The evidence is less clear about the reasons for boys poorer progress compared to girls, although a number of possible explanations are put forward. First, boys are more likely than girls to have problems with conduct at school, and are more likely to be excluded as a result (see section 2.3.6). Strand (2011) finds lower progress for Black Caribbean 11-14 year old boys in the LSYPE survey, which is unexplained by his analysis, and which he suggests is linked to lower teacher expectations for boys, especially those from this ethnic group. This may impact on their progress since these pupils are often placed in lower streams or sets (Hallam & Parsons 2013). As we set out in section 2.3, being placed in lower streams or sets can lower boys’ educational expectations and cap their attainment if they are then entered for lower exam tiers. Hartas (2016) uses data from the 2016 UK Household Longitudinal Study to show that boys may also have less ‘pro-educational’ attitudes and values, for example seeing less value in a degree.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: There is paucity of information on the prevalence of external genital abnormalities in Nigeria particularly in Ekiti State. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of external genital abnormalities among primary schoolpupils in Ekiti State. Patients and Methods: This was a descriptive, cross sectional study that used multistage sampling to select pupils in Primary schools in the three senatorial district of Ekiti state. Pupils from ages two to sixteen years were examined by trained physicians for external genital abnormalities. Results: A total of 1200 pupils were examined, out of which 372 [31%] pupils had external genital abnormalities. M: F =1. There were 31 [2.58%] pupils with congenital external genital abnormalities out of 1200 pupils. All were males, with a prevalence of 5.18% among the boys. The prevalence of congenital external abnormalities by senatorial district was 3.43%, 1.07%, and 10.63% for Ekiti Central, North and South respectively. Right testicular volume was significantly greater than the left testis [t=3.426, P-value=0.001]. A high prevalence [56.15%] of Female Genital Cutting [FGC] was noted with the highest prevalence in Ekiti South senatorial district. Conclusion: Prevalence of Congenital external genital abnormalities is still low in this environment but the prevalence of FGC is quite high. Hydrocele, micro testis and high rising testes are the commonest congenital defects.
Variations by dilemma were also found. Highest scores were achieved when self-discipline or courage was at stake compared to situations involving honesty. One explanation for such low scores for the honesty dilemma is that this creates for pupils a (hypothetical) pull between honesty on the one hand and loyalty to peers on the other. The desire to be well thought of by peers is probably a particular wrench for pupils aged 14 and 15 and this could be reflected in lower scores (cf. Steinberg & Monahan, 2007). However, suggestions of a more general decline in moral judgement in this age group may not be surprising to many parents or teachers given that these young people are beginning to attend to an adult identity, including the re-evaluation of traditional values and ideologies. (See also Nucci and Turiel (2009) for suggestions of a U-shaped pattern in moral development among children). Across all dilemmas, two clear findings, replicated in other Ad-ICM research (USA), stand out, namely that pupils were better able to say what the protagonist should do than why, and that they could select ‘best’ options more easily than ‘worst’ ones. To our knowledge, this finding is the first of its kind in the UK context, especially involving so many schools and pupils. Knowing what to do more than being able to say why seems a likely reality among many young people who are conceivably habituated to some extent in the ways of good character, but who have not yet grown this into a reflective pattern for themselves. Social routine, modelling and habit may well help pupils determine the right thing to do, but the development of an experientially learned capacity to make good moral judgements supported by sound reasoning (or what virtue ethicists call ‘phronesis’) might be lagging behind. An inability to recognise poor choices or poor justifications in the face of difficult situations is an unfortunate deficit in life because individuals under pressure can act out of character or make poor choices with potentially negative repercussions. Although good moral judgment improves through life experience, both of these weaknesses - identified by the ICM survey - ought to be addressed directly in schools. Sensitising children to poor choices could be beneficial and would
The pattern shown above (a relative decline in performance among analysis group academies between 2013 and 2016) may also reflect the time it took for academy chains (and the schools in them) to adapt to changes in performance measures. The adjustment needed has been the least for schools which in the past have taught a strongly academic curriculum, and greatest for those which taught more vocational subjects. In our first report, we noted that in comparison to other types of school, sponsored academies entered far more of their pupils for vocational qualifications. The extent to which this happened varied across chains. When the list of qualifications that were considered ‘equivalent’ to GCSE was pruned following the Wolf Report, sponsored academies had to make larger changes to their curriculum and staffing than other types of school, and this affected some chains more than others.
examinations. Therefore, a sound knowledge of English is essential to succeed in the English school system. That is not to say that schools deliberately undermine home languages (L1s), but language maintenance is not a school priority. Therefore, by and large, subject teachers have always conducted their lessons in English with resources produced in English. In terms of Freeport school, some adaptations in this area have evolved, an example of this is maths taught by a Czech maths teacher. Observing him, he teaches only Roma Slovak pupils and utilizes Czech, Slovakian and Romani as appropriate (Source: lesson observation notes); the pupils only speak their L1s with him. More research will be required to determine the most effective way of teaching the substantive content, i.e. do pupils learn maths more effectively in their L1s? But it appears that such are the low levels of English among many of the pupils that the school has decided to encourage communication via the L1 if possible in some lessons, leading to what I term ‘English immersion+’.
The flows that we observe are the end result of the various processes that make up the current system of school choice in England. According to the rhetoric, parents and students should be able to exercise choice at all levels of the educational system, enabling them to opt for their preferred provider and, in part by stimulating inter-school competition, improving the overall quality of provision. Such choice has been available in the English school system since the 1944 Education Act, but its importance has increased very substantially since the Educational Reform Act 1988, and extended thereafter (White et al, 2001). The recent education Act (2006) introduced a new Schools Admissions Code for those making admissions decisions, the governing bodies of self- governing schools and LEAs. 2 Criteria such as parental occupation, income or marital status cannot be taken into account where a school is over-subscribed, nor must they interview applicants and use ‘first preferences’, nor should criteria be set – like the wearing of a school uniform – that would
A majority of pupils claim that geographical knowledge is useful in life, giv- ing as examples ﬁ eld orientation and the ability to read maps. In this aspect, the results of author’s study diﬀ er from the former ones. In the studies of Kowal- ska and Mularczyk (2003), the respondents living in big cities claimed that ge- ography is only slightly useful in further education and daily life (unlike the respondents living on the countryside who better assess the usefulness of ge- ography). Sadoń-Osowiecka (2004) also wrote about the low assessment of ge- ography in the matter of usefulness in future life and work career. Respondents of these studies deﬁ ned geography as a discipline of purely scientiﬁ c nature, completely unrelated to the reality.
in depth understanding of their views in different contexts. Pupil self-assessment provides a measure of self-efficacy which is considered in the literature as a strong predictor of subsequent achievement (see, for instance, Pajares and Kranzler, 1995, for mathematics achievement and McPherson and McCormick, 2006, for achievement in musical performance). Jinks and Lorsback (2003), for example, regard self-efficacy as ‘antecedent to academic success because it motivates behaviour and leads to success’ (p. 113). Pupils’ ability to reflect on their own achievements and musical progress can show evidence of high or low self-efficacy beliefs and this can be a powerful indicator to the teacher of possible changes that need to be made to the curriculum so that pupils’ learning can improve in certain areas. Adjusting the teaching content according to pupils’ perceptions of their musical competence, can create a more learner-centred environment where learners are mindfully engaged and are active contributors to the nature of their musical experience enabling ‘learner ownership of the musical process and product’ (Blair, 2009, p.42). This context can be perceived as one in which Habermas’ notion of ‘deliberative democracy’, where children participate in decision making in the classroom through the expression of mutual respect and ‘communicative action’, can find fertile ground (Dann, 2016).
Previous research shows that pupils with greater ac- cess to food outlets around schools were more likely to purchase food and drinks out of schools , however the present study found that almost all secondaryschoolpupils across Scotland have access to places selling food or drinks at lunchtime and break times. Interestingly, in this study, supermarkets, rather than takeaway and fast food outlets, were the places from which pupils reported most often purchasing food or drinks at lunchtime. Pre- vious research has focused on fast food outlets in the vicinity of secondary schools [13, 24], but in this study they were not the only or the main places where pupils were buying food or drinks at lunchtime. A UK study of changing retail environments around schools suggests that whilst overall numbers of food outlets have not changed in recent years, there has been an increase in the number of grocery stores (including supermarkets) within 800 metres of schools . Supermarkets tend to provide a wider range of foods than many takeaway out- lets, which may represent both healthy and less healthy choices. However, the importance of considering the wider food environment and not focusing just on take- aways and fast food outlets was highlighted in a recent study, when the association between exposure to take- aways and body weight disappeared when adjusted for supermarket exposure . The role of supermarkets in influencing the diet should not be overlooked even among young people; a recent study showed that 65- 75 % of added sugars consumed in the US are bought in supermarkets or grocery stores for example . It has been reported that in supermarkets in the UK have more shelf space allocated to the sale of energy dense snacks (e.g. crisps, confectionery) compared with eight other high income countries and have the second highest ratio of space for snack foods to fruit in supermarkets (1.31:1) . In the current study, however, we were not able to identify which foods or drinks were being purchased at the different types of food outlets, but this could be ex- plored in future research.
A larger scale UK study exploring pupils’ experiences of ability grouping has shown that pupils tend to be accepting of the grouping structures operating within their school, although having experienced setting there was a tendency to prefer it to mixed ability teaching (Hallam et al., submitted, b). This overall trend was overlaid by gender, set placement and socio- economic status factors. Boys, those of low socio-economic status and those in the lowest sets tended to prefer mixed ability teaching (Hallam et al., submitted, b). The evidence suggested that a significant proportion of pupils were unhappy with their set placement. Most wanted to change sets in an upward direction to be given harder work, improve their prospects in examinations and their careers, and their status within school. A small number of pupils wished to move down a set to improve their understanding and receive work which they perceived to be better suited to their needs. Overall, pupils in lower sets tended to have less positive relationships with their school (Ireson and Hallam, 2001) and there was a tendency for those in the top and bottom sets to experience some stigmatization as a result of their set placement (Hallam et al., submitted a, b). However, within these overall trends, there were substantial differences between the experiences of pupils in individual schools (Ireson and Hallam, 2001).
There has also been discussion of the temporal aspect of neighbourhood effect mechanisms: how quickly they work and what shorter or longer exposures mean. Some effects are posited to be quick working – such as stigmatisation, social disorder and accessibility, and others – such as socialisation, social networks, and the impact of institutions – are thought to be slower (Musterd et al., 2012). Musterd, Galster et al. used longitudinal Swedish data to explore the effect of neighbourhood on income. They found that not only did being exposed to a high proportion of lowincome neighbours have a significant negative impact on income, but that this impact was larger if the exposure had occurred more recently, and that the longer the exposure, the larger the negative effect. They also found a ‘saturation level’ whereby after the initial exposure a negative effect will decrease, yet remain significantly negative. Strikingly they found that there was ‘no example of full recovery from initial exposure to low-income neighbours within the span of four years we investigated, even when exposure has been short and relatively long ago’ (2012: 24). Temporal effects of
Studies of similar school-based interventions report effect sizes of at least 0.4 standard deviations (SDs) using brief symptom questionnaires as proposed here. This is a conservative estimate based on studies compar- ing interventions against placebo-controlled groups with several non-specific therapeutic components. The poten- tial benefits for society of a shift in the mean of this magnitude are substantial: a reduction in the prevalence of diagnosed common emotional disorders from 10% to 4.7% and important benefits for a large proportion of students with milder symptoms . We calculated an intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.041 (95% CI 0.036-0.046) for ‘ negative emotionality ’ using a data- set comprising 58,000 students in 1396 secondary schools in Chile. To detect a difference of 0.4 SDs with 90% power and two-sided 1% alpha would require a total of N = 376 for analysis. However this number invited must be inflated to allow for clustering, non- consent and loss to follow up. There were 85 state- funded mixed-sex schools in the greater Santiago area with >1 class per year group. We randomly selected four classes for study in those schools with more than four per year group. Therefore schools participating in the study had 2, 3 or 4 classes in the trial, yielding a mean year group size of 125 (SD 40), and a mean clus- ter size for analysis of 80 (SD 26) assuming 80% consent and retention rates. The sample was stratified according to number of classes in each school (2/3 vs 4 classes) and socio-economic status of the area where the school was located (tertiles). Schools were proportionately ran- domly selected to ensure all strata were represented. Using Eldridge et al ’ s  formula for inflation of sam- ple size in cluster randomised trials with unequal cluster sizes*, we calcualted needed to invite 2634 students from 20.3 schools in order to maintain 90% power for the primary analysis. We therefore aimed to recruit and randomise 22 schools. A list of 22 schools representing all strata was chosen. When a school from this list refused to take part, we selected the first available school within the appropriate stratum within our Reserve List.
There has been a longstanding concern in England and Wales with the year on year progress made by pupils, but particularly at times of change, such as transfer 1 from primary to secondaryschool at age 11(Galton, Gray and Rudduck 1999), (Hargreaves and Galton 1999). In Coalton 2 , a former mining town in the North of England, a five year UK government funded initiative known as Charter for Transition (Coldwell and Holland, 2001) has been put in place to try to overcome some of these difficulties and improve the learning opportunities for pupils aged 5-16. The programme takes place over a 5-year period in various stages (see methodology section), but in this paper we make use of data from the first two years. Thirty-seven schools, about one third of the districts’ primary and secondary schools, had received support from the initiative. Charter for Transition initially had a focus on transition between different stages in learning and curriculum continuity, but became broader than this to accommodate new national strategies for the analysis of performance data at the level of individual pupils, schools, and the district. Therefore, the focus of the project’s work became progress throughout compulsory schooling.
Table 1 present a simple breakdown of age 16 examination results by year of joining secondaryschool. The performance of the stable group is higher than that of pupils joining at any time during the secondary phase. Figure 1 shows the most widely cited measure of examination success, the percentage of pupils achieving 5 or more GCSE passes at A*-C or equivalent, by the year in which the pupil joined their secondaryschool. Those pupils who joined in autumn Y7, and therefore spent all five year of secondary education in the same school, had the highest attainment, with sizeable decrements for those joining later, particularly for those joining in Y11. Similar data are reported by Demie (2002). Averaging across all non-standard admission dates, only one-third (33%) of ‘mobile’ pupils achieved 5+ A*-C passes, compared to over half (52%) of stable pupils. Similarly the lower threshold of 5 or more passes at grades A*-G or equivalent was achieved by only three-quarters (75%) of mobile pupils but by nearly all (95%) the stable group. The mean total points score of mobile pupils was 264
Last but not least, pupils’ emotional engagement with school at the beginning of secondaryschool is important as the level of pupils’ engagement during that first year in senior school could determine their subsequent attitudes to school if appropriate interventions are not put effectively into place. Research indicates that pupils’ attitudes are malleable and responsive to environmental change (Fredricks, Blumenfeld and Paris, 2004), but the problem needs to be recognised first for appropriate action to be taken. This research proposes that there is a problem which is evidenced in pupils’ lower attitudes to school and music at the end of the first year in secondaryschool. More research needs to be done to ascertain the particular areas in pupils’ school life that will help enhance their affective response to school. It is here suggested that two important factors seem to be the teacher- pupil relationship and the perceived autonomy that pupils are allowed to exercise in their learning. Additionally, particular emphasis needs to be given to the reasons behind boys’ declining attitudes and to what can be done to increase their engagement with school. A particular problem with music is the low uptake of music at GCSE level. Lamont and Maton (2008) found that the longer pupils are at school, the more likely are they to view music as being of less significance compared to other school subjects and they start to perceive musical ability as a fixed entity that not everyone possesses. This is unfortunate considering the important role of music for children during the formal school years (Custodero, 2010), for higher education students’ lives (Kokotsaki and Hallam, 2007; 2011) and more generally (Hallam, 2010). These studies suggest that music participation can have powerful intellectual, musical, personal and social effects on an individual throughout life. Effective instructional practices that take into account children’s needs and interests within a supportive learning environment can enable authentic musical experiences well-aligned with children’s musical realities. Changes to pedagogical practices which will offer children opportunities to exercise choice, autonomy and self-directed learning in the classroom can help them develop a sense of positive identification within the context of formal education, both in music learning and in schooling more generally. Such changes It is proposed that changes to pedagogical approaches need to be considered in order for pupils’ attitudes to school and music to be improved or at least to remain stable at the start of secondaryschool.
screening tool for such purposes in large populations of adolescents where the use of long and sometimes rather intrusive questionnaires would be impractical. Our results also indicate that there might be a small but significant number of pupils with a mood disorder and the use of the MCW instrument is a quick and simple way to identify adolescents who may benefit from further investigation, support or intervention. For instance, it is noteworthy that in a recent study on self- harm in adolescents a link with low mood was identified and the authors emphasised the importance of recognis- ing individuals at risk . In addition, the application of the MCW is not necessarily confined to mood; it could be used for gauging the response to a whole variety of questions which in a school, for instance, could be how students perceive the subjects in their curriculum. Another advantage of this instrument, espe- cially for use in population studies, is that it can easily be converted to an electronic form or even an ‘app’ for a smart phone. It might be considered that the utility of the MCW could be limited by color vision deficiency (color blindness), but this problem only occurs in up to 8% of males and 0.5% of females . However, this po- tential drawback is less of a problem than “functional illiteracy” which has been estimated to affect 16% of the U.K. population  and impairs the ability to under- stand written medical materials  such as psycho- logically orientated questionnaires.
Children unhappy with their ‘life as a whole’ may be reflecting elements of the other wellbeing domains, which arguably fall under this overarching category. These factors are also prevalent when looking across the different domains of wellbeing – those factors most often associated with a number of low wellbeing domains are being a girl, being bullied (particularly non-physical bullying), and having psychological difficulties. Recent research has replicated the finding that there is a growing gap in happiness between boys and girls, and that girls’ low wellbeing may lead to depression and anxiety (Children’s Society, 2016). The links between bullying and wellbeing are well established – bullying can affect a child’s sense of self-worth, disrupt their education and potentially lead to mental ill-health (Children’s Society, 2016). Recent research by Lessof et al (2016) found young people were experiencing higher levels of ‘psychological distress’ – particularly girls.
This study is aimed at identifying the impact of vocational guidance of the secondary schools in Uzbekistan in process of teaching English. 291 pupils were exposed to this experiment in order to clarify their attitudes towards professions. Almost half of the pupils were from rural areas in the country while other half of them were from Namangan city. Furthermore, it is given the results of decision of pupils according to the types of the professions.