30 LeanManufacturing: Tools, Techniques, and How To UseThem
accomplish a set of given objectives. However, if you cannot readily see and identify such personnel, do not despair; there is still hope.
By developing and deploying a formal selection and assessment process, a company can utilize a structured framework by which to select future cell leaders (Figure 3.4). It is highly recommended that some form of a formal process be used in the selection of cell leaders for three reasons: (1) the human resources department should be able to keep you out of hot water on the numerous legal issues surrounding employee discrimination; (2) you and the new cell leaders will be able to identify a training plan for those skills that are required for the position yet are lacking at the time of selection; and, most importantly, (3) your new leaders will be selected out of a field of their peers. They have been singled out as the “best” to fill this new position and will now directly be helping the company succeed with this new direction. What could be more rewarding for a self-motivated individual who has the desire to lead than to have his leadership qualities recognized through a formal assessment process and to be selected to manage a cell? When this highly motivated person, with leadership and team-building skills, is empow- ered to organize his team and set a course for continuous improvement, there will be no limit to what this team can accomplish.
It is based on the Toyota production system. Lean thinking focuses on value-added lean and consists of best practices, tools and techniques from throughout industry with the aims of reducing waste and maximizing the flow and efficiency of the overall system to achieve the ultimate customer satisfaction. Leanmanufacturing is a manufacturing philosophy that shortens the time between the customer order and the product build/shipment by eliminating sources of waste. Another way of looking at lean is that it aims to achieve the same output with less input- less time, less space, less human effort, less machinery, less material, less costs. The aim of this project is to explore some leanmanufacturing concept in a manufacturing firm situated in Kerala.
Worker teams who participate in a LeanManufacturing project are trained in the use of statistical and problem solving tools as well as project management techniques to define, measure, analyze, and make improvement in the operation of organization by eliminating defects and variability in its processes. The main concept of leanmanufacturing is that defects in a given process can be measured and quantified.
Many simulation techniques have been developed for the implementation of leanmanufacturingtools. These include assembly electrical plug , hospital game , Lego game  and 5S game . These techniques can be categorized as off-line simulation as they are more inclined towards proactive implementation or well-established procedures. On the other hand, on-line simulation which is an amalgamation of simulation software and computer has developed into the method of choice due to its effectiveness in designing, forecasting and implementing the system [47 - 51]. Table-2 portrays recent studies and outcomes related to the utilization of LM tools in an industrial setting.
Evidence suggests that lean methods and tools have helped manufacturing organisations to achieve operational excellence, and in this way meet both traditional and contemporary organisational objectives such as profitability, efficiency, responsiveness, quality, and customer satisfaction. However, the effect of these methods and tools on environmental performance is still unclear, as limited empirical research has been conducted in this field. This paper therefore investigates the impact of five essential lean methods, i.e. JIT, autonomation, kaizen/continuous improvement, total productive maintenance (TPM) and value stream mapping (VSM), on four commonly utilised measures for the compliance of environmental performance, i.e. material use, energy consumption, non- product output, and pollutant releases. A correlation analysis modelled the relationship and effect of these lean methods on the environmental performance of 250 manufacturing organisations around the world. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used as a second pronged verification approach to ensure the validity of the results. The results indicate that TMP and JIT have the strongest significance on environmental performance, whereas kaizen/continuous improvement only showed an effect on the use of materials and release of pollutants. Autonomation and VSM did not show any impact on environmental performance. The research holds important implications for industrialists, who can develop a richer knowledge on the relationship between lean and green. This
manufacturing that strives to make organisations more competitive in the market by increasing efficiency and decreasing costs through the elimination of non-value added steps and inefficiencies in the process (Sohal and Egglestone, 1994; Garza-Reyes et al., 2012). Various methods and tools that aim to improve the operational performance of organisations are comprised under the lean strategy’s umbrella (Bhasin, 2012). In particular, Rocha-Lona et al. (2013) consider Just-in-Time (JIT), total productive maintenance (TPM), autonomation, value stream mapping (VSM), and kaizen/continuous improvement (CI) as the most essential methods of the lean approach. JIT is a method which states that an organisation should produce the right item at the right time (Womack and Jones, 2003); this helps in reducing inventories, space utilisation and possible wastes. The most commonly associated tools of JIT are one piece flow, pull system, takt time, cell manufacturing, levelled production, kanban, visual control, multifunctional employees, and JIT purchasing (Rocha- Lona et al. 2013; Kumar, 2010; McLachlin, 1997). In the case of TPM, it is a leanmanufacturing method that contributes to the optimisation of predictive, preventive and corrective maintenance activities in order to achieve the maximum level of efficiency and profit from production equipment (Brah and Chong, 2004). To achieve this, TPM relies on tools such as overall equipment effectiveness (OEE), single minute exchange of die (SMED), 5S, autonomous maintenance, quality maintenance, initial control before starting production, and a safety and hygiene environment (Rocha-Lona et al., 2013; Brah and Chong, 2004). Autonomation, also known as jidoka, is a lean method that targets the reduction of quality defects with the use of tools that include mistake proofing devises (i.e. poka-yokes), visual
Fig. 6 Consolidated list of leantools obtained in the paper On comparing the above table to the results obtained by Parveen and Rao , it can be seen that there is a significant difference in the values obtained for the usage of TPM and TQM, there is found to be a significant increase in the use of TPM and TQM. It is also seen that there is a significant reduction in the number of organizations using kaizen. The usage of kanban and JIT are found to be very similar in both the studies. The presence of reengineering and restructuring practices in this paper is due to their importance in the service sector, which has not been studied in the paper by Parveen et al. . The difference in the percentage use of six sigma tools can be due to the different sample sizes used in papers. The data found regarding six sigma implementation was scarce and not easily accessible.
In order to be able to assess the use of PRM techniques and investigate the reasons behind their lack of usage in practice, a literature review is required. The search of relevant literature is made through the library’s website of Heriot-Watt University. The main databases used are ScienceDirect, Emerald, EBSCOHOST and Business Source Premier. Detailed information on the search words and their results are in Appendix 1. In this study, it is important to have articles about RM tools and techniques used in projects, therefore, peered reviewed journals, such as International Journal of Project Management and Project Management Journal are mainly considered. Besides academic articles, it has also been used the PMBOK®Guide by PMI and the APM BOK by IPMA since these are the reference manuals for PM standards. In addition, due to the poor amount of articles related to PRM tools and techniques in projects related to manufacturing companies, the authors include studies related to other sectors (e.g. IT, Construction) so as to have a broader knowledge on the topic. The authors do not consider findings from other sectors generalizable to the manufacturing sector. All the articles the authors evaluate are written in English because the most important journals publish articles in this language. Therefore, the research is based on a literature that excludes other sources not written in English. When assessing the search results, the authors read each article's abstract, and if found pertinent to the thesis subject, the articles are reviewed in further detail. The period used for the articles is from the year 2000 to the year 2014. It is important to bear in mind that when reading articles, concepts cited by other authors and judged as important, were further searched and analysed; even if the year of publication is older than 2000. Therefore, no secondary sources were used to avoid misperceptions or misunderstanding. However, if a researcher refers to his or her previous work, the authors consider the source reliable since the person should know his or her research.
2.7 PREVIUOS STUDY ABOUT LEANMANUFACTURING
From the previous study by researchers about the LeanManufacturing, the further information and study can be done. As stated by Bhasin , 2005 in his research, the analysis intimates that the major difficulties companies encounter in attempting to apply lean are a lack of direction, a lack of planning and a lack of adequate project sequencing. Knowledge of particular tools and techniques is often not a problem. Evidently, a mixture of common ingredients is viewed indispensable for a successful implementation:
To design and assess the performance, bottleneck identification, reduction in bottleneck cycle time, minimizing line imbalance, workstation organization, reduction in man power and space saving. Increasing man power and space utilization of industrial production assembly line is discussed. We use systematic layout planning approach to improve existing layout of company. The detail study of plant layout such as time study operation process chart, flow of material and activity relationship chart has be examine.
Matt and Rauch (2013) have clustered 36 numbers of lean production tools and techniques at Italy. Meanwhile, Arugunagiri and Gnanavelbabu (2014) have listed 30 lean production tools and techniques that currently used by organisations in India. Khusaini et al. (2014) listed 18 lean production tools and techniques that widely used by Malaysian companies such as automotive, electrical and electronics. It was found that less than 10 lean production tools and techniques similarly used by industries at three different countries (Italy, India, and Malaysia) such as 5S, Cellular Manufacturing, Kaizen, Poka-yoke (mistake proofing), Setup Time Reduction, Standardization, Value Stream Mapping (VSM), and Jidoka ( Zero Defect).
treating units as batches for each step. The process is called “continuous flow” because you are continuously producing new products. It’s advantageous in many industries, such as vehicle manufacturing, where youneed to keep up with high demand from consumers. Batch production is useful in otherscenarios as well, such as completing one-time work for a client.There are so many problems related to continuity in project activity so with the help of this tool we can make tiles activity smooth and fast and also with the help of this tool we can make productivity more accurate and fast as per requirements. By this tool we can manage time for the activity and completion of time becomes very fast.
It is the process of arranging, controlling and optimizing work and workloads in a production process or manufacturing process. Scheduling is used to allocate plant and machinery resources, plan production processes and purchase materials. It is an important tool for manufacturing and engineering, where it can have a major impact on the productivity of a process. In manufacturing, the purpose of scheduling is to minimize the production of time and costs, by telling a production facility when to make, with which staff, and on which equipment. Production scheduling aims to maximize the efficiency of the operation and reduce costs. Companies use backward and forward scheduling to allocate plant machinery resources, plan human resources, plan production process and purchase materials.
Lean reduces operating costs associated with material use, movement, equipment downtime, rework, and other factors. Leantools and methods seek the optimization of any given manufacturing, service, or administrative process, enabling companies to drive down operating costs and time requirements. Material use reductions result from lean methods that address inventory control, point- of-use material management, and workplace organization; movement reductions result from production process realignment; equipment downtime reductions result from the implementation of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) activities that prevent errors and malfunctions; and defects and rework reductions result from “mistake-proofing” equipment and processes. These individual tools and methods are embedded in “whole systems thinking” that can allow paying higher prices—for materials, for example—if it reduces overall system costs due to efficiency gains in other areas such as time, mistakes, and material loss. For example, this thinking may lead a company to pay more to have smaller amounts of chemicals delivered in “right-sized” containers rather than buying bulk chemicals at cheaper prices. Optimizing processes and reducing operating costs can occur both before major conversion to product-aligned, cellular manufacturing or after. The combined impact of reducing various operating costs using leantools and continual improvement efforts can produce large dividends. For example, applying lean methods to a small number of maintenance operations at Robins Air Force Base has saved the Air Force about $8 million. 16
This study has main objective of assessment on the effects of leanmanufacturingtools on waste reduction on Arjo Didesssa Sugar factory. The specific objectives of the study are from the perspective of Total productive maintenance, Mistake proofing, workplace organization (5S), continuous quality improvement and worker involvement. The research design for this study is explanatory, while the research approach is mixed approach. The target populations for this study are teams in the department of factory operation, department of kaizen and quality control. Both probability and non-probability sampling techniques are used and 208 samples selected. 188 questionnaires were completely filled and returned. Both primary data and secondary data were used to fulfill the research objective. Quantitative part of data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20. The result of the study indicates that leanmanufacturingtools are not implemented effectively therefore production waste is evident. Total productive maintenance, mistake proofing, worker involvement and continuous quality improvement have positive and significant effect on waste reduction. Secondary data shows there is production waste in the factory but wastes are continuously reducing. Based on the evidence from questionnaire and secondary data it was concluded that leanmanufacturingtools were not performed in excellent manner as result production wastes were evident in the factory. The researcher recommends based on the research findings and if leanmanufacturingtools are performed in excellent manner by improving maintenance, training, preventive and control devices for mistake proofing, Plan do check act cycle and enhancing the skills of employees the factory they can reduce production wastes. Finally the researcher suggested for future research to be conducted by including other leanmanufacturingtools to reduce production waste.
Abstract— With the importance of being competitive in today's market, many companies are adopting various methods to improve their productivity. One way to achieve this is to adopt leanmanufacturingtechniques. With the mind-set of building products cheaper, faster, and better to gain a competitive edge in the market, Company ABC Ltd. has used leantechniques such motion study and line balancing. Yamazumi Chart is used for line balancing. Using these tools helped company to develop process with cycle time within the takt time associated with building the product. Having a good understanding of these leantools allowed for a better understanding of the waste associated with walk and wait that was in the production line and the importance of eliminating it.
Current scenario greatly emphasis on Green manufacturing due to afraid of hazardous pollution level we face in day to day life. Hence customers are aware of purchasing products that do not affect environment. To solve the above problem Green manufacturing is implemented. It is a flow of manufacturing practices that will help in reducing the hazards that do not harm the environment during any part of the manufacturing process. It emphasizes the use of processes that do not pollute the environment or harm consumers, employees, or other members related to product.
Rother and Shook (1999) have discussed that Value Stream Mapping (VSM) is used to define and analyze the current state for a product value stream and design a future state focused on reducing waste, improving lead-time, and improving workflow. The use of VSM appears to be increasing, particularly since the publication of “learning to see” by Rother and Shook (1999). One of the unique characteristics of VSM in comparison with other process analysis techniques is that one map depicts both material and information flow that controls the material flow. The focus of VSM is on a product “value stream” (all actions required to transform raw materials into a finished product) for a given “product family” -- products that follow the same overall production steps.
L EAN M ANUFACTURING
Leanmanufacturing is the implementation of the concept that anything that does not create value in the product is to be eliminated. It is the concept of more value for less work. As trained industrial engineers, it seems pretty basic to us. Its simplicity is what makes it work. While the Japanese are rightfully given credit for re-vitalizing the concept of lean, its roots really go back to Frederick Winslow Taylor of Bethlehem Steel in the 1880s and 1890s. Then it was called “Scientific Management.” The Taylor approach starts with a clean slate – it designs the process to, as much as possible, only include steps that create value in the product. It is well suited for new plants, new products or new processes. The Japanese approach addresses existing plants, products and processes. It is focused on eliminating “waste” (anything that is not adding value). As waste is reduced, quality improves, production times are reduced and cost is minimized. Various methodologies are used as tools to achieve this including Value Stream Mapping, 5S, Kanban (pull systems) and error-proofing. Our view is that starting with Taylor’s approach lets you establish the perfect world as a base line. Using the Japanese approach then helps you work toward the perfect world. Let’s use a casting example. A typical process might be to cast, clean, finish, re-clean, machine and ship. Why do we clean, finish and machine? We know these processes often can’t be eliminated but why not try? If the casting can be produced as-cast either by achieving best practice methods or changing casting methods (investment casting and lost foam often achieve as-cast parts), machining can be eliminated or minimized. If you don’t put the stock on you don’t have to take it off. Why is finishing (or at least why is so much) required? We know a state-of-the-art OEM producing iron castings in green sand that require almost no finishing. Are you grinding/trimming parting lines? Then your patterns or molds may need attention. Are you grinding rough casting surfaces? Then your sand is not right or your die casting practices need improvement. Grinding gates? Can they be relocated to areas where they can be left untouched and minimized using knife gating? Are you welding? If you are not joining parts in welding all you are doing is fixing mistakes. Why do you clean before finishing? Good sand and shake-out practices should produce castings that are clean enough for finishing. Just clean one time after finishing.
manufacturing that strives to make organisations more competitive in the market by increasing efficiency and decreasing costs through the elimination of non-value added steps and inefficiencies in the process (Sohal and Egglestone, 1994; Garza-Reyes et al., 2012). Various methods and tools that aim to improve the operational performance of organisations are comprised under the lean strategy’s umbrella (Bhasin, 2012). In particular, Rocha-Lona et al. (2013) consider Just-in-Time (JIT), total productive maintenance (TPM), autonomation, value stream mapping (VSM), and kaizen/continuous improvement (CI) as the most essential methods of the lean approach. JIT is a method which states that an organisation should produce the right item at the right time (Womack and Jones, 2003); this helps in reducing inventories, space utilisation and possible wastes. The most commonly associated tools of JIT are one piece flow, pull system, takt time, cell manufacturing, levelled production, kanban, visual control, multifunctional employees, and JIT purchasing (Rocha- Lona et al. 2013; Kumar, 2010; McLachlin, 1997). In the case of TPM, it is a leanmanufacturing method that contributes to the optimisation of predictive, preventive and corrective maintenance activities in order to achieve the maximum level of efficiency and profit from production equipment (Brah and Chong, 2004). To achieve this, TPM relies on tools such as overall equipment effectiveness (OEE), single minute exchange of die (SMED), 5S, autonomous maintenance, quality maintenance, initial control before starting production, and a safety and hygiene environment (Rocha-Lona et al., 2013; Brah and Chong, 2004). Autonomation, also known as jidoka, is a lean method that targets the reduction of quality defects with the use of tools that include mistake proofing devises (i.e. poka