Top PDF The lost part-timers: The decline of part-time undergraduate higher education in England

The lost part-timers: The decline of part-time undergraduate higher education in England

The lost part-timers: The decline of part-time undergraduate higher education in England

Entrants intending to seek a tuition loan, available since 2012, need to study at an intensity of 25% or more. This may deter entrants from starting their studies at lower intensities. The Open University puts a lot of effort into advising students about financial support and their entrants may be better informed than part-time students applying elsewhere. Also, the module basis for Open University courses makes it easier for entrants to pick a module or modules to meet the intensity criteria. However, this is not the whole story, because the percentage of low intensity entrants to degree courses at the Open University who are domiciled in Scotland and Wales show a similar, though less pronounced drop in 2012. For Scotland the 25% incentive was not new, being a condition for a fee grant before 2012, and in Wales the incentive came in 2013 when they adopted a loan system similar to that in England. It may be that this sudden and general drop in the proportion of low intensity degree courses was due in part to a reduced supply of modules suitable for degree programmes of less than 25%; the proportion of all modules with less than 30 credits had decreased steadily.
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                        Paying the Price? An Investigation Into the Continued Decline of Part-time Higher Education in England

Article Paying the Price? An Investigation Into the Continued Decline of Part-time Higher Education in England

The 2010 election of a coalition government and subsequent publication of the Browne Report into university funding signalled a major HE policy shift. In a bid to reduce the budget deficit, the burden of HE funding was transferred from central government to the students themselves in 2012 (Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, 2011; Callender & Wilkinson, 2012), and was justified by the government as putting ‘HE on a sustainable footing’ (Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, 2011, p. 4). For the first time, part-time students had access to tuition-fee loans on the same basis as their full-time counterparts, however, because of the retention of the ELQ restriction large numbers of prospective students remained ineligible (Callender & Little, 2015; Horrocks, 2015). Although part-time fees were regulated and capped at £6,750 per annum, for many part-time students this represented a significant increase (Callender & Wilkinson, 2012) and a policy intended to achieve greater parity between the modes inadvertently resulted in part-time study becoming less attractive or affordable (Bennion et al., 2011). The significant increase in tuition fees being paid by young full-time undergraduate students dominated the HE policy debate and, as a result, the decline in part-time enrolments remained peripheral (Butcher, 2015b). The retention of the ELQ ruling and significantly higher fees that were not sufficiently mitigated by access to tuition-fee loans, acted as major disincentives to part-time study, and are widely regarded as key drivers behind the decline in enrolments (Butcher, 2015b). Furthermore, there is some evidence that the take-up of part-time study loans has been lower than anticipated and may reflect the complexity of a system primarily designed for full-time undergraduate students who will enter employment for the first time after graduating (Callender, 2015b).
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number CBP 7966, 18 January 2019: Part-time undergraduate students in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number CBP 7966, 18 January 2019: Part-time undergraduate students in England

“I welcome the Government’s introduction of maintenance loans for part-time students in today’s Budget. With part-time students more likely to be from under-represented groups, this is an important step in making higher education more accessible, and I hope it will help reverse the troubling decline in part-time student numbers we have seen in recent years [note 1]. I also encourage universities and colleges to continue to think about how they can attract and support part-time learners, for example through
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Part-time undergraduate students in England

Part-time undergraduate students in England

“I welcome the Government’s introduction of maintenance loans for part-time students in today’s Budget. With part-time students more likely to be from under-represented groups, this is an important step in making higher education more accessible, and I hope it will help reverse the troubling decline in part-time student numbers we have seen in recent years [note 1]. I also encourage universities and colleges to continue to think about how they can attract and support part-time learners, for example through
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House of Lords: Library briefing: Part-time and Continuing Education

House of Lords: Library briefing: Part-time and Continuing Education

Other factors have been suggested as contributing to the decline in part-time higher education student numbers. These include: a general aversion to debt among older students, who are more likely to study part-time; a decline in levels of part-time study for self-improvement purposes or leisure, suggested by the reduction in the number of entrants for ‘combined study’ courses; and a rise in unrecorded learning opportunities, including unaccredited courses at universities, courses delivered by ‘alternative providers’, and massive open online courses (MOOCs)—one of which, FutureLearn, was launched by the OU. 23
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Undergraduate orientations towards higher education in Germany and England: problematizing the notion of ‘student as customer’

Undergraduate orientations towards higher education in Germany and England: problematizing the notion of ‘student as customer’

this growth have been markedly different. German universities are still almost entirely state supported for research and teaching (Auranen and Nieminen 2010): while tuition fees were introduced in some parts of country in the 2000s, they have since been abolished altogether (Spiegel 2014). The UK’s four constitutive nations each apply their own tuition fee models, but England—where the data in this study were collected—introduced fees in 1998 and they had increased ninefold by 2012 (Crawford and Jin 2014). Furthermore, as Pritchard (2011) documents, contrasts in the relative structural rigidity of the German and English university systems have hindered the advance of neoliberalism in the former and enabled it in the latter. Rankings including student satisfaction exist in both countries, but organisational agency/autonomy and competition are relatively new concepts for universities in Germany (Krücken and Meier 2006). Furthermore, there has until recently been a de facto assumption of status parity in the German university sector (Kosmütsky 2010). The UK, in contrast, has a long tradition of university autonomy and competitive hierarchies (Teichler 2008). Given that that fees and rankings are seen to contribute to the student as customer orientation, it might be expected that English students would be more instrumental and passive than their German counterparts. This did transpire, but not principally for the reasons suggested by the literature.
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Higher education funding in England

Higher education funding in England

institutions. Only part of the face value of fee and maintenance loans paid out in any one year counts as public expenditure. This is what the Government expects the subsidy element to be and is viewed as the permanent costs of the loan to the taxpayer. This system is known as resource accounting and budgeting (RAB) or accruals accounting and has been in place in the public sector for more than a decade. The subsidy element is calculated as the face value of loans made in any one year less the discounted or present value of future repayments. This can be thought of as the amount of money lent to students that the
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Carlow Institute of Further Education Full & Part-time Programmes

Carlow Institute of Further Education Full & Part-time Programmes

The Bachelor of Arts (Social Care) provides teaching of theoretical concepts applied to social care practice. The course is designed to meet the needs of adult learners returning to education and to enable those working in a social care field to further develop and enhance their understanding, knowledge and skills. Formal academic qualifications are not required to commence this BA. Candidates should have experience in care work. Candidates under 21 years should meet the University’s minimum matriculation requirements. Year 1 and year 2 of the programme are provided through interactive distance learning with workshops, seminars and work placement in Carlow. Candidates may exit the course at the end of any year and be awarded certification indicated below.
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Roles and responsibilities in education PART B: VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING AND HIGHER EDUCATON

Roles and responsibilities in education PART B: VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING AND HIGHER EDUCATON

ministerial agreement between the Commonwealth, state and territory governments (the ANTA Agreement) that provided the basis for joint partnerships between governments and industry in the development and refinement of a national VET system. The creation of ANTA marked the beginning of a period of increased public investment in VET and national training reform. ANTA assumed responsibility for the administration of Commonwealth funding to the States for VET as well as a range of programmes that had previously been administered by the federal education department. These included recurrent and capital funding under the Vocational Education and Training Funding Act 1992 (which enabled the Commonwealth to provide funding to the States through ANTA) ; National Projects; Skills Centres; Training Needs Curriculum and Materials; Innovative Projects; funding for the Industry Training Advisory Bodies; Workskill Australia; Adult and Community Education; Group Training Arrangements and Support for Traineeships. 22 The Commonwealth also agreed to meet ANTA’s running costs. However, the
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A study of the formation and nature of a community of learners within a blended, part time, graduate, higher education programme

A study of the formation and nature of a community of learners within a blended, part time, graduate, higher education programme

The need for lifelong learning and the substantial increase in participation are both closely aligned with the provision of part-time higher education (Schuller, Raffe, Morgan-Klein, & Clark, 1999; Slowey & Schuetze, 2012; Tight, 2003). As a cohort, part-time higher education students are characterised as not only being more mature than traditional students but also having a broader range of ages often within the same cohort or class(Yorke & Longdon, 2008). They are often in employment and have family commitments which result in a range of pressures that can hinder their studies and reduce their engagement in social interaction with their student peers(Bridge, 2006; Schuller et al., 1999). While these factors can be seen as disadvantages for the learning experience of part-time higher education students, they also have distinct advantages. Their motivations for study often differ from traditional students and they are usually highly committed to their studies. Their choice of area of study is commonly related to their employment and as a result they bring to their studies a wealth of practical work- based experience which can be often related to the studies (Bridge, 2006). Their increased maturity provides them with both considerable life experience and a serious and motivated approach to their studies.
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Vibrant and engaging online social learning: an innovative response to threatened part time study in Higher Education

Vibrant and engaging online social learning: an innovative response to threatened part time study in Higher Education

UK governments have increasingly identified Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) as key players in the production of flexible knowledge workers for the new global economy. The neoliberal marketisation of education by all political parties in office over the past 25 years has created a shift in thinking about HE provision. What counts as ‘world class education’ and its purpose in economically stringent times has become a highly contested notion and there are differing perspectives on how to balance economy, quality and social justice. The call of the Browne Review (2010) to ‘secure a sustainable future’ for UK HE through a competitive marketplace was used in September 2012 to justify a new funding structure that removed much of the public funding and introduced substantially higher student fees. Despite the availability of student loans for part-time students, this has resulted in fewer overall applications for many HEIs (Ratcliffe, 2012). At the same time, growing international and private provision delivered in increasingly flexible formats demands a response. The metaphor which the course team used to visualise these new pressures and constraints was of themselves as the innermost of a series of Russian dolls, the outermost of which is
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Full & Part-Time Certificate in Education Post Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE)

Full & Part-Time Certificate in Education Post Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE)

The total lifelong learning workforce comprises around 1.2 million individuals.* In the UK alone around 220,000 job opportunities are available in the sector in further education colleges, adult and community education, work based learning, the National Health Service and the Prison Service, catering for around 4 million students.

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The quality of part time work

The quality of part time work

The increase in level of education required for the job portrays a positive picture of the up- skilling of work over time, with women faring better than men, and a narrowing of the PT/FT gap amongst women up to 2012. However, SES data, like other sources, also show a general increase in the levels of education held over time. What were the implications of this for whether the education levels that were held by workers matched, exceeded or were less than the qualifications required for the job being done? Here we are drawing upon influential debates over the proportions of female part-timers who are ‘working below potential’. In 1986, around a third of women workers were working below their potential in that they had achieved a higher level of education than was needed for the work that they were currently doing (37% of PT compared with 29% of FT, statistically significant at 1%). This educational mis-match grew after 1992 for women, but fell from 2006. In 2012, still fully 41% of PT (49% for shorter hours part-timers) and a third of female full-timers were under-employed in terms of their levels of education. The mis-match for male part-timers was even higher and rising after the recession so that, in 2012, over half (54%) of men working PT had higher levels of education than their job required. This may support the argument that these men are taking short-term, PT jobs as a stop-gap measure through the worst of the recession and may revert to better FT jobs, once the labour market fully recovers.
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The quality of part time work

The quality of part time work

Part-timers’ levels of satisfaction with their jobs have stimulated one of the most contentious debates in the study of women’s working lives in Britain. Over-concentrated in objectively lower-quality jobs than full timers, women working PT have nevertheless expressed satisfaction with many aspects of their jobs. Given the juxtaposition of lower-quality jobs and these higher levels of job satisfaction, in 1991 Hakim infamously asked whether women working PT should accordingly be termed ‘grateful slaves’. Yet other research since then has questioned this idea of a female PT worker whose work orientation is such that she places a low priority on paid work, has chosen to work PT hours in a less demanding job, cares less about the quality of that job, and so is more easily job satisfied. Some argue that the greater responsibility placed upon women for caring and domestic tasks limits their choices (e.g. Ginn et al., 1996) and restricts their ‘agency freedom’ as far as their employment decisions are concerned (Lewis and Giullari, 2005). While many women say they like to work PT (Gash et al., 2012; Scott and Dex, 2009) and PT working women have tended to report lower work–life conflict (Crompton and Lyonette, 2007) and higher life satisfaction (Gash et al., 2012) than female full timers, any such evaluations by women in PT work are likely to be highly in fl uenced by the availability (or lack) of any viable alternatives. In fact, other studies have shown that female PT workers are those most likely to be dissatisfied with their variety of work and their ability to learn new things (European Commission, 1998), and also with terms of pay and job prospects, particularly those women working in lower-skilled PT jobs (Taylor, 2002; Walters, 2005). We considered whether women who worked PT in the SES stood out from female full timers in their work orientations and job satisfaction. Respondents were asked if they would continue to work if they did not need to for financial reasons. There were increases in women’s work commitment over time, for both FT and PT workers. For example, in 1986, 64 per cent of FT and 58 per cent
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Strategizing on cost: Effect of part time lecturers on  university education in Keny

Strategizing on cost: Effect of part time lecturers on university education in Keny

In writing about graduate employees, an American scholar (Bousquet, 2002) raises the point that graduate education accomplishes“...it‟s marvelous cheapness by allocating an ever larger section of the curriculum to flexible instructors who typically have between zero and four years of teaching experience”. This would align with the early career respondents identified in this study. Bousquet (2002) continues to indicate that a reduced variety of course offerings and reduced access to faculty doing active scholarship in their field are synonymous with casualisation of academic labour. This once again raises questions about the quality of delivery. Despite this, Bataille and Brown (2006) suggest that while the issues raised regarding part-time lecturers‟ availability outside of the classroom may indirectly affect education quality, the evidence is as yet inconclusive.
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Part time teaching staff

Part time teaching staff

 Luis Manuel Dias Fialho Morais (50%): Head of the Lifelong Training Department of the Nossa Senhora da Graça Hospital (Tomar), Internal Quality Consultant at Nossa Senhora [r]

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Part Time Language Programme

Part Time Language Programme

There are chances to take part in a wide variety of extra-curricular activities; from joining Students’ Union societies, work placement experiences, volunteering opportunities both in the UK and abroad, studying another language, representing your university in a sports team, or taking work opportunities through the Job Shop. All will help build your CV. So remember to use your time at university wisely, as the few years you are here will seem to go very fast when you look back on them. Make great new friends, learn a lot, grow as a person, be proud of your accomplishments and rise to all the opportunities and challenges that life as a Carnegie student will offer you.
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Part-time Professor, Psychology; and

Part-time Professor, Psychology; and

September, 1991 - present - Teaching Psychology courses in Lower Division Transfer Program at Portland Community College, Cascade Campus; Teaching Alcohol and Drug Counseling courses a[r]

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STRENGTHENING DEFENCE RESEARCH AS PART
OF HIGHER MILITARY EDUCATION FOR FUTURE
SECURITY CHALLENGES

STRENGTHENING DEFENCE RESEARCH AS PART OF HIGHER MILITARY EDUCATION FOR FUTURE SECURITY CHALLENGES

value of a particular scientifi c result are prescribed by national authorities from the Ministry of Education and Science. Measuring quality or valuation of the quality of scientifi c research is actually answering the question: “How good is that research?”. Various approaches may be applied in order to achieve adequate valuation, comparability and quantifi cation. In Serbia, this task is resolved with one policy document issued by the national authorities under the title: “Rulebook for procedures, valuation and quantifi cation of scientifi c research results of researchers” (Ministry of Education and Science 2017). Th is fi fty page document defi nes, classifi es and quantifi es nine general classes of scientifi c results. Th ey are: Scientifi c monographs and chapters of international importance (denotation class: M10); Papers in scientifi c journals of international importance (denotation class: M20); the book of proceedings from an international scientifi c conference (denotation: M30); scientifi c monographs and chapters of national importance (denotation class: M40); papers in scientifi c journals of national importance (denotation class: M50); the book of proceedings from an national scientifi c conference (denotation: M60); a doctoral (PhD) thesis (M70); technical solutions (M80); and patents (M90). Each class is further divided into an appropriate number of subclasses with appropriate denotation (for example: M21, M22, M23). Scientifi c production is arranged and valued according to the mentioned scope of scientifi c results. Ideally, the majority, if not all, of scientifi c projects conducted at the University should be generators of a set of diff erent scientifi c results. Ideally, master and doctoral thesis, as well as promising bachelor’s topics, should be incorporated into ongoing research projects at the University. Knowledge of professors and researchers combined with rich experience of military master and doctoral students can produce multidirectional synergetic eff ects for education, research and the practice side.
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