitlement as a possible
If we would examine narcissist leaders from their positive aspects, “being open to innovations” can be helpful to cause the organization to gain new products and services. This situation could get organizations one step further than their rivals because nowadays the businesses’ survival depends on this. Furthermore, “Being charismatic and gaining supporters quickly” causes them to get more fanatic followers. In this case, subordinates work even harder and it gets easier for the organization and the narcissist leader to achieve their goals. In the business world, it is important for organizations that time is used efficiently. In this sense, the narcissist leader who gets all the power in his hand causes the bureaucratic processes to diminish and the decision-making processes to speed up and this causes the organizations to save a lot of time. Lastly, him “being ambitious” can cause the organization that he is part of to improve faster. In addition, the fact that this study is a literature review forms the constraints of this study. Furthermore, there is no scale to directly measure narcissist leadership. Some researchers are studying narcissist leadership as a subcategory of destructive leadership, others are conducting narcissist personality inventory in order to decide whether they are narcissist. The improvement of the narcissist leadership scale will help in filling this gap in the literature.