Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Skogsmarksgrand 901 83 Umea, Sweden
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Leaf and fruit parameters of Vitellaria paradoxa populations in north-south gradient of the shea belt in the transitional and Guinea Savanna zones of Ghana were compared during the fruiting season between April to July, 2011. Thirty five trees which were at least 50 m apart and with diameter at breast height of at least 20 cm were randomly selected from each of the three locations namely Paga, Nyankpala, Kawampe for the studies. Leaf morphological traits studied include laminar width, petiole and laminar lengths. Fruit parameters measured include fruit and kernel widths, lengths, weights and pulp weight. Results showed variability for most of the characters determined. The leaves in Paga had shorter petioles as compared to those of Nyankpala and Kawampe. The Nyankpala V.
The Ghanaian Shea is exported to countries such as France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, North America and Japan (Bijaou, 2017; Koloche et al., 2016; Agene, 2015) The tree is also much sought after for placing hives in local beekeeping (ICRAF, 2013). Researchers have also found out that, the Shea tree is the second most important oil crop in Africa after the palm nut tree (Hatskevich et al., 2011).The need to find substitutes for cocoa in the confectionery and cocoa butter industries in the early 1970s (Aguirre-Dugua et al., 2013), made the importance of Shea tree even more significant in Ghana. This has placed a high demand on the fruits from which the butter is obtained. This has led to it being rated as having the potential to do more than the nation's number one export earner-cocoa (Aboba, 2011). However, the shea tree is pollinator–dependent (Kwapong, 2011); and so without external agents’ pollination, consequent fertilization and fruiting will not take place. There is very scanty and incoherent information in the area of Shea pollination, fruit-set and yield as influenced by landscapes. This current study therefore sought to assess the influence of the different parkland landscapes which arise as a result of land-use on the density/abundance of pollinators on shea tree pollination.
The Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) has gained importance as an economic crop in recent years because of the increasing demand for its butter both locally and internationally. As a rural industry, Shea butter contributes considerably to the annual income of rural communities of West Africa countries (Yidana, 2004). The Shea tree is an indigenous and exclusive asset in West and Central Africa and particularly abundant in the Northern savannah areas of Ghana (Addaquay, 2004). Shea waste-slurry is said to be the concentration of solids and the water as well as the fats that remains after the extraction of the oil from the Shea nut and it is used in so many ways; the residue serves as a potential source of fuel for domestic heating. The need to identify additional sources of feed, to expand the animal industry for protein supply in Ghana, led to research into the potential for greater use of agro-based industrial by-products, such as Shea nut cakes in the formulation of animal feeds (Fleury, 1981). Soil plays an important role in providing food for the human, as it supports and facilitate crop growth. Soil physical properties are those characteristics, processes, and reactions of a soil that are caused by physical forces that can be described by, or expressed in physical quantities or equations (Brady and Weil, 2002). Waste, especially, organic waste has some dramatic effect on soil physical properties. Application of organic waste *Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
The research was carried out on Hayward (A. de- liciosa) cultivar using 6 year-old kiwifruit vines. The vines were T-bar trained, situated and planted at 5 × 5 m (5 male vines per 35 male vines) plots, grown in Ordu (Northern Turkey) ecological conditions. The vines were pruned in winter, pruning as canes on 120, 180, 240, 300 bud levels (bud/vine), 12-noded, separately. The experiment orchard was fertilized with 150 kg N/ha (as urea), 100 kg K/ha (as K 2 SO 4 ) and irrigated during summer using mini sprinklers. No fruit thinning was applied during the experiment. Pruning shoots without ﬂowers were removed in ear- ly summer and fruitful shoots were shortened back to four leaves beyond the last fruit in mid-spring.
making up the “bundle of rights” under tree tenure: (i) the right to own or inherit; (ii) the right to plant; (iii) the right to use; and (iv) the right of disposal. All these classes of rights, in some way, relate to or are influenced by the prevailing system of land rights. Moreover, characteristics and use of the trees as well as the features of the land tenure system in practice affect how and what rights are distributed and to whom, with regards to trees. Whether the tree in question is planted or has grown wild determines whether it is a private or a common property resource in a number of countries. The former is generally considered the property of the planter or the land owner, and the latter is considered as the community property (Fortmann 1985). Another factor that affects how and to whom tree rights are distributed is the nature of the use, which is directly related to the tree type. Trees that provide subsistence products, such as fruits and other non-timber products, are generally considered “common resource” open to all member of the community, especially when they are on common land (Fortmann 1985; Akinnifesi et al. 2006). Whereas access to and use of commercial trees are usually restricted to the landowner on whose land the tree is growing. Some cultures exhibit species-specific access and use rights to trees, as Howard and Nabanoga (2007) explore in case of the Buganda people in Uganda, where traditionally important species such as fig tree (Ficus natalensis) were protected with many rigorous (and complex) customary laws that gave tenure rights to specific individuals and excluded others; while fruits from exotic multipurpose tree species such as the jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) were accessible by individuals other than the owners of these trees for personal consumption.
The shea tree is an indigenous and exclusive asset in West and Central Africa and particularly abundant in the Northern Savannah areas of Ghana where shea butter constitutes a key source of income for local women. The objectives of this research were to describe the capacity level of women as traditional shea butter processors and to analyze factors which affected women’s capacity in processing shea butter as a traditional home industry. Participant observation, interview and semi-structured questionnaire were used to collect data from 204 households engaged in shea butter processing in Sawla-Tuna-Kalba and Wa West districts, selected via simple random sampling procedure. Spearman correlation and descriptive statistics were used in the data analysis. The results revealed that the social economic characteristics of traditional shea butter processors (namely; age, length of time in business, informal education, motivation, family size, and individual beliefs about the social and cultural values of shea butter) and support from agriculture extension affected personal capacity. Personal capacity affected business capacity and in the next term, business capacity affected productivity. Increasing productivity will increase income. This means that the shea butter processors with higher personal capacity will do better in business. This study concludes that the processing of shea butter in NorthernGhana is still dominated by traditional business, both the production process and management and that the processing of shea butter into more innovative and economic products is still progressing slowly. The development of shea butter in NorthernGhana, especially shea butter processing has to consider and understand factors that affect personal and business capacity of traditional shea butter processors.
This study seeks to find out the causes of the widening disparities in the study of science in second cycle schools in the Upper West Region of Ghana. In Ghana, education policies do not discriminate against any section of the community. Even though the Science Technology and Mathematics Education (STME) clinics were initiated to address the gender disparities and misconceptions about girls’ participation in science and technology there has not been any significant improvement in female students studying sciences in the three northern regions of Ghana. For this research study schools were purposively selected based on schools offering pure science and science related programs. The study used a mixed method design that includes qualitative and quantitative data process. Methods employed for data collection include focus group discussions, questionnaires, interviews, observation and review of secondary data. The research established that high illiteracy rate among parents left children to their own fate in deciding the choice of programs of study in the second cycle schools; identified inadequate science resources; poor performance recorded by students in the science departments; understaffing; harassment by peers and teachers; inadequate female teachers as role models in science and; lack of motivation either from parents, peers or teachers. The research findings added to the knowledge base on the causes of gender disparities in science education. In addition, they served as reference materials for policy makers, as well as gender activists.
Besides better access to healthcare, many workshop groups noted other important improvements in their lives. As a result of free immunization programmes, measles and polio have been eradicated, or at least drastically reduced in the area, as have incidences of the five ‘killer’ diseases among children (diarrhoea, measles, tetanus, pertussis and malaria). Treated mosquito nets have been made available free of charge and this has led to a decline in the number of cases of malaria. And water-borne diseases, like guinea worm and bilharzia, are less prevalent today due to better sanitation facilities and the provision of safe drinking water from boreholes. Other perceived changes that have contributed to better health among the population of northernGhana are: better hygiene in general as a result of health education programmes by community health nurses and NGOs, the construction of private pit latrines, the establishment of central slaughter houses, and better solid-waste management. Opinions about public latrines were often divided as maintenance in many cases tended to be poor and they were considered breeding grounds for disease.
This new level of market reliance exposes farmers to high variability in the prices of farm products, inputs, services and equipment and creates farmer dependence on market conditions and market access (Immink & Alarcon, 1993; Osmani et al., 2015). Further, inefficient marketing institutions and inadequate rural infrastructure can inhibit the ability, interest and performance of smallholders who choose to move to commercial farming practices. The level, quality and diffusion of information provision through both formal channels and informal channels changes over time as well. These changing market and information characteristics also affect the adoption process for farmers engaging in new commercial crop production, and subsequently affect the performance and persistence of adoption. Finally, in some cases, commercial farming may substitute for traditional staple crop production, resulting in farmers becoming more reliant on market prices and availability for their household consumption needs (Immink & Alarcon, 1993).
The Dagara forms part of the Mole-Dagbane group who are believed to have descended from the Dagomba state (van der Geest, 2011). Though there are many terms such as Dagaaba, Dagaba, Dagarti, Lobi-Dagarti and Dagari (Lentz, 2006), the term Dagara is accepted by many people as the only correct ethnographic name to use for the people of Lawra, Nandom and some parts of south-western Burkina Faso (Kuba and Lentz, 2001). According to Lentz (2000), the current location of Dagara in both Ghana and Burkina Faso could be attributed to the search for fertile lands, escaping from conflicts and wars, oppressiveness from rulers and particularly slave raiders. The Dagara settlements presently occupy areas of southwest Burkina Faso and Northwest Ghana. It is important to note that the study was carried out in the north western part of Ghana as shown in Figure 1.
I n the first place, technical efficiency for both irrigators and non-irrigators in NorthernGhana is low, suggesting the presence of technical inefficiency. There is the need for policy makers to develop formal and informal education programmes that will improve farmers’ abilities to retrieve and process information about modern agricultural technology. Providing them with education will be a useful investment and a good mechanism for improving efficiency in rice farming. The emphasis should be on providing education that will help farmers to understand the socioeconomic and policy conditions governing their farming activities. The education package must also include the provision of farmer field schools to expose them to farm record keeping, group dynamics, resource mobilization and irrigation management. Another way is to strengthen the capacity of rice farmers through farmer centred training workshops geared towards managerial efficiency as well as resource use efficiency. This should be done in a collaborative manner involving the government, district assemblies and NGOs.
This means that application of the same nutrient management practices at all the locations will not yield the same results. Fertilizer recommendation and nutrient management practices should, therefore, be location specific. The sandy nature of the soils with low organic matter content at the locations means that the soils would generally be susceptible to leaching and nutrient loss and will not sustain crop production without proper soil management practices. The pH of the soils at all the locations ranging between 5.94 and 6.73 indicates that the soils are mildly acidic, which can support cultivation of many crops. This is because plants generally prefer soils that have pH close to either side of neutrality as most nutrients are available in the pH range of 5.5 – 6.5 (FAO, 2008). The pH range recorded will also promote soil microbial population and activity. The relatively low soil pH of the soils at Adamupe (5.94) and Mognegu (6.38) as compared to the values at Kanpong, Bugyakura, and Bidribombe could be attributed to leaching of bases and continuous application of sulphate of ammonia at the two sites in previous cropping seasons. According to NARS (1993), application of ammonium sulphate fertilizer tends to leave a slight acidic residue after the cropping season in most of the soils in the Guinea Savannah Agro-ecological Zone (GSAZ). The soil pH and organic matter content of the soils at the research locations are within the ranges reported by MoFA (2011b). The percent total N content (0.07 – 0.10) of the soils at the locations being higher than the reported range (0.02-0.05) for soils in the Northern region is attributable to favorable pH recorded at the sites which promotes microbial activities and ensures nutrient availability. This means that the fertility status of the soils at the locations are higher than the reported. Generally, Mognegu recorded the highest values in most of the soil properties analyzed (organic matter, N, K, Mg, and ECEC) and second to Adamupe in the case of P. It can, therefore, be concluded that Mognegu is the most fertile site and is expected to support improved crop growth and yield than the other sites ceteris paribus.
Bacterial cultures were set up only for fruits while culture for fungi was done for all three samples (fruit, leaf and stem). For bacterial culture, one gram of pool spoilt specimen was homogenized in 0.89% NaCl solution and diluted serially and each dilution plated out. Incubation was aerobic at 35 o C for 18-48 h. Samples for fungal inoculation were prepared differently. In the first instance where growth was visible, portion of the growth and the underlining tissue were remove with a sterilised blade onto the surface of the agar plate. Alternatively, samples were homogenized in 0.89% NaCl containing 100000 units of penicillin and 0.2g/L streptomycin, and vortex at 1,500 rpm. The supernatant was decanted and the deposit re-suspended in sterile 0.89 % NaCl washed and inoculated onto fungal media. Incubation was at 27 o C for 2-5 days. Occasionally, plates were left for onward of 7 days. Plates for both bacterial and fungal culture were observed after incubation and colonial characteristics used for presumptive identification. Microscopic and biochemical tests were carried out where appropriate for the identification of the isolates.
Isozymes are direct product of genes and are not mostly affected from the environmental conditions when compared at the same development stage of tissues or organs (Uzun, 1986; Arulsekar and Parfit, 1986). Isozyme polimorphism of loquat has not extensively been studied like other crops such as grape, apple etc. because of its minor importance and it is mostly grown in limited areas in subtropical regions. Loquat cultivars can easily be distinguished by SDH, PER and PGI isozymes (Degani, 1986). It was stated that purified S6PD enzyme which was extracted from mature leaf of loquats showed single banding in SDS-Page electrophoresis (Hirai, 1983).
Road traffic accident is one of the leading preventable causes of illnesses and premature deaths, policy makers must implement effective policies to reduce this men- ace especially among men. Accidents exert a high cost to the society. Moreover, road traffic accident interven- tions have to compete with other health sectors priority interventions such as communicable diseases which have been traditional favourites of globally funded programs. Policy makers should therefore formulate accident control policies backed with enforceable regu- lations. Road traffic accident is covered under the emergency component of National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) benefits package. Thus in theory, reg- istrants of NHIS have financial access to health care. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that most frac- ture-victims believe that orthodox medicine is deficient in bone setting and healing of broken bone. So gener- ally, treatments of fractured bones are usually sorted outside NHIS accredited providers. This leads to in- creased out-of-pocket expenditure to victims and their families. This provides some important information of advocacy on effective preventive measures to reduce motorcycle accidents and its economic burden in northern regions where the use of motorcycles is pre- dominant.
Several writers acknowledge the fact that land issues have the potential to; and actually do generate a lot of con- flicts and controversies -. Even when a state has only limited ambitions of direct interference in land mat- ters, land issues can be greatly affected by the State’s ambition to organise and re-organise the local level struc- tures  . Thus, there is often an intimate linkage between the desire for increase in agricultural productivity by the state and the interference in land administration at the rural community level  -. In NorthernGhana, certain dilemmas animated controversies and conflicts about land rights; the resolution of which some- times leads relatively innocuous compromise which later manifest in several negative ramifications. As posited by  , for the women in particular, the above negativities associated with land are even more pronounce and more protracted.   state that women interests are undermined, their agendas are ignored, their owner- ships and controls of land as a resource are undervalued.
2011). Sub-acute effects comprise strong feelings related with people vicariously seeing climate change effects; anxiety linked to distrust regarding the point of current and future threats that persons and other species may encounter (Maibach, Roser-Renouf, & Leiserowitz, 2008). Long-term ecological effects involve large-scale social and society effects establishing in the forms of heat-related fierceness, fights over rare resources(Nordås & Gleditsch, 2007), dislocation and involuntary movement (Acharibasam & Anuga) and chronic ecological strain (Albrecht, Mundlos, & development, 2005). These events often result in loss of employments, reduced socio- economic activities, and loss of sense of place which may aggravate psychological health hazards. In NorthernGhana, peasant farmers seem to be at a higher danger of anguish acute, subacute, and long-term effects of climate variation happenings due to the unusual ecological encounters they face (Dumenu, Obeng, & Policy, 2016). Northern Ghana’s savanna landscape is mainly a dry zone with extreme droughts, and the rising weather variation levels constantly exposes peasant farmers to hostile climatic conditions comprising poor rainfall patterns, forest fires, soil erosion, and loss of soil fertility, poor harvest, and damage of property and livestock (Acharibasam & Anuga, 2018). Thus, the chronically rising pace of altering climatic conditions is a developing danger to the psychological health of farmers(Laube, Schraven, & Awo, 2012)
Within the subject villages, the NGOs and their activities are prominently present – or were so in the recent past (at village level, both NGOs have a strategy of construction-consolidation- phasing out, which is strictly followed and takes approximately six years). NGOs often have absolute control in ‘their’ villages, to prevent other NGOs from taking up activities there. It seems as though that the entire north of Ghana is covered with a patchwork of NGO attention, in which the nature and prominence of the ‘input’ and the ‘approach’ is very dependent on the NGO that a particular village deals with. In all villages there is some government presence, especially that of the Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, primary and secondary education is relatively well arranged and also well attended (Ghana has a traditionally high literacy rate; education in North Ghana for parents and pupils is virtually free of charge). In the area of health care, the situation is also relatively good. There is combined government and church care and, more recently, a coherent system. In practice, the villages of North Ghana are not part of the ‘government-free’ area of Africa. The actual work done by civil servants in the villages is however closely related to the links they have with the NGOs (the government provides the expertise; the NGO provides the petrol and the night-out allowances’). In several village areas that are part of large development programmes by international agencies (such as IFAD), the scale of NGO intervention is suddenly relatively small.
After the preliminary analysis of the resistivity profiling, significant anomalous zones were identified. These were regions with a wide weathered base. Vertical electrical soundings were then conducted at selected points within these anomalous zones. Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) are conducted to basically delineate the different sub-surface geo- electric layers (resistivity and thickness of sub-surface geological materials). Following from this delineation, the aquifer units and their characteristics could be established . In this study the dipole-dipole electrode configuration (Fig. 3) was used. The dipole of dipole was 2 m and the ‗n‘ spacing varied from 4 m in the shortest array length to 100 m in the longest array length. The apparent resistivity measured with this configuration is given as
As study conducted by Bezabih and Hadera (2007) revealed, the major constraints of marketing of fruit and vegetable includes lack of markets to absorb the production, low price for the products, middlemen dominated marketing system, lack of marketing institutions safeguarding farmers' interest and rights over their marketable produces (e.g. cooperatives), lack of coordination among producers to increase their bargaining power, poor product handling and packaging, imperfect pricing system, lack of transparency in market information system mainly in the export market They added also that, horticulture production is affected by pests, drought, and shortage of fertilizer and price of fuel for pumping. Being the production is seasonal and price is inversely related to supply, that is, at a season when they produce more price will be charged less. Besides they indicated that, farmers bargaining power being low and lack of alternative market outlet become challenges to farmers to market their output. In addition on their study, the main opportunity for increasing horticulture production are increasing market integration, the culture of intensive crop production, farmers are becoming aware about production technologies and improved inputs and the government policy and development strategy.