Top PDF Left and right brain hemispheres and their effect on creativity

Left and right brain hemispheres and their effect on creativity

Left and right brain hemispheres and their effect on creativity

Rochester Institute of Technology RIT Scholar Works Theses Thesis/Dissertation Collections 8-1-1976 Left and right brain hemispheres and their effect on creativity Catherine Hraber Follo[r]

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Analysis of the Asymmetric Gene Expression between the Left and Right Hemispheres of Drosophila Brain

Analysis of the Asymmetric Gene Expression between the Left and Right Hemispheres of Drosophila Brain

Studying the molecular mechanism of brain asymmetry can provide important clues to under- stand neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders related to brain lateralization. In this paper, asymmetric gene expression in the left/right hemispheres of Drosophila brain was genome-widely analyzed to help understand the molecular mechanism of brain asymmetry. Using microarray analysis of total RNAs of the left/right brain hemispheres, thirty-eight genes were found to be dif- ferentially expressed in the left/right hemispheres. This result supports that Drosophila brain is asymmetrical at the molecular level. Among thirty-eight genes, six genes of interests were chosen for further analysis based on their protein structures or previous studies: dpr6, CG13299, CG13068, Lim3, CG43759, and Ir21a. Those six genes encode proteins that serve various functions like neural gene expression, memory control, ion channel, and membrane receptor. Surprisingly, all six genes of interests have their peak expression during the early embryonic stages, suggesting that they may play a role in the developmental stage of brain lateralization. Overall, these findings of differential gene expressions in the left/right brain hemispheres can serve as a basic foundation for further research on the understanding of the molecular mechanism of brain asymmetry.
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Does Muscle Fatigue Alter EEG Bands of Brain Hemispheres?

Does Muscle Fatigue Alter EEG Bands of Brain Hemispheres?

Comparing EEG activities in right and left hemispheres revealed that there was a signifi- cant difference between two hemispheres in pre-fatigue state at 30% MVC in gamma band activity. Increase of mean power of gamma band in right hemisphere was unpredictable because the contraction of APM performed in right hand. There is no obvious reason for this finding, but the visual attention of the sub- jects to force level indicator on screen of dy- namometer device may be the cause. Heilman and Abell theorized the right hemisphere is dominant for visual attention [25]. In addition, enhancement of gamma activity is a sign of vi- sual attention too [24]. Visual concentration of the subjects to precise monitoring of the force level index would be the source of high gam- ma band activity detected in right hemisphere in this study.
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Creativity and the Brain

Creativity and the Brain

An alternative interpretation of the involvement of the right hemisphere is based on the observation that connections between left and right hemisphere require long projections and cannot carry precise information. Therefore right hemisphere has only a global view at a higher level of abstraction, generalizing over similar concepts and their relations. This is also true for the left hemisphere, distributed activations in the right hemisphere form various configurations that activate back larger regions of the left hemisphere. Gamma high-activity burst projected to the left hemisphere will prime subnetworks with sufficient strength to form associative connections linking the problem statement with partial or final solution. Such solutions may initially be difficult to justify, until all intermediate steps will be categorized. The solution may be surprising, based on quite different idea than initially entertained. Gamma burst also activates emotions increasing plasticity of the cortex and facilitating the formation of new associations. One should expect that the same neural processes should also be involved in creative thinking, and that results of such processes will sometimes be assessed as creative.
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Kupffer's vesicle is a ciliated organ of asymmetry in the zebrafish embryo that initiates left right development of the brain, heart and gut

Kupffer's vesicle is a ciliated organ of asymmetry in the zebrafish embryo that initiates left right development of the brain, heart and gut

(data not shown). The retention of intron 2 (confirmed by sequencing RT-PCR products, data not shown) introduces several stop codons in the lrdr1-coding sequence. Embryos injected with lrdr1E2/I2 MO had phenotypes similar to embryos injected with lrdr1-AUG MO. lrdr1E2/I2 MO (1.6 ng) injected at the one- to four-cell stages blocked splicing of lrdr1 mRNA in DFCs at 80% epiboly (Fig. 4J, lane 5), reversed heart looping in 27% of injected embryos (n=44) [when compared with 0% in uninjected embryos (n=31)], and disrupted expression of LR markers (Table 1). In lrdr1E2/I2 MO injected embryos, midline expression of ntl (n=22/23) and shh (n=45/46) was intact at 24-26 SS. Furthermore, KV appeared normal in live embryos (n=146/162) relative to controls (n=58/62) and anti-Tubulin antibodies detected KV cilia at 6-10 SS (n=5). In general, lrdr1E2/I2 MO had a weaker effect on LR development than did the translation-blocking lrdr1-AUG MO (Table 1). This could reflect a difference in the effectiveness of the two MOs or may be due to the presence of maternal lrdr1 transcripts, which are presumably already spliced before MO delivery and therefore not targeted by lrdr1E2/I2 MO. Either of these possibilities would be consistent with the low level of normally spliced lrdr1 mRNA that remains in lrdr1E2/I2 MO embryos (Fig. 6J, lane 5). Although lrdr1E2/I2 MO injections resulted in a less penetrant phenotype, the effects on LR patterning corroborate the lrdr1- AUG MO data and together show that lrdr1 is an essential gene for LR development in zebrafish.
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Right-to-left shunt and subclinical ischemic brain lesions in Chinese migraineurs: a multicentre MRI study

Right-to-left shunt and subclinical ischemic brain lesions in Chinese migraineurs: a multicentre MRI study

incidence of SBI in subjects with RLS was only 8.9%, which was a low-probability event and might result in inadequate statistical power. The number of subjects with the different grades of RLS was not sufficiently large, and the sample size of our study (n = 334) was not quite adequate to draw concrete conclusions. Secondly, c-TCD tests and MRI scans for subjects were performed in different centres, which led to unavoidable differences in sensitivity. In addition, the data were obtained in patients from hospital departments, who may have been more severely affected than the average migraineur. Thus, it is uncertain whether and to what degree these conclusions can be applied to all migraineurs. Moreover, our study was based on real-world observations, and thus we cannot discriminate the real causes of embol- ism. Further studies are needed to expand the sample size to verify that curtain RLS is indeed a risk factor for SBI in migraine. Furthermore, it should be investigated whether the prevalence of SBI in migraineurs with curtain RLS is associated with aura, and whether curtain RLS closure has a protective effect.
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The processing of phonological and orthographic representations of print in the left and right cerebral hemispheres

The processing of phonological and orthographic representations of print in the left and right cerebral hemispheres

Several explanations of the variability in the results of forward masked phonological priming experiments have been offered, including the demonstration of Tzur and Frost (2007) that the exposure duration of primes in combination with their luminance modulates the size of identity priming effects. With regard to the experiments of Perfetti and Bell (1991), Ferrand and Grainger (1992, 1993), and Brysbaert (2001), if the luminous intensity of their stimuli was low, then it may be that they did not obtain phonological priming at the shorter stimulus onset asynchronies because the overall energy of their primes was not sufficient. However, while this may explain the failures to find a pseudohomophone effect at shorter stimulus onset asynchronies (i.e., less than 29 ms), this does not explain failures to do so at longer stimulus onset asynchronies, as Tzur and Frost found that luminous effects are discontinuous and are not a factor at longer stimulus onset asynchronies (i.e., 40 ms), such as that used by Davis, Castles, and Iakovidis(1998).
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LESSON 5: LEFT-BRAIN/RIGHT- BRAIN

LESSON 5: LEFT-BRAIN/RIGHT- BRAIN

For best results, use verbal and visual thinking together and amplify the effect with strong feelings and emotions (kinesthetic thought). Say your affirmations aloud and see yourself acting or feeling the way they suggest. Once you start your goal-state visual- izations, monitor your self-talk and make sure it supports your goals. If something happens to create discouragement, talk yourself up with an appropriate affirmation, like: “There’s nothing to fear but fear itself,” or “I’ll turn down my fear and turn up my confidence.” When your verbal thoughts,

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Worlds apart:  Pictorial semantics in the left and right cerebral hemispheres

Worlds apart: Pictorial semantics in the left and right cerebral hemispheres

paradigms range from perceptual identification and category decisions to long-term recognition memory. Neurological and neurosurgical brain-damaged patients without clinical visual agnosia as well as or normal subjects participated in the studies. Convergent evidence is crucial in the field of mind-brain interaction. In patients with focal unilateral brain-damage, observed behavior may reflect pathological inhibition of diseased over healthy tissue rather than directly reflecting functions performed by the healthy tissue in the absence of the diseased tissue. Indeed, patients with complete commissurotomy (split-brain) as well as normal subjects have been found to perform hemispheric tasks which could not have been predicted from data obtained on neurological patients with focal unilateral brain-damage. For this reason I attempt to include all three experimental populations in my studies.
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THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE IN THE SUPINE POSITION ON PULMONARY VASCULAR DYNAMICS IN PATIENTS WITH LEFT TO RIGHT SHUNTS

THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE IN THE SUPINE POSITION ON PULMONARY VASCULAR DYNAMICS IN PATIENTS WITH LEFT TO RIGHT SHUNTS

In those patients with pulmonary hypertension the pulmonary blood flow was found to change only slightly during exercise irrespective of the magnitude of the left-toright shunt, while pu[r]

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Left right patterning: conserved and divergent mechanisms

Left right patterning: conserved and divergent mechanisms

After symmetry-breaking in the LR organizer, asymmetric gene expression arises in the lateral plate on the left side (Meno et al., 1999; Saijoh et al., 2005; Shiratori et al., 2006). In the mouse, Nodal, Lefty2 and the transcription factor Pitx2 are expressed in the LPM exclusively on the left side. Whereas Nodal functions as a left-side determinant, Lefty is a feedback inhibitor of Nodal. Nodal induces its own expression via a Nodal-responsive enhancer of Nodal, and the operation of this positive feedback loop underlies the expansion of the Nodal expression domain. Nodal also simultaneously induces the expression of Lefty2. This combination of positive and negative feedback loops constitutes a SELI system that is able to amplify a small difference between the left and right of the node into a robust difference in the LPM, because Nodal expression in the right LPM is inhibited by Lefty diffusing from the left LPM (Nakamura et al., 2006). Mathematical modeling indicates that the SELI system can establish correct LR patterning only if the diffusion velocity of Lefty is higher than that of Nodal. That Lefty travels faster than Nodal was suggested by an early study (Sakuma et al., 2002), but recent work has directly revealed such a difference in the diffusion velocities of Lefty and Nodal (Marjoram and Wright, 2011). The diffusion of Lefty and Nodal also appears to be facilitated by sulfated proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix (Oki et al., 2007; Marjoram and Wright, 2011). The SELI system composed of Nodal and Lefty seems to be conserved among vertebrate species (Nakamura et al., 2006; Marjoram and Wright, 2011); however, other genes are also expressed asymmetrically in the LPM. In the chick embryo, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) represses Nodal expression in the LPM, whereas BMP signaling positively upregulates CFC (a member of EGF-CFC: Cripto/FRL-1/Cryptic) expression, which is indispensable for Nodal positive feedback loop (Piedra and Ros, 2002). However
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Source Side Left to Right or Target Side Left to Right? An Empirical Comparison of Two Phrase Based Decoding Algorithms

Source Side Left to Right or Target Side Left to Right? An Empirical Comparison of Two Phrase Based Decoding Algorithms

This paper describes an empirical study of the phrase-based decoding algorithm pro- posed by Chang and Collins (2017). The algorithm produces a translation by pro- cessing the source-language sentence in strictly left-to-right order, differing from commonly used approaches that build the target-language sentence in left-to-right order. Our results show that the new al- gorithm is competitive with Moses (Koehn et al., 2007) in terms of both speed and BLEU scores.

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Left right asymmetry: lessons from Cancún

Left right asymmetry: lessons from Cancún

Molecular, Lisbon, Portugal) reported that N-cadherin is important in this process, potentially in stopping this migration. At HH stage 5, cells around the node cease to move, but blocking N-cadherin allows them to continue their movements, potentially producing the LR patterning defects seen with this treatment. Michelle Collins (from Aimee Ryan’s group, McGill University, Montreal, Canada) reported that claudin-10 is expressed to the right of the chick node in the endoderm between HH stages 4+ and 7, and that knockdown of this protein produces LR defects. Accordingly, overexpression of claudin-10 on the left of the node also produces defects. This appears to be downstream of asymmetric Sonic hedgehog and peri- nodal Nodal expression; however, the potential mechanism involved is perplexing. In both experiments, Nodal expression in the LPM is absent. Because claudins play important roles in tight junctions and their ‘leakiness’, this suggests that some asymmetric difference in barrier function is required for Nodal expression in the chick LPM. Another controversy in the field involves LR patterning in Xenopus and whether ‘early determinants’ at the one- to four-cell stage set up the LR axis, or whether cilia-driven flow from the LRO is the primary determinant of asymmetry. Martin Blum mentioned that his group was unable to see asymmetric localization of the proposed early determinants, such as ATP4 or serotonin (Beyer et al., 2012b; Walentek et al., 2012). Blum argued that manipulation of ‘early cues’ leads to defects in lineages important for LR patterning, in this case the formation or motility of cilia in the GRP. For example, the GRP arises from the superficial mesoderm (Schweickert et al., 2007), which expresses the foxj1 transcription factor required for cilia motility and xnr3. Importantly, the superficial mesoderm requires the early determinants serotonin and ATP4 for specification and for later cilia polarization (Beyer et al., 2012b; Walentek et al., 2012). Therefore, early treatments might be affecting many steps along the way to a later readout, but in the end all affect cilia and flow. Blum proposed a new model in which early determinants are required for epithelialization of the outer blastula cells that express serotonin and produce the superficial mesoderm, which later gives rise to the ciliated GRP.
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Left right asymmetry in heart development and disease: forming the right loop

Left right asymmetry in heart development and disease: forming the right loop

Genetically, heterotaxy is strongly associated with mutations in genes (e.g. MMP21, ZIC3) that are involved in the formation of the node, which is the left-right embryonic organiser in which lateral symmetry is first broken (Nonaka et al., 1998; Table 4). Mutations in ciliary genes (e.g. CFAP52/54, NPHP4), which are implicated in generating the leftward fluid flow in the node, and in components of the Nodal pathway (e.g. ACVR2B, CFC1, FOXH1, GDF1, LEFTY2, NODAL), which are a readout of the node function, may also be found in heterotaxy (Brennan et al., 2002). Heterotaxy syndrome is therefore associated with a randomisation of left-right patterning, with potential discordance between different anatomical structures. Situs inversus is associated with variations in genes that are similar to those affected in heterotaxy (Table 4), suggesting a continuous spectrum of defects. Situs inversus is also frequent in primary ciliary dyskinesia, which is caused by mutations in motile cilium genes (Harrison et al., 2016). Transposition of the great arteries (TGA), which is a defect found in heterotaxy, is also observed isolated in association with genetic variations common to heterotaxy (see Bouvagnet and de Bellaing, 2016; De Luca et al., 2010). This is a severe congenital heart defect in which the two blood circulations run in parallel, and thus systemic blood can no longer be oxygenated (Fig. 7D). This defect, which has to be repaired surgically, may result from defective rotation of the outflow tract, which is a rightward process (Bajolle et al., 2006). It is often associated with defective coronary stems, which normally emerge above the left and right leaflets of the aortic valve (Sithamparanathan et al., 2013). Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA) can also be classified as a laterality defect, on the basis of the recurrence of TGA in the same families (Digilio et al., 2001). It corresponds to an inverted position of the ventricles, combined with a transposition of the great vessels, thus maintaining a normal blood circulation (Fig. 7J). Despite the correct blood circulation, individuals with CCTGA are at a higher risk of cardiac insufficiency, because the structure of the right ventricle cannot support a systemic function. The inverted positions of the ventricles would suggest defective heart looping. However, the origin and genetics of CCTGA are currently unknown. Other genetic variations underlying laterality defects may be detected in genetic studies (see above) or genetic screens (Li et al., 2015) in the mouse, and in the expanding genetic analyses of individuals with congenital heart defects (e.g. Jin et al., 2017).
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Re-measuring left-right : a better model for extracting left-right political party policy preference scores

Re-measuring left-right : a better model for extracting left-right political party policy preference scores

For the left scale, only France surpasses the conventional standard 0.6, while only Great Britain, Spain and Sweden meet this level for the right scale. These results seriously question the scalability of these items, particularly when constructing simple additive scales. These results are somewhat counter-intuitive, however, in that the categories that are combined to create the scales (arguably) should align together along one or perhaps two dimensions. Country specific factor analyses, however, confirm that these items do not consistently load together across time and/or space. Table 2.4 illustrates how different items load at different levels and in varying combinations across countries pooling over all manifestos included in the CMP data set. What is most striking about these results is that no single item loads consistently across all countries for either the left or the right scales.
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Left to Right Tree to String Decoding with Prediction

Left to Right Tree to String Decoding with Prediction

Most researchers have resorted to approximate search, typically beam search (Chiang, 2007). The decoder parses the source sentence, recording the target translations for each span. 1 As the partial translation hypothesis grows, its component ngrams are scored and the hypothesis score is updated. This decoding method though is inefficient as it requires recording the language model context (n − 1 words) on the left and right edges of each chart cell. These contexts allow for boundary ngrams to be evaluated when the cell is used in another grammar produc- tion. In contrast, if the target string is generated in left-to-right order, then only one language model context is required, and the problem of language model evaluation is vastly simplified.
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The Case for Right Brain Thinking in a Left Brain World. The Case for a Whole New Way of Thinking and Succeeding Bill Duffy RN MJ CNOR

The Case for Right Brain Thinking in a Left Brain World. The Case for a Whole New Way of Thinking and Succeeding Bill Duffy RN MJ CNOR

The Two Sides of Our Brain L-Directed Thinking Logical Analytical Reasons sequentially Literal Textual.. Values results and.[r]

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Left to Right Dependency Parsing with Pointer Networks

Left to Right Dependency Parsing with Pointer Networks

We present a novel left-to-right dependency parser based on pointer networks. We follow the same neural network architecture as the stack-pointer- based approach developed by Ma et al. (2018), but just using a focus word index instead of a buffer and a stack. Apart from doubling their system’s speed, our approach proves to be a competitive al- ternative on a variety of languages and achieves the best accuracy to date on the PTB-SD.

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The relationship between right-to-left shunt and brain white matter lesions in Japanese patients with migraine: a single center study

The relationship between right-to-left shunt and brain white matter lesions in Japanese patients with migraine: a single center study

migraine with aura (MA) compared with those with mi- graine without aura (MWOA) in Asian populations [6]. Although the exact mechanisms of association between migraine and PFO remain unclear, activation of the tri- geminal nerve and cerebrovascular system by the passage of metabolic substances or subclinical emboli through a PFO has been implicated [7]. In addition, several reports have described a positive relationship between RLs and brain white matter lesions (WMLs) [8]. Both PFO and pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (pAVM) are known risk factors for cryptogenic ischemic stroke in young subjects. Furthermore, elderly individuals with se- vere WMLs are at risk for developing stroke [9], and migraine has also been associated with an increased risk of stroke [10].
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Effect of Graded Reduction of Umbilical Blood Flow on Right and Left Ventricular Outputs in the Fetal Lamb

Effect of Graded Reduction of Umbilical Blood Flow on Right and Left Ventricular Outputs in the Fetal Lamb

They obtained a statistically significant difference in carotid arterial and femoral arterial oxygen saturations when umbilical blood flow was re- duced by both venous constriction and h[r]

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