Top PDF Life at age 12 : initial findings from the Growing Up in Scotland study

Life at age 12 : initial findings from the Growing Up in Scotland study

Life at age 12 : initial findings from the Growing Up in Scotland study

Concluding remarks This report marks the end of the ninth sweep of data collection with Birth Cohort 1 in the Growing Up in Scotland study. This was the first data collected since the cohort members moved to secondary school and embarked on their journey into adolescence. The tenth sweep of fieldwork, where the cohort children are aged 14, commenced in January 2019 and interviewing will continue until summer 2020. The enduring support from and enthusiasm of the cohort members and their families is allowing the continued expansion of an already rich and diverse unique source of information on the characteristics, circumstances and experiences of children and their parents in Scotland.
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Criminal careers up to age 50 and life success up to age 48: new findings from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development

Criminal careers up to age 50 and life success up to age 48: new findings from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development

The data collected at age 18 showed that, whatever aspect of life was under consideration, virtually every comparison suggested that the convicted delinquents were more deviant. They were less socially restrained, more hedonistic, more impulsive, more reckless and distinctly more aggressive and prone to physical violence than their non-delinquent peers. They smoked more, drank more and gambled more. They had a faster life style, they went out more, they visited bars, discotheques and parties more often, they had more contacts with girls, they were more sexually precocious and sexually promiscuous, they avoided educational pursuits, evening classes or reading books, they earned more from highly paid unskilled jobs with poor future prospects, but they spent more, saved less, and were more frequently out of work and in debt… Reports of conflicts with parents, and an expressed preference for living away from the parental home, were common among the delinquents… These generally antisocial characteristics associated with delinquency tended to occur together, so that the typical antisocial individual had several such features.
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The experiences of mothers aged under 20 : analysis of data from the growing up in Scotland study

The experiences of mothers aged under 20 : analysis of data from the growing up in Scotland study

25% of mothers aged under 20, compared with 17% of those in their early twenties and 19% of mothers aged 25 or older. Physical and mental wellbeing (SF12) 4.5 Health-related quality of life was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form (SF-12). The SF-12 provides two summary scale scores: a physical component (PCS) and a mental component (MCS). Higher summary scale scores are indicative of better health- related quality of life. However, as the results are based on the mothers self-reported own physical and mental functioning they are subjective and may lead to differential reporting between respondents with an equivalent objective health status. The SF-12 does not have threshold scores defining whether or not an individual is likely to be suffering from a psychiatric disorder or physical health problem. For this reason poor maternal mental health and physical health is defined in terms of an individual's score in relation to the average score for all first-time mothers in the sample. A score of one standard deviation below the average was used as a cut-off for both scales for to indicate relatively poor physical and mental health. Table 4.5 shows the results by age for physical wellbeing.
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Growing up in Scotland : overweight, obesity and activity

Growing up in Scotland : overweight, obesity and activity

Associations between individual child and family characteristics and children’s overweight and obesity were explored (Table 3.2). Note that these associations do not take account of other factors that simultaneously may play a role. Greater birthweight (standardised for gender, gestation and parity) was strongly associated with being overweight or obese at age 6. Neither gender, ethnicity, birth order or number of siblings was clearly associated with being overweight or obese, although there was a trend for children from larger families to be at lower risk. The GUS sample contains only a small percentage of children from ethnic minority groups, so is not as well placed to explore ethnic differences in overweight and obesity as the Millennium Cohort Study, which has a boosted ethnic sample.
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Growing up in Scotland. Birth cohort 2 : results from the first year

Growing up in Scotland. Birth cohort 2 : results from the first year

Equally Well is the report of the Scottish Government’s Ministerial Task Force on Health Inequalities. Though its focus is not restricted to children it nevertheless highlights the early years as a priority area and recommended a number of actions be addressed at this critical life stage (Scottish Government, 2008a). Equally Well defines child health inequalities in two ways. First, inequalities can relate to negative outcomes such as low birth weight or other indicators of a failure to thrive. Secondly, it can mean inequalities in exposure to risk factors that increase the likelihood of, or perpetuate, poor health outcomes. These include poor diet, lack of physical exercise, parental drug or alcohol misuse, being in care, living in a poor physical environment and family poverty. GUS represents a key source of data on the extent of these inequalities amongst children in Scotland but further, and importantly, is uniquely placed to examine the impact of exposure to risk factors on later outcomes. GUS can also identify factors associated with resilience including policy interventions such as engagement with parenting support services. Indeed, study findings have already been used to examine these sorts of issues.
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Growing up in Scotland: parenting and children’s health + technical appendix

Growing up in Scotland: parenting and children’s health + technical appendix

Reeves 2009). The study also has a limited focus on mothers’ parenting of children up to the age of 5, and more work is required to establish wider applicability to the role of fathers or non-biological parent figures, or to the parenting of older children. Despite the limitations of the study that have been highlighted above, the findings suggest that policy measures to strengthen parenting skills may benefit child physical and mental health and child health behaviours. It is beyond the remit of this report to suggest mechanisms for delivering parental support, and measures could range from direct (e.g. parenting advice and classes) to indirect (alleviating aspects of family adversity that may impede good parenting). In what follows, the term ‘parenting programmes’ is intended to cover a range of policy options.
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Growing up in Scotland: sweep 3 food and activity report

Growing up in Scotland: sweep 3 food and activity report

Finally, research has shown that different nutritional patterns among infants and young children may take some time to manifest themselves in the form of excess weight or obesity in later childhood. A study by Ong et al., (2000) based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ASLPAC) found that ‘catch-up growth’, known as the process by which low or under-weight babies grow very rapidly during infancy and early childhood, was associated with higher BMI scores at age 5. This means that many babies, who were found to be underweight at birth and in infancy, grew very rapidly during their first five years of life so as to result as obese or overweight by the age of 5. Therefore, with respect to the GUS cohort of children, it is not necessarily the case that differences in BMI associated to diet and exercise would become immediately apparent. As the children were only 3 years and 10 months of age at the time of measurement, some changes in weight may take a longer time to emerge. It will be interesting to see how the children’s diets and physical activity in sweep 3, when they were aged 4 years and 10 months, will relate to their weight in sweep 4, when they are aged 5 years and 10 months, when the physical outcomes of different diets and activity patterns may be more evident.
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Financial instruments of the poor: Initial findings from the financial diaries study

Financial instruments of the poor: Initial findings from the financial diaries study

Masiwela* is a neat and gracious 65 year old woman who is living with one grandchild and the child of a relative. She supports the three of them on an old age grant. Her daughter gives her money now and then, but she constantly complains that the old age grant is not enough to support them. She asks her son for money, but he says that the grant should be enough. Another daughter, who receives a child grant, also comes in and out of the household with her two children. In order to cope she often takes goods on credit with local vendors (five times over the year), borrows from mashonisas (four times over the year) and borrows from relatives (three times over the year). She also takes credit from the local spaza shop, and pays it off by the end of the month.
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Life expectancy and years of life lost in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Findings from the NHANES III Follow-up Study

Life expectancy and years of life lost in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Findings from the NHANES III Follow-up Study

Our primary goal was to compute life expectancy and the years of life lost due to COPD. To do so we required quantifi - cation of the excess mortality associated with COPD. We thus sought to calculate the associated excess death rates (EDRs) and RRs, and to investigate whether these varied by age, sex, race, education, smoking status, the presence of concomitant medical conditions, and time since evaluation. We were particularly interested in how the RRs varied with age, as we have found in other chronic conditions that it declines with age. 17,18 Using the aforementioned results, we then computed life expectancies for the various groups, in order to determine the years of life lost due to COPD. As noted, these quantities have not been reported in the literature.
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Internal living environment and respiratory disease in children: findings from the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal child cohort study

Internal living environment and respiratory disease in children: findings from the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal child cohort study

In NZ, 18% of adults smoke cigarettes regularly [41], and as a result approximately one-third of children are po- tentially exposed to second hand cigarette smoke [42, 43]. In this study, one-in-seven mothers reported smoking at least one cigarette a day and one-in-three reported smok- ing by at least one other member of the household. Pas- sive smoking is a well-known risk factor for a number of respiratory illnesses in early childhood [13, 44]. A previous birth cohort study in New Zealand reported an increased risk of ARI associated with maternal smoking in the first two years of life but the association was not significant after two years [45]. In this study, smoking by mother or other members of the household was not associated with the risk of ARI episodes in the first five years of life after adjustment for maternal demographics and other charac- teristics. Similar results were observed when the analysis was restricted to ARI events in the first two years of life. We conclude that voluntary smoke-free home rules and changes in social norms regarding the acceptability of smoking around non-smokers mean that children, includ- ing those from households containing smokers, are less exposed to second hand smoke than in the past [17, 18].
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Growing up in Scotland: father-child relationships and child socio-emotional wellbeing

Growing up in Scotland: father-child relationships and child socio-emotional wellbeing

Concluding remarks Overall, the results from this report highlight the importance of father-child relationships in couple families, showing that these relationships in middle childhood are closely bound up with several other aspects of children’s socio-emotional wellbeing. While the majority of children perceive high levels of supportiveness from resident fathers, a significant minority perceiving low levels of supportiveness also have lower overall wellbeing, regardless of other family circumstances. This lower wellbeing does not simply reflect children’s negative perceptions of family life, but extends outside the family to include lower enjoyment of school, and poorer relations with teachers and peers. Future work will seek to strengthen this finding using teacher-reported measures of child wellbeing collected at age 10 (but not available for this study), and by examining father-child relationships at age 10 in relation to children’s wellbeing measured in future sweeps of GUS.
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Growing up in Scotland: multiple childcare provision and its effect on child outcomes

Growing up in Scotland: multiple childcare provision and its effect on child outcomes

vary by household income to a small extent and by whether there was a non-working adult in the household. Maternal employment, whether full time or part time, is associated with higher levels of use of multiple childcare providers. The particular childcare mix used by an individual family is dependent on parental preferences as well as the availability, accessibility and affordability of different types of care. Previous research from the EPPE study, for example (Sylva et al, 2004), has shown that experiencing different durations and types of childcare in the early years can have different effects on child development. Thus consideration of the mix of formal and informal provision experienced by children with multiple providers, as well as the time they spend in childcare is important. Children who experience multiple provision spend longer in childcare on average in a typical week than do children cared for by a single provider. However, further analysis of how this varies shows that there is a rather more complex relationship between the duration of childcare and the number of providers used. In terms of types of provision, those with multiple providers at all sweeps used mainly a combination of formal and informal provision. Indeed children with multiple providers are more likely than those with only one provider to experience formal childcare at an earlier age. Only about one fifth of children in the birth cohort using multiple
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Baseline factors predictive of serious suicidality at follow-up: findings focussing on age and gender from a community-based study

Baseline factors predictive of serious suicidality at follow-up: findings focussing on age and gender from a community-based study

Measures Sociodemographic variables involved current marital sta- tus (married/de facto, separated/divorced/widowed, never married), employment status (full-time, part-time, not in labour force), education (total years studying to highest qualification), parent (yes/no). Health and sub- stance use was assessed by the Goldberg Depression and Anxiety Scales[15], the AUDIT scale evaluated alcohol use (abstain, occasional/light, medium, hazardous/harm- ful[16]), current tobacco smoker (yes/no)[17], and the frequency of marijuana usage was determined (don't use, once or twice per year, once every 1-4 months, once or more per week[18]). Physical health items established whether participant suffered from common chronic dis- eases[19]. A low prevalence of physical medical condi- tions necessitated the creation of a single binary variable indicating whether participants had been diagnosed with heart trouble, cancer, arthritis, or diabetes. Relationships and life stressor variables constituted participants' experi- ences of childhood adversity [20], the number of life events in the last 6 months [21], and two measures of negative interactions; one concerning family, and the other, friends[22]. The personality scales were Eysenck's Psychoticism (EPQ-P) scale and perceived level of mas- tery[23,24]. The outcome variable ascertained whether respondents had experienced serious suicidality. Serious suicidality was indicated by reporting experience of at least one of the following suicidal thoughts or behaviours during the past year: "Have you ever thought about taking your own life"; "Have you made any plans to take your own life"; and "In the last year have you ever attempted to take your own life?"[25].
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Baseline factors predictive of serious suicidality at follow up: findings focussing on age and gender from a community based study

Baseline factors predictive of serious suicidality at follow up: findings focussing on age and gender from a community based study

Inferential statistics Participants reporting experience of suicidality during the 12-months prior to baseline were omitted (n = 609). Binary multivariate logistic regression (SPSS Version 12) predicted serious suicidality at follow-up from simultane- ously-entered variables associated with suicidality at baseline in those without previous suicidality. The pre- dictor variables comprised age group, gender, marital sta- tus, employment status, years of education to highest qualification, frequency of marijuana use, frequency of alcohol use, mastery, childhood adversity, physical medi- cal condition, depression and anxiety, and life events in previous six months. The interaction between age and gender was assessed by entering the term concurrently with all the other predictors.
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Growing up in Scotland: the circumstances and experiences of 3-year-old children living in Scotland in 2007/08 and 2013

Growing up in Scotland: the circumstances and experiences of 3-year-old children living in Scotland in 2007/08 and 2013

chapter 1 INTRODUCTION This report uses data from the Growing Up in Scotland study to compare the circumstances and experiences of children aged 3 in Scotland in 2007/08 with those at the same age in 2013. This type of comparison provides an opportunity to examine whether and how these circumstances and experiences have changed for children and families in Scotland over time and this data is presented for the first time. Furthermore, the report explores whether the level and nature of change varied amongst children and families with different characteristics. For example, was change more or less likely for children in lower income households or living in areas of high deprivation and how did that change differ from children in higher income households or living in areas of lower deprivation? Such comparisons allow consideration of whether there has been any progress in reducing inequalities in experiences and outcomes for young children in Scotland and whether Scottish Government policies may have influenced change (relevant policy developments are discussed later on in this chapter).
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Impact of the home learning environment on child cognitive development: secondary analysis of data from ‘Growing Up in Scotland'

Impact of the home learning environment on child cognitive development: secondary analysis of data from ‘Growing Up in Scotland'

maturation within the growing brain before they can be performed adequately. 1.5 Several previous longitudinal studies have established that early cognitive ability influences later outcomes. For example, Feinstein (2003) used data from the 1970 Birth Cohort Study (BCS) to show that assessments of ability at 22 and 42 months predicted educational outcomes at age 26 years. Feinstein also demonstrated that low scoring children from high socio-demographic status families were more likely to have progressed and improved their position in later years than similarly scoring children from more disadvantaged
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Impact of the home learning environment on child cognitive development: secondary analysis of data from "Growing Up in Scotland"

Impact of the home learning environment on child cognitive development: secondary analysis of data from "Growing Up in Scotland"

maturation within the growing brain before they can be performed adequately. 1.5 Several previous longitudinal studies have established that early cognitive ability influences later outcomes. For example, Feinstein (2003) used data from the 1970 Birth Cohort Study (BCS) to show that assessments of ability at 22 and 42 months predicted educational outcomes at age 26 years. Feinstein also demonstrated that low scoring children from high socio-demographic status families were more likely to have progressed and improved their position in later years than similarly scoring children from more disadvantaged
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Socioeconomic position across life and body composition in early old age: findings from a British birth cohort study.

Socioeconomic position across life and body composition in early old age: findings from a British birth cohort study.

As in all longitudinal studies, the NSHD has experienced attri- tion and this may have introduced bias. Previous analyses of this cohort have shown that on average participants with higher BMI and lower SEP (lower educational attainment and lower occupa- tional class) at 53 years were less likely to attend the CRF at 60 – 64 years. 52 This pattern of missing data is likely to have led to reduced power to detect the associations between lower SEP and higher fat mass. Among those with higher fat mass, it is possible that consequent loss to follow-up may have occurred more readily among those of lower SEP. For example, lower SEP has been asso- ciated with less favourable access to healthcare services, 53 such that an adverse health or disability event caused in part by higher fat mass levels may be more likely to lead to loss to follow-up in obese participants of lower compared with higher SEP. This pattern of missing data would have led to an underestimation of the magnitude of SEP differences in fat mass in the present study.
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Growing up in Scotland : family and school influences on children’s social and emotional well-being

Growing up in Scotland : family and school influences on children’s social and emotional well-being

uncertainty over the relative contributions of material deprivation and other factors related to family life, friends and school. To date, there is very little known about factors associated with subjective well-being in children younger than about 10 years: although the views of children younger than this age have been included with those of older children, they have not usually been evaluated in their own right. A notable exception has been research on nine-year olds using the Growing up in Ireland study (McAuley & Layte, 2012). This found only a small effect of socio-demographic factors on children’s subjective well-being. Aspects of family life were more important, including conflict in the parent-child relationship, low parental self-efficacy and parental depression.
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Growing up in Scotland

Growing up in Scotland

Growing up in Scotland „ Large scale longitudinal study following the lives of children from birth into early childhood and beyond, funded by Scottish Government. „ Explores how experience in the early years impact on later outcomes across range of domains

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