qualification that are no longer prohibited to women, but which are currently held by less than 68 of the total 12,700 female Air Force officers (USAF Personnel Center, 2013). While the officers insisted that leader gender did not matter, the officer candidates’ implicitleadershiptheories, which were designed to tap into the underlying assumptions level, significantly distinguished between male and female leaders. Male and female Air Force ROTC cadets rated male leaders significantly higher than female leaders, although the leader profiles were identical in every other respect. Female Army ROTC cadets also rated male leaders significantly higher than female leaders; however, male Army ROTC cadets rated female leaders significantly higher than male leaders. The reason for this distinction is indeterminable in the current study. One possibility is that, given that the unit had no female instructors, none of the male cadets in this sample may have ever encountered a female Army officer. This may have led to other stereotypes coming into play, such as the belief that a woman must be highly competent in order to have been successful (as depicted in the profiles) in a male-dominated career field. Future research is required to follow-up on this finding. Despite this contrary result from male Army cadets, the aggregate data still show a strong bias in favor of male leaders in the cadets’ leadershipschemas.
particular importance to the present study. First, the influence of actual ratee performance in subordinate ratings (both general and specific) was low (14% of the total variance explained) when compared to the effect seen in manager ratings (62%). This suggests that actual ratee performance is weighted more heavily within manager ratings, and has less of an impact on subordinate ratings. Second, this effect was nearly equivalent to the effect of perspective on the part of subordinates, with 17% of the total variance accounted for, the highest effect of organizational perspective among all the rater sources examined. This means that the rater’s relationship to the ratee seems to make little difference in how they are rated, except in the case of subordinates. Third, idiosyncratic rater effects accounted for 62%, over half of the observed variance; implying that the primary reason why ratings differ among raters has to do with their individual tendencies. These results together suggest that, when subordinates are rating their leader, the actual performance of the leader has relatively little impact on their ratings and that the majority of the rating variance can be explained by factors unique to individual raters. These unique factors may in fact have their roots in the raters’ implicitleadershiptheories, and the present study examined whether the difference between what a leader should be versus how a leader is had any relationship to how they are rated.
More modern approaches to leadership research emphasize emotions and values (Yukl, 1999) as opposed to the previous ones which assume some rational decision-making (Fiedler & Macaulay, 1998; House, 1996; House & Aditya, 1997; House & Howell, 1992; Schriesheim, Castro, & Cogliser, 1998). The most published leadershiptheories over the last several decades cover charismatic leadership and transformational leadership (Dinh, et al., 2014; Lowe & Gardner, 2000). Charismatic leadership theory posits that leaders use their charisma to transform the needs, preferences, desires, values, and aspirations of their followers from self-interests to the group’s collective interests (House & Howell, 1992). Meta-analytic studies have shown that charismatic leadership does predict outcomes such as task performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, perceived leader effectiveness, and group performance (Banks, et al., 2017; Fuller, Patterson, Hester, & Stringer, 1996). Transformational leadership theory subsumes aspects of charismatic leadership, and builds upon it to suggest that leaders could influence their followers to exceptional performance through a sense of mission and new ways of thinking and learning to exceptional
These results provide strong support for Calder's (1977) attributional model for leadership and its emphasis on the use of social context to add meaning to the interpretation of leadership actions. The student raters in this study clearly perceived needs for different types of leadership given the goals of their activity group. Type of extra- curricular activity has a major influence on students’ expectations for adult leaders and these differences in expectations appear in the areas of accepting responsibility and acting confident, motivating the group and keeping them focused, and structuring group procedures and activities. Those involved in music performance and those in athletics teams expect more from their adult leaders in each of these three areas than do those involved in student government or in journalism groups. These results support the conclusion that basic level ILTs held by secondary school students reflect the values or goals of the group they identify with and participate in (c.f., Lord, Foti, & De Vader, 1984).
In facing the complexity of the world, human beings create heuristics to efficiently make sense of the environment and tend to fill in gaps of information when gaps arise. Schemas or categories represent heuristics that are in an automatic or unconscious form (Landy, 2008; Rosch, 1978). They have a pervasive effect on how individuals perceive and react to the world (Moskowitz, 2005). In the leadershipcontext, people use their leadershipschemas in perceiving and making attributions about leaders (e.g., Epitropaki & Martin, 2004; Lord et al., 1984). Leadershipschemas, referred to as ILTs, are knowledge structures held by perceivers that contain social categories used in classifying individuals into leader or non-leader categories (Eden & Leviatan, 1975). These knowledge structures are mental representations of a leader that have been primarily characterized as personality traits (Offermann, Kennedy, & Wirtz, 1994), consistent with trait research in leadership but from the follower perspective (Shondrick, Dinh, & Lord, 2010). Behavior-based ILTs have also been studied (e.g., Lord et al., 1984). These implicittheories about leadership are stored in perceivers’ memory and accessed automatically when leadership-related judgments are needed (Lord et al., 1984).
Performance is the result of quality and quantity of work achieved by a person in performing the tasks assigned to him in accordance with the standards or criteria established. Performance shows the success rate of employees in carrying out their duties and responsibilities. The higher performance of the employee, then the overall organizational productivity will increase. Prawirosentono (2008) states that performance is the result of work that can be achieved by a person or group of people within an organization in accordance with the authority and responsibilities of each in order to attempt to achieve organizational goals legally and not violate the law and in accordance with moral and ethical. Zainur (2010) defines, "Performance is the whole process of individual working which results can be used as basis for determining whether an individual's work is good or otherwise".
The Big Five model is not new in the area of organizational change and has been empirically tested by Vakola et al. (2004), who conducted research on the correlations between acceptance of change and extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness and agreeableness, which all turned out to be positive. However, he found a negative relationship between acceptance of change and neuroticism (Smollan et al., 2010). However, this does not mean that acceptance of change is only dependant on the personality traits of the employees involved. On the contrary, personality traits of an employee can give direction towards acceptance or rejection of change, but are not all determining. For example, as cited from Smollan et al. (2010), “those who show significant levels of agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience will probably resist a change that is clearly unfavourable and unjust (Chawla & Kelloway, 2004; Bareil et al., 2007)”
Teleological theory as the second theory within the general theory of change assumes that organizational change is strategic. In addition, the organization is assumed to have an ultimate goal as the purpose for the initiating and implementing change and is directed by that purpose toward attainment of the ultimate goal. Along this path toward the ultimate goal, the organization is required to accomplish intermediate goals as well as implementing and evaluating new changes as well as its progress. One of the important issues to be taken into account is that the ultimate goal itself as a result of the evaluation process may also be changed.
Trang, I., Armanu, Sudiro, A., Noermijati. (2013). Organizational commitment as mediation variable influence of work motivation, leadership style and learning organization to the employees performance (studies at PT. Pelabuhan Indonesia IV (limited) Branch Bitung). Journal of Business and Management, 7(2), 12-25.
The Importance and need of the leader is increasing day by day due to the high level of competition as well as the technology and societies are becoming more advance. Changing business environment with the passage of time has cultivate the demand for the effective leader who has the ability to run and better functioning the organization in complex competitive environment specially in small and medium enterprises. In an organization a leader is the person who has a group of people under its leadership, and the people on whom he/she exerts their influence are known as subordinates. Thus, directors, executives, admin istrators, managers and bosses can be leaders; the action carried out to influence on others is what we know as leadership. According to Kotter (1999), leadership is the process of moving a group in a certain direction by, usually non-coercive means. Effective leadership is the one that produces movements aimed at the long term interests of the group. Leadership is a special form of power that involves skill, based on the personal qualities of a leader, to obtain the voluntary subordination by his/her followers in a wide range of issues. He distinguishes leadership from that of the power concept, in which leadership’s influence resides, i.e., a preference shift, while power only implies that the preferences of subordinates are put aside.
Abstract: Organizational change is a constant element that affects all organizations. In terms of the rate of occurrence, change can be divided into continuous incremental change and discontinuous transformational change. When characterized by how change comes about, it encompasses planned, emergent and contingency change. Different approach to change management is equally valid but the most appropriate approach is determined by the organization’s individual specific environment as no change is the same due to its unique context. Change is not only a process of transition from one state to another; it indicates direction with the purpose to increase organization efficiency and effectiveness. Hence, it is closely related to organizational strategy. Specifically, the ability of responding to change needs to be a core competence for organization or it may not survive. In relation to this, leadership plays a critical role in organizational change. Leadership is inexorably linked to the management of change. The wisdom to recognize the need for change and the ability to lead change are two main roles of any effective leader. Viewing leadership in a change context, leadership development not only can be understood more comprehensively, most important, it can be fine-tuned for greater potential contribution to any organizational change.
involvement of others, opens communication with them, and places value on their opinions—all team-building actions. Openness to discussing one’s position and a positive attitude toward a dissenting view often diffuses tension and saves time and resistance in the long run. By demonstrating these traits, organizational leaders also provide an example that subordinates can use in self-development. 6-12. In some circumstances, persuasion may be inappropriate. In combat, all leaders make decisions quickly, modifying the decision- making process to fit the circumstances. But this practice of using the directing leadership styles as opposed to more participatory ones should occur when situations are in doubt, risks are high, and time is short—circum- stances that often appear in combat. No exact blueprints exist for success in every context; leadership and the ability to adapt to the situa- tion will carry the day. Appropriate style, sea- soned instinct, and the realities of the situation must prevail.
Leadership has been a major topic of research in psychology for almost a century and has spawned thousands of empirical and conceptual studies. Despite this level of effort, however, the various parts of this literature still appear disconnected and directionless. In our opinion, a major cause of this state of the field is that many studies of leadership are context free; that is, low consideration is given to organizational variables that influence the nature and impact of leadership. Such research, especially prominent in the social and organizational psychology literatures, tends to focus on interpersonal processes between individuals, nominally leaders and followers. Studies that explicitly examine leadership within organizational contexts, particularly from the strategic management literature, seem incomplete for other reasons. They typically ignore the cognitive, interpersonal, and social richness of this phenomenon, in that they fail to come to grips with processes that would explain or account for outcomes. While model building in the strategic management literature is typically focused on the examination of leadership occurring at upper organization levels, any insights offered regarding the selection, development, and training of potential leaders are not often grounded in strong conceptual frameworks having significant empirical support. These observations sometimes leave the student of leadership with the feeling that many wheels are spinning in a deepening rut.
Abstract:- Leaders are in charge of their employees either remain or leave the organization subsequently leadership winds up one of the components impacting employee retention. Human is an essential asset that handles different assets of the organization. Organisations spend and put a considerable measure in their employees concerning enlistment and choice, preparing and improvement, remuneration and different advantages. Consequently, employee turnover from the organization makes a massive misfortune, and each organisation needs to stay away from worker substitution cost. An immense number of studies have been done in employee retention. Studies have been examining employee retention by a partner it with different factors, for example, pay rates, work-life balance, driving pressure, preparing and improvement, condition and administration among others. Studies talking about employee retention with theory base is extraordinarily uncommon and moderate in present writing. This examination inspected the impact of leadershiptheories on employee retention. The examination endorses a course of action of planning to bosses and overseers on organisation capacities since overseeing and driving go as one. The investigation reminds executives and supervisors to get input from their subordinates on how they see administrative styles used in separate organizations.
Different sociologists and thinkers (Baudus, 1942; Bass, 1960; Gouldner, 1950; haiman; have put their views forward in this context. According to Tannen Baum. 1959; leadership is a communicative, interpersonal influence exercised in a situation and toward the attainment of a special goal or goals’.
approximation was used by constructing a bias-corrected percentile method (200 samples; confidence interval of 90). It dem- onstrated that leadership is positively re- lated to organizational change (β=0.52, p=0.004) through the mediating construct Gaining commitment (β=0.31, p=0.01), and through the positive association of Didactic competence with Learning in the classroom. These results say that the development of didactic competence (as the self-develop- ment phase of teacher leadership) predicts higher results of learning in the classroom (as Organizational change dimension). Teachers who declared that their didactic competence had increased after professional development abroad more often recognized that Students in the class have been work- ing more creatively and actively; Students' learning motivation has been increas- ing; Students' learning results have been improving.
A review of the key theories discussed in the literature reveal four specific ideas that influenced this research: (1) Inclusive leadership brings with it the need to understand ethnic and racial diversity as a social and economic imperative, (2) Motivation for joining a student organization comes from the connections it will create in the professional world, (3) Student body diversity promotes leaning outcomes and provides the kind of experience base and discontinuity to evince more active thinking among students moving them from their own embedded worldview to consider those of another (or their diverse peers)., and (4) The next generation of diversity and intergroup relations
A litany of research indicates that effective change implementation is limited, despite abundant models and theories for successful change facilitation (Kotter, 1996; Lewin, 1951, Ulrich, 1998). However, a recent survey of more than 750 top CEOs worldwide indicates that 55% of them believe their recent change efforts were ‘‘quite’’ or ‘‘very’’ successful, with only 13% indicating that such efforts were ‘‘unsuccessful’’ or ‘‘a little successful’’ (IBM, 2006, p. 45). This statistic is surprising given the research we have discussed, which indicates that up to 90% of change efforts fail (Beer & Nohria, 2000; Bibler, 1989; Burns, 2004; Cope, 2003). It is essential to note that the IBM survey used self-reported statistics, which could explain the difference in research outcomes. Our study examines change efforts from the perspective of employees and their beliefs in the effectiveness of their managers in implementing change. Employee assess- ment of managerial effectiveness has become more commonplace with the use of feedback methods such as multirater or 360-degree feedback, which assesses observable behaviors and skills to develop reliable data for feedback (Campion, Morgan, & Mumford, 2005; Wilson, 1997).