Cool white roofing solution can be of many types: field applied coatings (paints, fluid applied membranes, etc.), reinforced bitumen sheets made of modified bitu- men (elastomeric or plastomeric), single-ply sheets and membranes (thermoset or thermoplastic), tiles (ceramic, concrete, etc.), asphalt or bituminous shingles, pre-paint- ed metal roofs, built-up roofing. They can show initial so- lar reflectance as high as 80–85% and thermal emittance usually in the range from 80% to 95% for non-metallic materials. their white colour is the result of a high capac- ity of reflection in the visible range, but a similar capac- ity is needed in the near infrared to achieve a high value of the reflectance. In order to achieve a high reflection over the whole solar spectrum, cool roof technologies exploit white pigments such as titanium dioxide (ti0 2 ). the pigments can be dispersed in organic matrices such as acrylic or bituminous binders, but also in inorganic binders such as ceramic tiles and coatings. it is interest- ing to observe that a high solar reflectance may be the result of the mean of very different reflection spectra, weighted by the solar irradiance spectrum. on the other hand, it is very difficult to retain the initial reflectance value due to chemical and physical degradation of ma- terials, biological growth and, above all, soiling caused by pollutant deposition. In fact, being the reflectance that of the most superficial matter, a superposed layer of par- ticulate or other atmospheric suspensions may strongly affect the reflective performance. Therefore, aged values of solar reflectance are also provided in the framework of the CrrC rating program, obtained by natural exposure in three locations with different climate for at least three years (sleiman et al. 2011). More recently, a method for accelerated aging has been developed, able to condense in three days of laboratory testing a three-year long natu- ral aging due to soiling (sleiman et al. 2014).
The local scenario of climatechange shows an increase in the maximum av- erage of summer temperature up to 52.8˚C, for year 2080  ; this increase will intensify the UHI if not consider the strategies as part of the urban devel- opment policy. An additional advantage of the proposed method is the ability to resize the model and add additional variables related to the urban environment, this allows identifying other relations between the UHI and other morphological or socio-economic characteristics, thus achieving a framework adaptive research. In conclusion, the results contribute to establishing land use policies and build- ing typologies; also provide inputs for climate vulnerability assessing of the city, contributing to the process of adaptation to climatechange in cities with arid climate extreme.
Implementation of “cool” design approaches in selected non-constructibles in a previously defined TEB grid cell  in the district of Bachoura showed best mitigation results with reductions in urban temperatures of up to 1K, while implementation of trees showed mixed results as trees can obstruct natural ventilation thus calling for the need for further and more in-depth studies of plant species in this regard. The objective of this paper is to implement these positive findings in the identified NCs throughout the administrative boundary of Beirut in collaboration with the Municipality and other potential funding agencies.-This research is considered a milestone for the case of Beirut as it provides evidence of the importance of making use of these NCs for multiple objectives including beautification of the city, providing a ‘breathing’ space for the local communities and building a more resilient city within the context of climatechange and the urbanheatisland.
The urbanheat islands increase electricity consumption for air conditioning. So it takes more energy to meet this need, which results in an increase in air pollution in the form of smog and sulfur dioxide and greenhouse gas emissions (Howeard, 1833). The urbanheatisland can make life difficult for people with respiratory illnesses. The dispersion of pollutants will be even stronger when the wind speed is high. The turbulence can be described to be as similar to the molecular motion occurring on a large scale movement. This phenomenon governing the exhaust gas of cars in urban areas is one of the most difficult issues to treat mathematically. Our study is an attempt which will focus on the
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al., 2014b Hall and Jones, 2010; Lorenzo et al., 2013; Resco et al., 2016; Vršić et al., 2014), thus there is a need to examine also currently unstudied areas such as the traditional wine region Emilia-Romagna (Italy) due to its great importance at a national and international level. Assessment of climatechange may be conducted whether for the past or the future, whereas both parts are required to fully understand climatechange trends and gather information which later serve as a tool to develop adaptation strategies. The final outcome and consequences of climatechange influence on wine industry could rather be positive or negative. Negative consequences on wine industry are manifested as crop load reduction (Ramos and Martínez-Casasnovas, 2010), production of unbalanced wines with excessive alcohol (Jones et al., 2005), utilization of additional investment expenses in mitigation technologies, reduction of anthocyanins (Mori et al., 2007), lower must acidity (Godden et al., 2015) etc. On the contrary, in some high quality wine regions, such as Chianti (Italy), Bordeaux and Burgundy (France), Barossa and Margaret River (Australia), warming resulted in increasing trends of wine vintage ratings over the second half of the 20 th century (Jones et al., 2005). Furthermore, warming in future decades may translocate zones with optimal growing season mean temperature (12–22°C) polewards, towards the coast and higher elevations (Jones, 2012) and transform non-traditional wine producing zones to suitable for grape cultivation (Bardin-Camparotto et al. 2014).
Queensland and South Australian local council websites were reviewed for information on climatechange strategies, carbon mitigation and offsetting measures (Zeppel 2011a, b). Other mitigation actions by local councils were identified from news articles, reports by CCP partners, and the climatechange programs of local government associations (e.g. ALGA, ICLEI, QLGA, and LGASA). Carbon mitigation actions in the Cities for Climate Protection program were also assessed. These provided the basis for the types of carbon mitigation actions listed in the council survey, along with questions about council motives for emissions reduction actions. The final survey included 28 questions in four sections: your local council; climatechange; climatechangemitigation; and carbon offsetting. The questions included check lists of climatechange actions, open-ended questions on issues or reasons for climate responses, and rating of motives for carbon reduction actions by councils. A checklist of 56 mitigation actions covered energy, water, wastewater, vehicles, and other council climatechange initiatives. Two sustainability officers at Queensland local councils with climatechange programs provided feedback on a draft of this climatemitigation survey, with questions about constraints on climate actions by councils added. A survey of carbon actions by Greater Adelaide councils (n=14) was conducted, with information added about LGASA carbon programs and SA government agencies (Zeppel 2011b). Key results from the survey of 14 Adelaide councils are presented in this paper.
Distributed micro-generation technologies are recognised as being a signif- icant potential direction for the power industry in the future low emission econ- omy. Under a dynamic micro-generation electricity grid model, in which indi- vidual properties are contributing to demand and supply, significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions can be made. Such a model lends itself well to re- newable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, biomass gasification or micro wind. Furthermore, it provides greater efficiency than conventional centralised production technology due to minimised transmission losses [Greenpeace, 2005]. Distributed micro-generation has been shown to encourage load shifting or re- duced energy consumption [Sauter and Watson, 2007]. Sauter and Watson  argue that there is a significant social hurdle to overcome if a revolution towards a distributed power generation network was to occur. There are a number of plausi- ble models available to us and it is critical that further research be undertaken to establish the most effective means for such a cultural change. From the perspec- tive of local government, there is limited direct influence that can be utilised to drive such a transition. Strategic partnerships with the local energy authorities, combined with the adoption of appropriate council policy may however effectively help to facilitate such a transition.
Impacts of climatechange on extreme precipitation and urban flooding have been well documented in a number of case studies. For example, Ashley et al. (2005) showed that flooding risks (i.e. occurrence of pluvial floods) in four UK catchments may increase by almost 30 times by the 2080s compared to current conditions around the year 2000, and effective adaptation measures are required to cope with the increasing risks in the UK. Larsen et al. (2009) estimated that future extreme 1 h precipitation will increase by 20– 60 % throughout Europe by 2071–2100 relative to 1961– 1990. Willems (2013) found that in Belgium the current de- sign storm intensity for the 10-year return period is projected to increase by 50 % by the end of this century. Several studies have also investigated the role of climatechangemitigation or adaptation in reducing urban flood damages and risks un- der climatechange scenarios (Alfieri et al., 2016; Arnbjerg- Nielsen et al., 2015; Moore et al., 2016; Poussin et al., 2012). The relationship between changes in precipitation intensity and flood volume has also been well explored, providing ad- ditional insights into drainage design strategies (Olsson et al., 2009; Willems et al., 2012; Zahmatkesh et al., 2015). How- ever, previous studies on the effects of climatechange miti- gation and adaptation are typically conducted separately, and it is unclear which strategy is more effective at reducing ur- ban floods. This study aims to advance our understanding of urban floods within the context of changeclimate, through investigating the benefits of climatechangemitigation (by reducing greenhouse gas, GHG, emissions) and local adap- tation (by improving drainage systems) in reducing future ur- ban flood volumes in a consistent framework.
A relatively small city of just under 25,000, Keene has made a considerable effort to adapt. The city was met with a number of challenges specifically in developing adaptation options and implementing an adaptation plan (United States Census Bureau, 2014b). In general the city was able to easily identify areas where the city was vulnerable to climatechange and set preparedness goals. The City of Keene began the adaptation process by first establishing a climatechange committee consisting of elected officials, members of the scientific community, planning professionals as well as public health officials. The climatechange committee began the adaptation process by identifying sectors and sub-sectors vulnerable to climatechange. Three sectors were identified as being vulnerable to climatechange: the built, natural and social environments. Sample subsectors from the built environment include buildings and development, transportation infrastructure, storm water infrastructure and energy systems. After identifying vulnerabilities the committee worked to identify adaptation goals and targets which proved to be a challenge. There was a realization among the committee that a lack of knowledge on reducing vulnerability in a number of areas existed, thus, making identification of specific actions difficult. According to the City of Keene’s adaptation plan, the committee decided to base much of their adaptation efforts on established mitigation efforts. Some of the committee’s goals included ―decrease the ways in which energy supplies could be interrupted‖, ―Increase the resiliency of emergency energy systems‖ and ―Increase municipal and community energy security, use of renewable resources, and overall energy efficiency‖. To a ccomplish these goals the committee identified targets, such as burying electrical lines, utilizing renewable energy as a secondary source of electricity during storm emergencies and increase usage of local renewable energy. The committee completed this process in a number of areas including building and development, transportation infrastructure, storm-water systems, wetlands, agriculture, economy, public health and emergency services (City of Keene New Hampshire, 2007).
City Council preferences for carbon offset methods were driven by cost, best return for investment, supporting local famers (soil carbon), and constraints on land or limited scope for some offset methods. Regional Councils also preferred offset methods that generated credits, aligned with Council business, involved tree planting by community organisations, and provided tangible results in a short payback period. Mackay Regional Council reported they wanted to ‘to learn more about the options available to Local Government for tree planting and soil carbon, there is just too much uncertainty at present.’ Sunshine Coast Regional Council preferred offset methods with ‘potential to generate own credits, costs’ *ie landfill gas, tree planting, waste diversion]. One Shire Council sought ‘longer term financial opportunities,’ from carbon offset methods. Redland City Council noted they had ‘limited scope for landfill gas and energy efficiency remains, (and) we have limited land for tree planting so that leaves the above two’ [renewable energy, waste diversion].
Nevertheless, in evaluating specific temperature targets, there are uncertainties about the exact amount of compatible anthropogenic CO2 emissions due to uncertainties in climate sensitivity, the response of the carbon cycle including feedbacks, the amount of past CO2 emissions, and the influence of past and future non-CO2 species. (Very high confidence) 3. Stabilizing global mean temperature below 3.6°F (2°C) or lower relative to preindustrial levels requires significant reductions in net global CO2 emissions relative to present-day values before 2040 and likely requires net emissions to become zero or possibly negative later in the century. Accounting for the temperature effects of non-CO2 species,
air, explained on the basis of selected primary and secondary compounds. Values represent mean urban and mean rural concentrations for the modelling period August 9 to August 17 2003 on a single urban and rural grid cell. The day (0700 h – 2200) is distinguished from the night (2300 h to 0600 h). ............................................................................................................................................. 85 Tab. 11: Impact of urban planning strategies on mean and maximum urban temperature and UHI intensity calculated from model output for August 13 2003 8 pm. The control run indicates ‘real’ conditions. ................................................................................................... 95 Tab. 12: Effects of different urban planning scenarios on atmospheric characteristics within the urban canopy. Results are presented for the modelled mean at the urban grid cell as defined in Chapter 6.2. The same is displayed for a rural grid cell isolated from the area influenced by the city. The urbanheatisland is calculated from the difference between urban and rural mean temperature for both the surface (surface_UHI) and canopy UHI (2m_UHI). ........................................................................................................................... 98 Tab. 13: Effect of UHI mitigation scenarios on modelled runtime mean concentrations of O3, NO, NO2 and CO as well as formaldehyde (HCHO) and isoprene (C 5 H 8 ) in the urban
A statistical model was developed in the previous chapter; however the model at the moment, does not predict the peak UHI intensities as accurately as the overall UHI intensities. The statistical model can be added on hourly weather data used for dynamic simulation. However, engineers will mainly be interested in the maximum UHI intensities for their building services design (steady state plant sizing 22 ). Therefore, an analytical model was developed which is discussed in this chapter. A number of canyon models were briefly discussed in Chapter 3.4. Tso’s model 96,97 was first considered to be suitable. Sensitivity tests performed on the evapotranspiration fraction and mass of concrete indicated that the model was capable of handling these variations. However, no canyon property is included in the model. Although the model might be capable of producing the heatisland effect based on the difference in concrete mass or evapotranspriation fraction. It cannot predict the effect due to canyon specification such as SVF. Apart from Tso’s model, other models have also been reviewed as mentioned in section 3.1. Nevertheless, most of these models needed more data than was available from a standard Met Office weather station and were considered more complicated than required for our engineering requirements. Therefore, a new model was developed for these purposes to calculate the maximum urbanheatisland effect.
47. IDB is also supporting the implementation of the Climate Investment Funds. IDB has plaid a key role in channeling the Clean Technology Fund of the Climate Investment and the Strategic Climate Fund for LAC countries via its three programs: Scaling-up Renewable Energy in Low-Income Countries (SREP), the Forest Investment Program (FIP) and the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR). The CIF's objective is to achieve transformational outcomes and to demonstrate what can be achieved jointly by the multilateral development banks (MDBs) through programmatic approaches to scale-up resource availability to a set of pilot countries for climate resilient and low carbon development. Since its inception in 2008, the IDB has participated in the definition of CIF programs and currently dedicates considerable staff time among its public and private sector lending arms to mobilize and leverage such resources. Brazil has requested support from the FIP and is currently assessing areas of potential support and priorities.
Climatechange is a lasting variation in the global climate in response to natural and human factors. Climatechange and more specifically global warming can cause glaciers to melt and sea levels to rise, pushing salt water into fresh water system (Denton, 2002). Significant change like the salinization of water pushes species to new locations, directly impacting on global ecosystems. Climatic change affects weather patterns, increasing the frequency and intensity of floods, droughts and extreme weather events. These types of conditions also result in natural disasters. While climatechange is not solely destructive, the negative impacts of global warming on health and agriculture are greater than the benefits for the majority of the world, and these may increase as global temperatures rise. A two degree rise in temperature threatens 25 percent of all plant and animal species on the planet with extinction. These climatic changes will cause the most harm for the most vulnerable populations or those who lack the ability to cope with and adapt to climatechange because of lack of access to essential resources (Chambers 2006). Population groups such as women, children, the elderly, and the impoverished have less access to and control over resources and therefore is most likely to be negatively impacted by climatechange. This study seeks to examine the interrelationship between climatechange and gender through a review of previous studies and explore the various ways in which equity can be attained in an effort to mitigate the effect of climatechange.
Several experimental studies (e.g. Thom et al., 1975, Garratt, 1978, 1980) in agricultural and forest meteorology have demonstrated that, in the air layers immediately above horizontally uniform surface types with tall roughness elements, conventional flux–profile relationships and Monin–Obukhov similarity theory are likely to be invalid. In this layer, termed the roughness sublayer (Raupach, 1979), flow consists of the interacting wakes and plumes (of heat, humidity and pollutants) introduced by individual roughness elements. At some height above the canopy, the blending effect of turbulent mixing will erase the significance of individual roughness elements and create a layer (the inertial sublayer, surface layer or constant-flux layer, Tennekes, 1973; Roth, 2000) in which turbulent fluxes are constant with height, permitting measurement of landscape-scale energy balance fluxes and Reynolds stress. The roughness and overlying surface layer constitute the lowest portion of the UBL defined in the previous section (Roth et al., 1989b). The nature of the urban surface, with its rigid buildings of different heights and physical characteristics, separated by trees, canyons and open spaces, makes it particularly susceptible to the development of a roughness sublayer of significant depth, perhaps several times the average building height (Raupach et al., 1980, 1991; Roth, 2000). Within the roughness sublayer, characteristics depend on a horizontal distance scale determined by inter- element spacing, rather than height and vertical temperature gradient, as in the surface layer. Flow and turbulent fields are different from those in the inertial sublayer (H¨ogstr¨om et al., 1982; Rotach, 1993a,b; Roth, 1993; Roth and Oke, 1993; Oikawa and Meng, 1995). Strong vertical shear, large turbulence intensities, wake diffusion, form drag, diversity and spatial separation of sources and sinks of momentum and scalars, and local advection stemming from extreme heterogeneity are the norm within this layer (Roth, 2000). Roth et al. (1989b) provide evidence that measurements of fluxes and turbulent spectra made close to the interface between the surface and roughness layers are in good agreement with those from smoother surfaces, and make recommendations regarding implications for measurements of eddy fluxes from towers over suburban terrain. Profiles of turbulence statistics across a roughness sublayer are presented by Rotach (1995), and the case for explicit recognition of the roughness sublayer in operational models for pollution dispersion has been made by Rotach (1999) and de Haan et al. (2001) and can be expected in urbanclimate simulation models for the same reasons.
2.2 UrbanClimate Model Simulations
In this study, the urbanclimate model MUKLIMO_3 (in German: 3D Mikroskaliges Urbanes KLImaMOdell) developed by the German Weather Service (DWD) is used to simulate the urbanheat load in the Jakomini district with focus on day-time conditions during the summer period. The MUKLIMO_3 model (Sievers and Zdunkowski, 1985; Sievers, 1990; Sievers, 1995; Sievers, 2012; Sievers, 2016) is a micro-scale z-coordinate model based on Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations, which was designed to simulate atmospheric flow fields in presence of buildings. The thermo-dynamical version of the model (Sievers, 2016) includes prognostic equations for air temperature and humidity, the parameterization of unresolved buildings using the porous media approach (Gross, 1989), short-wave and long-wave radiation, balanced heat and moisture budgets in the soil (Sievers et al., 1983), vegetation model based on Siebert et al. (1992) and calculation of short-wave irradiances at the ground level, the walls and the roof of buildings in an environment with unresolved built-up ass described by Sievers and Früh (2012). The model takes into account the cloud cover and its effects on the radiation. However, it does not include cloud processes, precipitation, horizontal runoff nor anthropogenic heat (e.g. traffic or heat generated from air conditioning). The vegetation in the canopy model has three vertical layers and a 15-layer soil model is included in the simulations. The model differentiates between four main land use types: buildings, trees, free surfaces and water. The grid cells with buildings do not include trees, but it is possible to define the percent of the low vegetation, which is also considered in the simulations with green roofs. The fraction of sealed and unsealed surfaces is taken into account in all grid cells except water. The modelling approach takes into account complex terrain and land use distribution including a detailed register of green roof potential. The model domain covers the Jakomini district and its immediate surroundings with a domain size of 138 x 135 x 25 grid points. The horizontal grid spacing is 20 m. The vertical resolution of 1D model with 52 levels varies from 10 to 100 m with higher resolution near ground level and lower resolution at the maximum height of about 2000 m.
In the simulations reported here, the WLME has been replaced with an alternative extension which uses computable general equilibrium (CGE) modelling techniques. This extension has been developed primarily at the Centre of Policy Studies at Monash University and is referred to as the Monash Labour Market Extension (MLME). Compared to the WLME, MLME relies less on time series extrapolation and more on explicitly modelled economic behaviour. It describes the operation of 27 occupational labour markets. On the demand side of these markets, labour belonging to different occupations can be converted into effective units of industry specific labour according to Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) functions. On the supply side, labour by skill can be converted into labour by occupation according to Constant Elasticity of Transformation (CET) functions. Relative wage rates are assumed to adjust to clear the markets for labour by occupation. The complete set of equations which makes up the MLME model is set out in Meagher et al. (2012).
Abstract: Cities, the core of the global climatechangemitigation and strategic low- carbon development, are shelters to more than half of the world population and responsible for three quarters of global energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG). This special volume (SV) provides a platform that promotes multi- and inter- disciplinary analyses and discussions on the climatechangemitigation for cities. All papers are divided into several themes, including GHG emission inventory and accounting, climatechange and urban sectors, climatechange and sustainable development, and strategies and mitigation action plans. First, this SV provides methods for constructing emission inventory from both production and consumption perspectives. These methods are useful to improve the comprehensiveness and accuracy of carbon accounting for international cities. Second, the climatechange affects urban sectors from various aspects; simultaneously, GHG emissions caused by activities in urban sectors affect the climate system. This SV focuses on mitigation policies and assessment in energy, transport, construction, and service sectors. Third, climatechangemitigation of cities is closely connected to urban sustainable development. This SV explores the relationships between climatechangemitigation with urbanization, ecosystems, air pollution, and extreme events. Fourth, climatechangemitigation policies can be divided into two categories: quantity-based