The implementation of ProblemBasedLearning is aimed at improving students' criticalthinkingability. According to Bekti Wulandari (2013: 182), PBL is giving problems related to daily life to students and students in groups looking for alternative solutions to solve the problem. This study also observes students' criticalthinking skills individually as well as when they are divided into small groups seeking answers and solutions to problems already solved by teachers. PBL prepares students for criticalthinking and analysis and for finding and using learning resources. The perspective is reinforced by Sudewi et al (2014) "on learning with the PBI model, students are required to solve the problems presented by digging the information as much as possible then analyzed sought solution of existing problems. PBL models train students the ability to analyze, think critically, and think hight level. As for criticalthinking, component formulates the problem, give the argument, do induction, do deduction, do the evaluation, and take decision and action.
The important principle of Vygotsky’s the- ory, first, it emphasizes on the social nature of learning, students learn through interaction with more capable adults and peers. Their learning is influenced by social interaction, which takes pla- ce in a meaningful context. Social interaction of children with others who are more capable and with their environment significantly affect their way of thinking. A child develops or intellectu- alizes through the internalization of concepts based on his own interpretations of activities occurring within the social environment and the interpretation of the situation. Communication that occurs with more capable people (parents, teachers, peers, others) helps children build un- derstanding of concepts, (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000). Both learnings occur when the child is working or learning to handle tasks that have not been studied but the tasks are still within the range of capabilities or those tasks are wit- hin the Zone of Proximal Development. Ellis, Larkin, Worthington, and Principle 5, Research Section, para.l) in Rachel R. Van Der Stuyf. ZPD ”... is that area between what the learner can do independently (level of mastery) and what can be achieved with the help of competent adults or peers (instructional level)”. Vygotsky belie- ves that every child can be effectively taught any subject using scaffolding techniques by applying in the ZPD. ”Teachers activate this zone when they teach the students the exact concept of a level of knowledge above their current abilities, which motivates them to excel beyond their cur- rent level of skill”, (Jaramillo, 1996). Students are guided and supported through activities that serve as interactive bridges to gain knowledge to the next level. Thus learners develop or build new understandings by elaborating on their previo- us knowledge through the others’ more capable support (Raymond, 2000). An important aspect of scaffolding instruction is that scaffolding is temporary. When the student’s ability increases, the scaffolding is progressively drawn. Finally the learner will be able to complete the task or to master the concept independently, (Chang, Sung, & Chen, 2002).
1. The application of PBL models based on Science Literacy can improve students' criticalthinking skills. The improvement was shown by the results of criticalthinking skills tests, teacher activity sheets, and student activity sheets. Cycle I criticalthinking skills of students have not yet reached the indicator of success, because there are several factors. Cycle II criticalthinking skills have improved, and have achieved indicators of success in which as many as 70% of students have obtained criticalthinking skills with good categories because in cycle II students are more active in learning and can understand the material. Teacher activities in learning greatly affect students in learning, it is seen when the teacher engages students in learning, then students are more active in learning and more enthusiastic so it makes it easy for students to understand the material. This is evident from the results of students' thinking skills tests in the first cycle to obtain enough categories. The increase occurred in cycle 2 with a good category.
Abstract: Permendikbud No. 65 of the standard curriculum in the learning process 2013 highly recommended approach is to use learning approaches that produce work. Based on these models are suitable is ProblemBasedLearning models. ProblemBasedLearning models is designed to help students develop thinking skills, problem-solving skills, and intellectual skills. This research aims to improve learning outcomes and criticalthinking skills studentsSMA 5 Banjaramasin to the application of ProblemBasedLearning models. This research is a classroom action research conducted in two cycles, each cycle of 2 meetings. The subjects were students of class X MIA 4 SMA Negeri 5 Banjarmasin. Cognitive learning outcomes of students has increased of the first cycle of 36.2% and cyc le II of 90.7%, from the data obtained indicate achievement of classical completeness is set at ≥ 85%. Results of the assessment process is fair in every cycle. LKS assessment results classified as good in every cycle, the first cycle of 76.57% and 88.69% second cycle. Assessment of products / works has increased from 73.19% the first cycle and 83.59% second cycle. Affective student assessment results quite well on the assessment of character behavior and social skills in every cycle. Assessment of criticalthinking skills of students has increased from 73.55% the first cycle and cycle II 82.11%, from the data obtained shows that the achievement of success indicators research students' criticalthinking skills quite well. Students' response to the application of ProblemBasedLearning models showed high positive answer is 55.41% of students agreed. Under these conditions, the application of the model Pembelajaran Berdasarkan Problems can improve learning outcomes and the criticalthinking skills of students on the Monera Kingdom Concept.
Without mathematics, science, commerce, industry, information and communication technology, the entire economic infrastructure will be problematic . Mathematics is fundament of all science and technology whose applications penetrate areas of human activity . According to Soedjadi, mathematics education should pay attention to two purposes, namely (1) formal goal, namely to improving the reasoning and the personal character of students, and (2) material goal, namely the application of mathematics and mathematic thinking skills . Through learning mathematics, students are expected to increase the ability to think mathematically and skillfully applying the mathematics in solving various problems that encountered in real life.
Abstract:—The ability to think critically is a form of reason where an individual can increase the potential of his thoughts through a process of problem analysis and evaluation. Modules are used because they set the learning time more by the needs and development of studentlearning so that they can help students in their criticalthinkingability. The purpose of this study was to develop teaching materials in the form of modules based on the problembasedlearning approach to improve students’ criticalthinkingability. This type of research is a method of research and development with the ADDIE development model, namely using a model of analyzing, design, develop, implement, evaluate. The subjects of this study were the class VII junior high school students. The instruments used were validation sheets, criticalthinkingability tests, and interview guide guidelines. A validation sheet is addressed to material experts and media experts. Tests to find out student’s criticalthinkingability with the use of modules so that it is known whether there is an increase in students’ criticalthinkingability. Interview guidelines are given to teachers and students to find out the characteristic of students and the curriculum that applies in the school. The data analysis technique in this study uses data reduction, presentation, and conclusion. The module design is produced based on the PBL approach that is by the characteristics, curriculum, and assignments of students. This research can be developed into the development stage. implementation, and evaluation.
The results of the study also emphasized by Julianto, et al, (2018), which explains that students are more active in the PBL learning process with the ability to observe, interpret, predict, and apply the concepts. Murlin, et al., (2017), believes that the experimental method can be an effective method of learning to provide opportunities for students to be directly active and able to improve students' criticalthinking skills. Mulyani, (2015) added that the experimental method proved to be able to give concentration as an emphasis on criticalthinking skills. In accordance with this research, that the experimental method is carried out as a homework assignment, meaning the teacher asks students to carry out experimental activities at home. This is as stated by Marliani, (2015), that by giving student a take-home assignment it will increase the delivered material in the classroom. So the teacher can practice the students 'long-term criticalthinking skills at school, and train the students' criticalthinking skills at home because the steps in the experiment method effectively provide students to think critically.
The objective of this research is to improve the criticalthinkingability in accounting education through ICT Media assisted ProblembasedLearning model utilization. Action Research approach was used in this study. The sample of the research is vocational school students selected by using cluster random sampling technique in Boyolali, Indonesia. The data were collected via observation, interview, test and documentation. Data validity test were performed by method and source triangulation. As a result, ICT Media assisted ProblembasedLearning successfully improve the student’s ability of criticalthinking which were reviewed from the ability to conduct questions, ability to give argumentations, ability to collect and composing information, ability to analyze problems, and ability to make decisions and conclusions
The study aims to: (1) determine the validity and effectiveness of learning instrumentswhich are developed, (2) determine the increase of criticalthinking skills of student using learning instruments developed. This research is development research. The Development model used is 4-D model which consists of four stages: defining, designing, development and disseminate. The results of the defining phase are used to design a learning instrument, thenthis draft is validated and tested in the classto see its effectiveness. From this development, result obtained are: (1) The learning instrument developed is valid with an average validity total of lesson plan = 4.35, student books = 4.35, student worksheet = 4.36; (2) The learning instrumentis effective, that can be seen from both the individual and classical learning mastery are achieved, student activities within the specified tolerance limits and the student’s response toward learning instruments are in good categories; (3) the increasing average of criticalthinking skills of students from first trial test to second trial test is 0.20 points.
In addition, this study refers to some previous research that examine the importance of criticalthinkingability in the learning process for students’ inventory in facing problems in their everyday life. Based on Salihu, Linda and Rasanen opinions this study refers to a study entitled elementary school students’ mathematics ability that contains the importance of mathematics ability and the difficulties experienced by them. The difference from the previous one, this research is to know the teachers’ perceptions toward the use of innovative learning models on students' criticalthinkingability. Based on Wulandaril at all (2017) then a study entitled Students' CriticalThinking Improvement through PDEODE and STAD Combination in The Nutrition and Health Lecture. The similarity in this research is equally study about student's criticalthinkingability. The difference is that this research uses research model development that has been combined to determine the impact on students' criticalthinkingability. Based on Dehghani at all opinion (2011) then a research entitled The Role of Graduate Students' Achievement Goals in Their CriticalThinking Disposition. The similarity in this research is to study about students' criticalthinkingability, while the difference is that the previous study was done in the level of postgraduate education with the aim of disposition of criticalthinkingability while this research is for elementary school level. Furthermore, based on Azru and Katranci’s opinions (2014) a study entitled “The opinions of elementary mathematics student-teachers on problem-basedlearning method”. This study emphasizes on the use of problembasedlearning on mathematics for students' criticalthinkingability. The similarity in this research is equally examine about criticalthinking. While the difference is that this research has applied learning model studied in the field.
Data normality test is done using Shapiro- Wilk test statistics that the pretest data results of the experimental class students had a significant values of 0,088 and the control class had a significant values of 0,179. Significant value of the two classes is greater than 0,05, then based on the decision-making criteria according to Uyanto (2006, p. 30), it can be concluded that the gain data for both classes comes from populations that are normally distributed. Posttest data of the experimental class students had a significant value of 0,021 and the control class had a significant value of 0,204. The significant value of the experimental class is less than 0,05 and the significant value of the control class is greater than 0,05, then based on the decision making criteria according to Uyanto (2006, p. 30), it can be concluded that the gain data of the two classes comes from populations that are not normally distributed. Because the normality of posttest data results are non-parametric statistical tests performed with the Mann-Whitney test results obained Sig. (2-tailed) is 0,013. The value is smaller than 0,05, with the mean rank of the eksperimental class by 40,37 and the mean rank of control class by 28,63, so based on the testing criteria 𝐻 0 is rejected, meaning that there is a
We looked at Mark Smith’s portfolio of student works based on the rubric. Mark’s assignment used Sherman Alexie’s book Absolute True Diary as basis for painting response. He encouraged layering and repetition rather than direct illustration. Background for the students included considering stylistic approaches of Cubism, Surrealism, and Pop art. Mark showed 7 paintings to us. Two painting faculty members (Mark Smith and Mark Andres) evaluated the paintings using the established rubric and then compared assessments. The evaluations between the two were sometimes similar and sometimes different. The SAC felt that this was typical of a studio critique. We all evaluate using the same rubric, but contexts can be different. The context – two different entry points to the assignment (one instructor was in the classroom and one was an outside evaluator) – possibly demonstrated the disagreement in the assessment.
MATLAB software can also be utilised for the promotion of active learning by introducing the learners in computer programming and engineering-related applications through lab exercises and projects. Specifically, MATLAB has been utilised by Mechanical, Civil and Electrical Engineering students at the University of Portland, Oregon, USA, as a tool for active learning. After a brief introduction by the teacher, the students worked on tasks applying their programming skills on specific engineering problems; each project task required three or four class sessions to be completed. The learners’ feedback was positive, although some of them found the module difficult and would prefer to have been provided with more instructions prior to starting the given tasks (Hoffbeck et al., 2016).
Some studies have also suggested that fading of hard scaffolds is possible once the students have gained ability in performing the assigned tasks (Belland et al. 2008; Puntambekar and Hubscher 2005). For example, novices in a PBL environment may engage in unrelated literature searches, which indirectly results in inefficient learning (Schmidt et al. 2007). Hence, it is often essential that novice students in a PBL environment are provided with some resources to scaffold their learning, as being able to successfully search for literature and other resources usually requires a certain level of prior or domain knowledge. With increasing expertise, fewer resources should be provided to the students. In this way, independent learning is encouraged while providing a form of flexible scaffolding (Schmidt et al. 2007). On the whole, the use of scaffolds in general and PBL context has demonstrated varying degrees of impact on studentlearning achievements. Some studies have shown effec- tiveness of scaffolds in supporting studentlearning (Cho and Jonassen 2002; Roehler and Cantlon 1997; Simons and Klein 2007). For example, Simons and Klein (2007) examined the impact of scaffolding and student achievement levels in a PBL environment, whereby students were subjected to different scaffolding conditions. Results from this study revealed that students who were given access to scaffolds performed significantly better in the post-tests, compared to the group with no scaffolds provided. The findings indicated that scaffolds may influence student inquiry and performance in a PBL environment. However, one of the limitations for this study would be the distribution of experimental groups. Only one class was assigned to the no scaffolding condition, whereas it would have been more desirable if the sample size of two classes was used to achieve the same number of classes in each experimental condition. Therefore, the present study sought to explore how far scaffolds, in the form of structured worksheets, help students in their learning in PBL. A quasi experimental approach was chosen in which one group of students received a scaffold during PBL and another not. Differences in their learning were determined by comparing the mean scores on a concept recall test.
Although the term criticalthinking has often been used loosely with regard to a smorgasbord of complex thinking skills, the present study has adopted Moon’s (2008) definition of criticalthinking as a “capacity to work with complex ideas whereby a person can make effective provision of evidence to justify a reasonable judgment. The evidence, and therefore the judgment, will pay appropriate attention to context” (p. 7). Additionally, this study considers (1) the importance of developing these skills so that individuals might ultimately deal with complex problems in authentic/real-life contexts (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000; National Research Council, 1996), and (2) the necessity of students to engage in active criticalthinking processes. These include purpose- ful and reasoned thinking, analysis of appropriate data, con- struction of evidence-based arguments, inference-making, and evaluation of relevant information (Halpern, 1999; Paul, 1995; Perkins, 1998). Moon’s (2008) definition of criticalthinking, as well as the oft-emphasized cognitive skills such as analysis, interpretation, evaluation, explanation, and syn- thesis (Abrami et al., 2008; Ennis, 1987; Fischer, 2001), are embodied by Xin’s (2002) framework of intellectual acts of progressive stages of engaged collaborative discourse. Xin originally utilized this scheme in order to explore individuals’ levels of understanding during online seminars. This frame- work was adapted for the purposes of coding and analyzing discourse in the context of a GBL intervention (Table 4).
On loose terms, project is defined as task; any task, either new or modified, altered. There is a divided opinion on the definition of project and task. Some critics say they are the same while others argue they are different in objectives. Objective, outcome, duration, selection of text, demographic factors are the factors which distinguish project from a task. Projects are generally considered to be for longer duration; few days to weeks. Moss & Van Duzer, (1998) define project basedlearning as “an instructional method which conceptualizes learning by problems and products to develop”. Project BasedLearning exposes learners to real world issues. It gives students the opportunity to understand the world around them and the concepts and prepare them to face and solve society‟s problems. While searching for projects, students will explore and engage in reading which an essential component of learning is. Autonomy is given to students since all activities- brainstorming for ideas, planning, designing, evaluating etc. are done by students themselves mostly. Wrigley (1998) supports this view that most projects involve various well planned and well guided processes. And it also promotes unconscious learning. Selection of projects is crucial both for teachers and students. Projects can be chosen according to their discipline which will help the students in learning the core subjects.
Duch (in Shoimin, 2014: 130) argues that "problembasedlearning (PBL) is a teaching model characterized by real problems as a context for students learning to think critically and problem solving skills and gain knowledge". Daryanto (2014: 29) suggests that "problem-basedlearning is a learning model that challenges students to 'learn how to learn', work in groups to find solutions to real-world problems". Ngalimun (2014: 163) suggests that "problem-basedlearning trains and develops the ability to solve authentic problem-oriented problems from the actual lives of students, to stimulate higher-order thinking skills". The same thing was also stated by Tung (2015: 228) that "problem-basedlearning is learning that emphasizes authentic problem solving such as problems that occur in everyday life. Thus through the problembasedlearning model students are guided to solve or find their own solutions or answers to a problem in the learning process, so that students will be involved in learning to solve problems in the real world.
For the last question in reflective journal on the question “What has today’s class taught you about being a critical thinker in solving the problem scenario given?”, most of the students with 53 out of 55 believed that they are now can be categorized under critical thinker. This is due to the process that they had to go through while searching for the solutions to the problem scenarios given. The students also mentioned that at the self-directed learning stage, they were quite confused at first. They felt confused on what to do since in the previous classes, everything is given by the lecturers. Thus, the previous action has limited their abilities to be independent in finding solutions. Therefore, when given triggers, they were quite confused and had no confidence to proceed with the next steps. However, along the way, after third triggers were given, they were comfortable with the stage. Due to self-directed learning stage, they were able to groom their confidence while presenting the information that they had for group reporting. They were also happy if their opinions and solutions were heard by group members. For them, it was not an easy process as they had to do research, read, gather and merge all the authorized resources from books and websites in order to come out with possible solutions. According to Zhang (2009), students engage in collaborative learning through interaction with others, which serves as a catalyst for criticalthinking. Due to exposure in using PBL approach, the students managed to choose (knowledge), classify and associate (comprehension), generalize and illustrate (application), compare, criticize and question (analyze) as well as draft and plan (synthesis) the solutions for triggers given. Along the way, the students faced cognitive dissonance among themselves. This was the stage where the students used all
& Cross, 2001; Lawson & Dorst, 2009) and nonroutine prob- lems. Therefore, art education provides a basic platform for students to generate ideas by using criticalthinking (Knight, 2010). Thus, artwork can include new things only when the nonroutine problems are solved by the student using criti- cal thinking during the artwork’s production. The original artistic creation occurs by establishing specific criteria for the process (Dudek 2012, as cited in Runco, 2014). Criti- cal thinking is one criterion for creating art. Beyer (1995, as cited in Chang, Li, Chen, & Chiu, 2015) confirms that criti- cal thinking includes new ideas and judgments. In addition, Chang and colleagues (2015) determined that critical think- ing is helpful for inspiring students’ originality and learn- ing. Criticalthinking enhances students’ ideas (Treffinger, Isaksen & Dorval, 1994). If one considers that artwork is a problem (e.g., Dudek & Cote, 1994) and criticalthinking is a process used for problem solving (Chang et al., 2015), then one can expect that visual arts students will benefit from a PBL environment. Prior studies have indicated that the PBL approach has had a significant effect on students’ ability to comprehensively solve problems (Chan, 2013; Vidic, 2011). Thus, we can expect that the criticalthinking skills of visual arts students can be improved by using the PBL approach. In addition, creative thinking skills that are used for non- routine problem solving can be enhanced for visual arts stu- dents during the PBL process. Nonroutine problems support creativity in terms of finding novel solutions (e.g., Cropley, 2001; Guilford, 1967; Guilford & Hoepfner, 1971; Plucker et al., 2004; Reiter-Palmon et al., 2009; Torrance, 1965).