Establishing a creative environment requires an open atmosphere where students are free to take risks, bad guesses are not pounced on, every answer is not necessarily right or wrong, and students are free to look at things in ways without fear of punishment, condescension, or a bad grade. 116 Teaching the creative process involves facilitating the development of certain skills by the students, such as goal orientation (creativity often emerges when working towards a goal), brainstorming, piggy-backing (building upon an existing idea), perception shifting (looking at something from a different angle), synthesis, and meta-cognition. 117 While it is unlikely to be feasible for stand-alone subjects on creative legal thinking to be made part of the law curriculum, it does appear possible for law teachers to create more opportunities within existing subjects for creativity to flourish, and for assessment tasks to recognise and reward creativethinking by students.
The normal practice of solving structurally similar routine problems using fixed mathematical procedures either during lectures or tutorials does not encourage the effective attainment of critical and creativethinking. As Felder argues that if students are assigned only well-defined convergent problems, they will never gain the skills needed to tackle and solve challenging multidisciplinary problems that call for critical judgment and creativity . This is again emphasized by Sternberg and Lubart  that, if we want students to think insightfully, we need to give them opportunities to do so by increasing our use of ill-structured problems that allow insightful thinking. There are no fast, ready, expedient solutions to non routine or ill-structured problems. The difficulties encountered and the time taken to figure out the steps to solution is the hallmark of critical and creative endeavor. This is consistent with the indication given by the National Academy of Engineering  which states that the future engineering curriculum should be built around developing skills and not around teaching available knowledge. Sternberg and Lubart  further noted that if we want to improve our students and our nation, this is exactly what we need to do. In doing so, students should be given the opportunity to draw creative definition and redefinition of problems in the proper context. As such, students will develop insight skills and think insightfully.
The 13-week ‘Design Thinking’ course was offered to final year Creative Media students during the 2013/14 academic year. This was the first time it ran. Students could choose from a number of different courses, of which Design Thinking was one. The high level learning outcomes for this course were: 1) Investigate and think crea- tively about design problems and opportunities; 2) Demonstrate a critical awareness of how design thinking can be applied in a variety of contexts; and finally 3) Work effectively in a creative team. Students had 2 hours of scheduled contact time per week with their tutor and were expected to spend another 6 hours per week on course related activities, as independent learners. Timetabled sessions took place in a com- puter lab with projector, two large white-boards, break out space for group work and ample wall space for post-it notes and posters.
Second instrument was Turkish version of the group assessment of logicalthinking (GALT). The instrument was developed by Roadrangka, Yeany and Padilla (1982) for measuring logicalthinking abilities and translated into Turkish by Aksu, Berberoğlu and Paykoç (1990). The GALT instrument was composed of 21 items that were selected from the items of other instruments (Lawson, 1978; Longeol 1968). The reliability coefficient of Turkish version of the GALT instrument was calculated as 0.88 (Aksu et al., 1990). The GALT instrument included six sub-scales; conservational reasoning (4 items), proportional reasoning (6 items), controlling variables (4 items), combinational reasoning (3 items), probabilistic reasoning (2 items), and correlational reasoning (2 items). The instrument included 18 double multiple-choice items (items 1 through 18) and three constructed-response items (items 19-21). In responding the items 1 through 18, students were posed with a problem supported with pictorial presentation and asked to choose the best answer (from 2 to 5 possible answers available) for each stated problem. Then, students were required to choose the best justification for the chosen answer from a list of 2 to 5 possible justification. In scoring of the participants’ scores on the GALT instrument, for the multiple-choice items, teacher candidates received 1 point for providing the correct answer with the correct reasoning behind it and 0 point when failed to detect any of them. For the constructed-response items, mathematics teacher candidates received 1 point for correct answers and 0 point for wrong answers.
Mathematics is always used in all aspects of life . Innovations in learning mathematics are also implemented in the 2013 curriculum which draws on the conditions of reality in life . Other problems arise when students tend to find it difficult to solve mathematical problems related to abstract objects . While mathematics is a science that has an important role in education because mathematics equips students with the ability to think logically, critically, creatively, systematically and innovatively . At every level of education, students are always given mathematics lessons, one of them at a junior high level . In a study showed that both general creativity and mathematical ability is important for creativethinking in mathematics .Creativity is one of the ability to find several alternative answers to a problem with a variety of answers . Characteristics of creativethinking include the ability to act in conditions and think wisely, such as sensitivity, the ability to identify problems, openness to problems and ambiguity, reflection in the form of constant shocks in the world, cognitive curiosity and criticalthinking, ability to draw comparisons and make decisions, and motivation to diligently find solutions and improve themselves . One of the goals of the 2013 curriculum is to prepare students so they can think creatively . The problem of students' low mathematical achievement is that mathematics is presented as a finished product, ready to be used, abstracted and taught mechanically, this case can lead to underdeveloped student creativity because students are not allowed to think and use their ideas in solving mathematical problems . Creativethinkingskills, which are being considered by the national qualifications framework for higher education 2552, are one of the five important higher-order thinkingskills that focus on developing the skills of all learners .
Practical teaching includes thesis writing, scientific research projects, academic competitions, academic communities, entrepreneurial projects, social surveys, volunteer services and international exchanges etc. The purpose is to improve students’ innovative thinking ability, practical ability and scientific research ability. Criticalthinking ability is actually an ability to innovate and it is a relatively independent ability which enable us to analyze and judge problems objectively (Dai Yidong, Zhang Xuemei 2007). Students are encouraged to participate in English speech contests. Students need to use language skills, language knowledge, cultural literacy, social vision etc. at each stage of the English speech contest, like the topic selection, writing, rehearsal and speech. At the same time, it can exercise and examine students’ cognitive skills such as arguments, deductions, reasoning, questioning, criticalthinking, innovation and synthesis, thus effectively improving students’ ability of analysis, judgment and logical argumentation. Thesis writing can test students’ ability to comprehensively apply their learned knowledge and methods to conduct preliminary academic research. In the writing and oral defense of the thesis, the students’ ability of argumentation, reasoning, questioning, analysis, deduction, innovation, criticalthinking etc. have been improved to different degrees, laying a solid foundation for students to carry out planning, research and project report writing after graduation.
All proponents of thinkingskills (critical, creative,...) emphasize the relevance of thinking for many aspects of life, not just those usually associated with "thinking." For example, the CriticalThinking Community says, "Criticalthinking is the art of taking charge of your own mind. Its value is simple: if we can take charge of our own minds, we can take charge of our lives." In another page they describe the centrality of thinking, and a common educational problem: "Criticalthinking is not an isolated goal unrelated to other important goals in education. Rather, it is a seminal goal which, done well, simultaneously facilitates a rainbow of other ends. It is best conceived, therefore, as the hub around which all other educational ends cluster. For example, as students learn to think more critically, they become more proficient at historical, scientific, and mathematical thinking. Finally, they develop skills, abilities, and values crucial to success in everyday life. Recent research suggests that criticalthinking is not typically an intrinsic part of instruction at any level. Students come without training in it, while faculty tend to take it for granted as an automatic by-product of their teaching. Yet without criticalthinking systematically designed into instruction, learning is transitory and superficial."
Concerning the significance of fostering CT, in a survey conducted by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U, 2011), 95% of the chief academic officers from 433 institutions rated criticalthinking as one of the most salient intellectual skills for their students, and 81% of the employers wanted colleges to place a stronger emphasis on criticalthinking. Similarly, Casner-Lotto and Barrington (2006) found that among 400 surveyed employers, 92.1% identified criticalthinking as a very important skill for 4-year College graduates to be successful in today's workforce (cited in Liu, 2014). It may be because as Barnett (2015a) argues it is not just a way of thinking: it is a way of being and acting. CT is classified as higher-level thinking (Paul, 1995; Yang, Newby, & Bill, 2005) and contains elements of both the cognitive domain, criticalthinkingskills (CTS), and the affective one, criticalthinking dispositions (CTD) (Facione, 2011; Yang & Chou, 2008; Yeh, 2000). There are a lot of empirical studies emphasizing the importance of promoting the higher-order thinkingskills in foreign language classrooms through different ways (Ganapathy, et al, 2017; Ong et al, 2016; Rahman et al, 2017; Rodas, 2016;). Wilson (2016) believes that the capability of thinking critically is essential to the scholars’ success in higher education since language learners with criticalthinking ability are capable of thinking critically and creatively in order to achieve the goals of the curriculum, be capable of using their thinkingskills, be capable of making decisions and solving problems, etc. (Mahyuddin et al, 2004). Even communicative approaches to language teaching do not help students to become proficient in the target language without being critical thinkers (Kabilan, 2000).
According to the meta-analysis published by Budsankom et al. (2015), learning environment and psychological cognitive characteristics of students strongly and directly predicted HOT skills (96.8% variance explained). Family variable was also a determinant of HOT skills but its indirect effect was bigger. In that study, Budsankom et al. collected HOT skill-related studies carried out in Thailand from 1999 to 2013 and analyzed the mathematical structural equation modeling (MASEM). The analysis of 166 studies revealed that the family variable did not have a significant impact overall, but the learning environment or personal variables had a substantial impact. In particular, while the psychological characteristics of each student were also a direct determinant of HOT skills, they played a role as a medium for the school environment and family variables to influence HOT skills. In addition, the school variable was found to have a rather indirect impact, because the school variable, including the way a class is run or managed, contributed to facilitating HOT skills by fostering the attitudes, feelings, knowledge and other psychological aspects of students (Schumacker & Lomax, 2010). In fact, many studies in the past reported that instructional approaches and free academic activities in universities contributed to enhancing criticalthinking, creativethinking and other high-order thinkingskills. For example, the learning models that focus on learners, such as problem-based learning, are known to be a classic learning method to enhance HOT skills in students (Raiyn & Tilchin, 2015). Learning mathematics through contextual class, rather than through symbol or text-based learning environment is also known to have contributed to improving HOT skills (Samo, Darhim, & Kartasasmita, 2017). According to the recent meta- analysis, interactive class, practical and contextual problem-based class and teachers' mentoring were the factors that affected the criticalthinking ability (Abrami et al., 2014). Student-centered learning and teaching method such as problem based learning (Mokhtar, Tarmizi, Tarmizi, & Ayub, 2010) and project based learning (Vidergor & Krupnik-Gottlieb, 2015) have been called to develop HOTS.
It is generally accepted that criticalthinking should be an important dimension of science education (Bailin, 2002). Criti- cal Thinking (CT) should be not only educational choice, but rather an inseparable part of education. Since the world has changed quickly, it demands that education should develop students’ criticalthinking at all levels rather than teaching ob- solete knowledge. The Australian Curriculum Science (2012) has one of its aims which develop students’ an understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry and the ability to use scientific inquiry methods. So many items focusing on the critical think- ing are included, for example “they develop critical and crea- tive thinkingskills and challenge themselves to identity ques- tions and draw evidence-based conclusions using scientific methods.” (p. 3); “critical and creativethinking are integral to activeties that require students to think broadly and deeply us- ing skills, behaviors and dispositions such as reason, logic, re- sourcefulness, imagination and innovation in all learning areas at school and in their lives beyond school.” (p. 13); “In the sci- ence learning area, critical and creativethinking are embedded in the skills of posing questions, making predictions, speculat- ing, solving problems through investigation, making evidence- based decisions, and analyzing and evaluating evidence.” (p.
In today’s challenging and highly complex health care settings nurses must be able to think critically. With the current traditional and rote methods of learning, the criticalthinkingskills among the students are seen to diminish. As nurse educators must find a different method in their teaching on how to encourage students to engage in analytical thinking and how to make the analytical thinking process part of their daily practice due to increase safety of the patients. This will give challenge for the nurse educators to reshape education by adopting instructional strategies to equip students with foundational knowledge in criticalthinking, creative problem solving and collaboration. Through concept mapping, students should be able to transfer applied didactic objectives from the classroom to the clinical practice, where criticalthinking and problem solving skills are needed for success. It also provide nurse educators with the ability to help students learn how to organise data, prioritise patient needs and can relate patient medical illness and nursing intervention.
Further, Trilling & Fadel (2009) explain that through life and career skills, students are expected to adapt and establish good relations with the environment and surrounding communities. Through learning and innovating skills, students are expected to overcome problems using a critical, systematic, innovative, and creative way of thinking and being able to communicate and collaborate well. Through the mastery of technology and information media skills, students are expected to be able to utilize information and communication technology effectively and efficiently and be able to develop creative and innovative information and communication technology media. It is in line with the opinions of Osman, Hiong, & Vebrianto (2013) stating that the skills of the 21st century have five primary domains: digital literacy, intensive thinking, effective communication, high productivity, and spiritual and moral value. According to the Partnership for 21st Century Skills Framework, competencies that must be mastered by students include criticalthinkingskills, creativethinkingskills, communication skills, and collaborative skills known as 4C Competence (Zubaidah, 2018).
The level of thinking in reasoning includes the basis of basic thinking, criticalthinking, and creativethinking (Krulik & Rudnick (1995). The level of thinking is basic thinking, criticalthinking and creativethinking. Thinking is an activity of reason to process the knowledge we receive through the five senses, and intended to achieve a truth Logic thinking can be interpreted as reasoning, where reasoning itself is part of thinking that is beyond the level of remembering. This level of thinking is important (Andreson (2001). A person must master one level of thinking before he can go to the next level. The reason is we cannot ask someone to be creative if he does not know it, does not understand it, cannot apply it, cannot analyze it, and cannot analyze it, and can't evaluate Criticalthinking is a disciplined way of thinking used by someone to evaluate the validity of something (ideas, questions, arguments, research, etc.) (Beyer in Filsaime 2008). Screven and Paul (2008) view criticalthinking as an intelligent disciplined process of conceptualism, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of the active skills collected from conceptualization, application, analysis, synthesis, and active evaluation resulting from observation, reflection, reasoning, or communication. Criticalthinking enables students to study a problem systematically, face millions of challenges in an organized way, formulate innovative questions and design solutions. Another theory about criticalthinking revealed by Ennis (1996) identifies five systematic behaviors in criticalthinking. The behavior can be described as criticalthinking stages as follows:
In discussing the necessity and importance of research, it should be noted that the process of teaching and transferring science, skills, and values is one of the most important concerns in educational systems. The rele- vance of education to the human and economic development doubles the importance of this issue. One of the tried and tested ways in the evolution of the educational process is to move learning environments to learning based on creativity and thinkingskills that will increase educational productivity compared to traditional methods based on preservation and evaluation. Existence an effective environment is very important tool to promote the criticalthinking and media literacy. Therefore, education for students to develop creative think- ing requires students to have a clear understanding of the current situation and, in the next step, to strive for a valid philosophy of education and principles and scientific goals, and a clear picture of the optimal conditions of creativethinking. Today, it has been demonstrated that creativethinking is not a mere innate attribute, but that all humans possess this ability, and all have varying degrees of talent. In addition, factors such as skills, training, flexibility, level of knowledge and awareness, risk taking, fear of failure and failure have a significant impact on students’ creativethinking and innovation (Chemers, Hu, & Garcia, 2001). Alternatively, in the present age, students need to develop their research, problem solving, and search skills in order to deal with the fascinating developments of the Third Millennium. Clearly, to achieve these goals, heavy responsibility is placed on educational centers, especially schools. Hence, this study examines the effectiveness of creativethinking training in on criticalthinking and media literacy levels in sixth-grade elementary students in Isfa- han. Results and implications of this research can provide educational authorities, school administrators and teachers with strategies to solve creativethinking problems and develop a plan for increasing their thinking. Therefore, the main question is whether creativethinking training is effective on students’ criticalthinking and media literacy levels.
theoretical and practical, innovative, creative, compositional, critical, technical thinking, the impact of educational resources and information technologies on the development of visual thinking, the culture of thinking and its development through the study of foreign languages. Of particular scientific interest are the psychological mechanisms for the development of creativethinking, the conditions and prerequisites for their implementation. The relevance and significance of the problem of the development of creativethinking is due to the current demand for such qualities as originality, flexibility, speed, accuracy, as well as the high potential of the technology of problem-based education, training in cooperation and design and research activities in the context of the development of thinking among students. During the period of independence in our country, special attention is paid to the realization of the intellectual potential of youth. In particular, the Strategy for Action on Five Priority Directions of the Development of the Republic of Uzbekistan in 2017– 2021 defines the tasks of “Educating young people with strong life views, physically healthy, spiritually and intellectually independent, devoted to their homeland, increasing their social activity in the process of deepening democratic reform and development of civil society”. Currently, the most important measures that are being implemented: carrying out research work to enhance the educational activities of students, improving the psychological mechanisms of development of thinking that provide independent and creative approaches to learning, and assimilating knowledge and skills that are in demand in professional activities. In world psychology, there are many studies related to the study of thinking as an important branch of a kind of intellectual human activity. Foreign researchers-psychologists studied the methodological issues of thinking (O. K. Tikhomirov, S. L. Rubinshtein, L. L. Gurova, L. S. Vygotsky, Ya. A. Ponomarev), the relationship of thinking with cognitive factors (L. M. Vekker, M. S. Egorova, N. V. Kalacheva, S. N. Orlova), the relationship of thinking, intelligence and intellectual abilities (D.V. Ushakov, M.A. Kholodnaya), thinking and its types, creativity and psycho-diagnostics of creative activity (Zh.A. Balakshina, V.N. Druzhinin); creativethinking, its features and development methods (E.I. Boyko); the organizational aspects of the educational process for cognitive activity (M.V. Gulakova, T. V. Kornilova). Despite the variety of scientific approaches to the consideration of thinking as a subject of psychological research, the problem of __________________________
One can solve these problems by making creative thoughtful choices while creating or selecting apparel for the aging body. The issue of limited motion can be addressed by using elasticized waists, Velcro as closing option, and assistive fastening tools to enhance both body and clothing comfort. Making proper color choices can prevent accentuation of pale skin (avoid contrasts), blueness from dilated skin (use blues), and brown pigmentation from aging (avoid yellow). The smart choices will avoid drawing attention to the unwanted elements. The issue of changing curvatures can be addressed by using blouses and dresses with the blouson effect that will compensate for the convex or rounded structures. Belts can be added to consume excessive length resulting from hollow or concave structures. Shortening of height can be camouflaged by using length enhancing lines, forms and shapes. Thickening of neck can be countered by use of V necklines and heightened hairdos. Avoid use of high neck or neck defining collars. Wrinkling of the skin can be defied by using textures and prints that blend with the wrinkled skin rather than plain fabrics and flattened textures that may highlight these unwanted features. Sagging of the breast can be camouflaged by using structured contours for under-fashion items and/or fashion apparel or outerwear.
It is extremely important that to learn the thinkingskills for awaring of the problems, and producing solution to these problems in our lives. One of these thinkingskills is “creativethinking skill” (Karaduman and Yıldırım, 2017). It can be said that existing products and ideas put forward by this skill will provide institutional and social benefit when creativethinking skill is supported by cognitive, affective and psychomotor approaches. In this context, it can be thought that a teacher who has creativethinkingskills will be able to transfer this skill to her/his students by creating content and learning environment which is suitable for educational objectives. In addition to this, delivering “public service ads” which is produced in digital platforms as an educational learning material very easily to a wide community is very important development considering the advantages of technology. Considering the main purpose of training and supporting youngs in terms of educational objectives, it is possible to say that these digital materials could be designed and developed based on pedagogical approaches and design principles. The “public service ads”, can be presented on all kinds of digital platforms, are thought to be important for informing young people and their families in terms of providing social and individual benefits, and raising their awareness. Hence, in this study it is aimed to investigate the preservice teachers’ creativethinkingskills in terms of different dimensions, and to reveal the social benefits of “public service ads”, designed and developed as a product of creativethinkingskills by preservice teachers. Based on, this study attempted to examine how preservice teachers use creativethinkingskills in the process of developing “Public Service Ad” as a digital teaching material. To this end, the effect of fluency, originality, elaboration, abstractness of titles, and resistance to premature closure factors on the preservice teachers’ creativethinkingskills were investigated. In addition, opinions of the preservice teachers on their creativethinkingskills in the process of digital teaching material development were discussed.
It is clear that these major elements in both assessments reflect the pattern of Malaysia students’ thinking. Learning Mathematics is not just memorizing and do the exercises, but it needs to relate and apply the concepts into real life situations. Therefore, through outside classroom learning strategy, it provides student with real experience and helps them to appreciate the importance of mathematics in their everyday life (Moffett, 2011). HIGHER ORDER THINKINGSKILLS AND CREATIVETHINKING IN MATHEMATICS
Executed studies prove that, providing varieties in education, supporting of independent education, learning in group studies by trusting others, facilitate the creativity (Emmanuel et al., 2010; Hall and Mitchell, 2008; Lillyman et al., 2011; Hydo et al., 2007). Furthermore, in the studies executed by Karataş and Özcan (2010) about effect of creativethinking activities on students’ creativethinking and project development, it was determined that, methods such as brain storming and concept map contribute to the creativethinking of the students. It is stated that creativity has been an individual process and very different methods can be tried in order to improve creativethinking. For instance, it is stated that staying out of current rules, stating new thoughts against the generally accepted norms, having communication with new people other than people you interact with in your daily life, and staying away from classical thinking patterns, may increase point of view and creativity of individuals (Dolgun and Erdoğan, 2012). In order to develop creativity in nursing education, firstly environments, in which creativity is encouraged and promoted, should be emerged. In order to think creative, first the individual should be aware of creativity, than should be encouraged to creativethinking. The success in developing creativity is mostly dependent on learning about the subject of creativity (Tulum and Memiş, 2006). Like in all educational systems, in also nursing education, trainers as the most important corner stones of education have significant liabilities. Some behaviors and attitudes of trainers that take place in education process have important effects on emerging and developing of creativity (Tulum and Memiş, 2006). While searching for studies on creativity of nursing students, we were unable to reach any research articles. Nurses, operating in fast changing, developing and complicated structure, as being a member of profession, have to be individuals who may able to adopt changes and innovations, solve problems by using creativethinking, who can question, who can contribute to his profession by being affected from different disciplines and who may also think with criticism (Bahar, 2006). Thus, it is extremely important to use creativethinking in order to see possible results of nursing and to find valid answers and to expose creative actions as the nature of being professional (Şen et al., 2013).
ew England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC), our accreditation body, requires assessment of core liberal education outcomes. Undergraduates must demonstrate competence in written and oral communication; the ability for scientific and quantitative reasoning, critical analysis and logicalthinking; and the capability for continuing learning, including information literacy (NEASC, 2006). The university aspires to promote and integrate excellence in liberal and professional education. We have undertaken a project to identify a series of undergraduate learning outcomes to be addressed and assessed both in general education and in the majors. Learning experiences related to these outcomes foster the development of knowledge, skills, and habits of mind critical to meeting the demands of the workplace and functioning as contributing citizens in society (Bok, 2006; Humphreys, 2010; Arum & Roksa, 2011). Nine intellectual and practical skills have been selected: oral/written communication, quantitative reasoning, critical and creativethinking, inquiry/analysis, problem-solving, teamwork, and information literacy. In our college, programs are currently accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). ABET standards require assessment of four skills, namely oral/written communication, quantitative reasoning and teamwork are already being assessed. For the other five skills beyond ABET requirements the college has no process in place to formally measure student achievement. This essay describes the planning and activities undertaken to meet accreditation requirements along with preliminary findings from a recent pilot.