A novel lowtemperatureglycerolysis process for lowering free fatty acid (FFA) in crude jatropha oil for alkali cata- lyzed transesterification has been developed. The response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design was used to model and optimize the glycerolysis efficiency under three reaction variables namely; reaction time, temperature and glycerol to oil mass ratio. The optimum conditions for highest glycerolysis efficiency of 98.67% were found to be temperature of 65˚C, reaction time of 73 minutes and 2.24 g/g glycerol to oil mass ratio. These conditions lower the high free fatty acid of crude jatropha oil from 4.54% to 0.0654% which is below 3% recommended for alkali catalyzed transesterification. The pre-treated crude jatropha oil was then transesterified by using homogeneous base transesterification resulting to a conversion of 97.87%. The fuel properties of jatropha biodiesel obtained were found to be comparable to those of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The process can also utilize the crude glycerol from the transesterification reaction, hence lowering the cost of biodiesel. The glycerolysis is easier implemented than acid esterification thereby avoiding the need for neutralization and alcohol removal step.
The chemical re-esterification process is one of the old highFFApre-treatment methods for food grade products. It has been in existence for more than centuries . It converts the free fatty acid into neutral glycerides by reesterification with the free hydroxyl groups remaining in the oil (or with added hydroxyl groups from glycerol) at a hightemperature, with or without catalyst . The reaction starts with the formation of monoglycerides, which is further esterified to diglycerides and then to a triglyceride . Contrary to loss of oils during pre- treatment by other FFApre-treatment processes, the re- esterification increases the yield of neutral oil. The water formed during reaction lead to the establishment of equi- librium between the reactants under the experimental conditions and it should therefore be removed. Several approaches have been proposed to remove water in the reaction mixture. The use of an inert gas or air and to maintain vacuum have been suggested to eliminate water from the reaction mixture .
emulsions and pyrolysis. Among these, transesterifica- tion is the most commonly used method as it reduces the viscosity of oil . Biodieselproduction by transesteri- fication reaction can be catalyzed with alkali, acidic or enzymatic catalysts. Alkali and acid transesterification processes require less reaction time with reduced proc- essing costs as compared to the enzyme catalyst process [12,13]. Alkali process yields high quantity and high purity biodiesel in shorter reaction time ; however, this process is not suitable for feedstock with high free fatty acid (FFA) content. Therefore, a two-step trans- esterification process (acid esterification followed by alkali transesterification) was developed to remove high free fatty acid (FFA) content and to improve the bio- diesel yield. The long reaction time and low recovery of catalyst were disadvantages of the two-step process. An alternative method, namely the microwave-assisted cata- lytic transesterification, has been developed that gives highbiodiesel yield and purity. Microwave-assisted trans- esterification is an energy-efficient and a quick process to produce biodiesel from different feedstocks [15,16]. Microwave-heating has been successfully applied to synthesize porous materials and supported catalyst in our previous research [17,18]. Microwave-assisted trans- esterification of different feedstocks such as rapeseed oil, cotton seed oil and waste cooking oils has been reported by several researchers [15,19,20].
When the feedstock contains up to 3.5%, the formation of free fatty acid (FFAs) soap is occur that will be a difficult to work with the alkaline reaction. One way to deal with it is blending such oil (FFAs <3.5) with the lower free fatty acid (FFAs) feedstocks (<1%) to obtain oil feedstock of free fatty acid (FFAs) less than 2%. Besides that, the feedstocks containing free fatty acid (FFAs) level below 3% can be pre-treated by adsorbents with extract free fatty acids (FFAs) from oil out into the matrix. Another approach that has been used to convert the free fatty acids (FFAs) to their potassium salts is water wash process or centrifugal. If contents free fatty acids in oil higher than 1%, pre-treatmentmethod should be applied for reduce the free fatty acids (FFAs). Acoording to Li et al., (2010), the alkali biodieselproduction process converts the free fatty acids (FFAs) to soaps which eventually result in the complication of the downstream processing of the final products. Table 2.3 show pre and post-treatment methods of different variable levels of free fatty acids (FFAs).
The manufactured samples are treated at temperatures between 37° and 120°C in a steam saturated environ- ment to allow powders to solubilize without alteration of their crystallinity. Calcium phosphates are then precipi- tated into the grain interfaces without increasing HAp and M crystallinity, as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction studies of pure compounds. The thermal process always determines an higher coherence in the products [30,31]. This hypothesis is supported by the porosity % results, which decrease with thermal treatment, even if slightly, in samples (c) and (f), (table 4).
Acid value (AV) is a common parameter in the specification of fats and oils. It’s defined as the weight of KOH in mg needed to neutralize the organic acids present in 1g of fat/ oil and it is measure of the free fatty acids (FFA) presents in the fats or oil. The high acid value implies that the oil has high susceptibility to decomposition . Excess or higher acid and free fatty acid values of oil greater than 5% is not suitable for base catalyzed transesterification reaction . The acid value of crude castor oil obtained is 4.488±0.40 mgKOH/g which is lower than 15.57 mgKOH/g obtained by Omohu and Omale  and high than the maximum value specified by ASTM of 2 mgKOH/g. After neutralization during refining of the crude castor oil, the acid value drop to 2.805±0.20 mgKOH/g. Nakarmi and Joshi  performed similar refining process on the castor oil, where their acid value of the crude castor oil drop from 2.629 to 1.566 mgKOH/g.
However, most of the heterogeneous catalysts as reported have complex preparation steps and expensive synthesis routes. The heterogeneous catalysts should be synthesized by simple preparation steps, available abundantly and low in price to reduce the catalyst production cost. Zeolite is an aluminosilicate natural mineral which has a crystalline framework three-dimensional structure to form pores with uniform size. Zeolite has been applied in many industrial applications, such as adsorbent in wastewater treatment, molecular sieve, catalyst, etc. The study related to the Indonesia natural zeolite application for biodieselproduction as a solid catalyst is still limited. The esterification reactions of FFAs with methanol, using zirconia supported on Indonesia natural zeolite, were an investigation in this research. The natural zeolite catalyst activity to convert FFAs to biodiesel was tested in terms of the reaction temperatures, POS to methanol mole ratio, catalyst amounts and reaction time. The catalyst reusability for consecutive reactions was also investigated in this work.
The esterification process is a pre-treatment process for the feedstock oil with the aim to reduce the FFA content. HighFFA content may contributed to some negative effects on the production namely higher saponification level that lead to low yield production (M.M. Zamberi et al ., 2011). 50 g of crude RSO was placed in a 250 ml three-necked round-bottomed flask and being heated to 60 o C while stirred with magnetic stirrer under atmospheric conditions to homogenize the oil. The concentrated sulphuric acid and methanol are measured according to selected ratio which is 10:1 methanol to oil ratio and 10% of the total weight of rubberseed oil for sulfuric acid and mixed together before heated to 60 o C. The reaction mixture was then added to the reaction flask containing preheated oil and again stirred for specific time. The temperature of the mixture was maintained at 45 ᴼC and stirred for 90 minutes. The mixture was then poured into the separating funnel and left overnight so that separation can occur. After separation occurred, three different layers are present in the separation funnel, the bottom layer was glycerine, the middle layer was excess methanol and the top layer was the treated rubberseed oil. The bottom layer and middle layer are removed and the treated rubberseed oil was washed with distilled hot water. After washing, the sample was filtered in order to remove any contaminant in it. The amount of FFA content remaining was determined before conducting the transesterification process.
conducted an experiment using blends Pongamia pinata oil and mustard oil with diesel oil. B10 shows 0.32 kg/kWh specific fuel consumption and diesel shows 0.31 kg/kWh. Bhupendra et al.  have described that using Jatropha biodiesel along with engine performance, combustion characteristics, and variations in emissions. Srithar et al.  have stated that in the past lots of work has been done by researchers on biodieselproduction from the blending of vegetable oil with mineral diesel. But no work has been reported in biodiesel preparation by combining two different biodiesel blends with mineral diesel at different blending ratios. Dual biodiesel fuel enhances the lowtemperature properties and reduces the emissions of the diesel engine. Hanny Johanes Berchmans et al.  revealed that lowtemperature properties of Jatropha Biofuel are better, so in this research, we’ve selected the Jatropha biodiesel and Mahua biodiesel for the preparation of the dual-fuel biodiesel. Amr Ibrahimhas  studied and reported that blends of 5% diethyl ether and diesel can improve the engine performance mostly at all engine loads. Senthur Prabu et al.  experimented on diesel and Palm oil to produced biodiesel by blending them. Biodiesel produced from Palm oil with antioxidants has shown better engine performance and reduction in emission levels for different blends. A DI diesel engine was used for testing. Nalgundwar et al.  have taken a combination of Palm and Jatropha biodiesel and blended it with diesel to perform an experiment on a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Senthil et al.  used a catalytic cracking technique for biodiesel produced from Mahua oil biodiesel. Potassium hydroxide and activated red mud were used as catalysts. Activated red mud catalyst has shown a reduction in engine exhaust emission as well as consumption of fuel. Sanjid et al.  have performed experimentation on the 1-cylinder diesel engine to measure engine combustion, engine out emissions, noise, vibrations and harshness characteristics. Further, the power output of engine fueled by dual biodiesel of Jatropha and Palm biodiesel blends was also determined. Mahua oil has a calorific value of 5% inferior to the diesel fuel , . Both Mahua raw seed oil and Jatropha raw seed oil have highFFA (Free fatty Acid) content which is around 19%-20% . To reduce the FFA content of both crude oils, the pretreatment
Traditional technologies mainly used for crude palm oil extraction in developing countries are responsible for high water content, which consequently increases FFA content with oil aging [13, 16]. The common solution to overcome this issue is the use of refined oil. However, a system processing biodiesel from refined palm oil is technically successful, but not economically viable compared to using crude raw materials with pretreatment. In fact, refining will bring in FFA reduction, deodorization and bleaching, and require additional manpower and equipments, which will definitely increase the production cost . Moreover, Dominik R. and Rainer J. argued that FFA which should have been converted into FAME is lost through refining, thus resulting in a decrease of the overall yield, especially if the feedstocks FFA content is high . To this add the issue of cold flow properties of biodiesel which is a function of fatty acid composition. Since the type of feedstock plays an important role regarding the impurities and ways they must be removed, biodiesel from unrefined palm oil must be thoroughly purified and handled carefully. In fact, monoglycerides and sterol glucosides are at the origin of precipitations in biodiesel. Sterol glucosides are not soluble in biodiesel and crystalize slowly as the biodiesel cools down, and initial biodiesel seems to meet specification but after few days of storage filterability issue shows off. Sterol glucosides which are considered as dispersed fine solid particles as low as 35 ppm may accelerate crystallization and coprecipitation of other compounds and creation of deposits in the biodiesel. Those deposits are at the origin of filter clogging at temperatures even above cloud point . Furthermore, unrefined palm oil produced by traditional presses contains too much solid materials like sludges, fiber, palm seeds, leaves, and cakes which need to be removed before any pretreatment.
vegetables can be cracked for improving cetane number and also decreasing in viscosity. The cracking products include carboxylic acids, alkenes and alkanes. Rapeseed, cottonseed, soyabean and other kind of oils are cracked successfully with suitable catalysts for biodieselproduction (Ranganathan et al., 2008). Cracking ended to good flow characteristics that achieved because of viscosity minimization. Drawbacks of this technique are high cost of equipment and also separate equipments are needed for various fractions separation. Also the product that produced was like gasoline and they contained sulfur and it cause to make the product less environmental-friendly (Ma and Hanna, 1999).
The indication that FFA quality did not significantly affected by ultrasound wave propagation shall lead to potential application of ultrasound on palm fruit mash be it before, within or after the digester. This finding is supported with effects on DOBI values where the quality slightly deteriorates with increasing amount of water content at treatmenttemperature 60 o C. The quality was not affected with treatmenttemperature above 70 o C. This shall not be of concern since the actual digestion condition on heating temperature is maintained at 90 to 95 o C. With above findings, it is expected that ultrasound treatment on fruit mash in the digester vessel with current conditions may improve the liberation of oil globules from cell fiber wall hence, increase the oil yield without affecting the oil quality. In addition, the use of hot water injected at bottom of digester may be excluded or minimised. As a result, emulsification issue can be eliminated or minimised. On the other hand, the hot water temperature can be lowered and maintained at a minimum of 70 o C. But these hypotheses are yet to be determined on the fruit fibre mash and the extracted oil yield. Nonetheless, further determinations on CPO quality such as glycerides content, peroxide value, iodine value, carotene and others need to be determined to strengthen the findings. This shall also include the oil stability, viscosity and the emulsion characteristics under microscopic view.
The steel rings have a patina of matt black artificial magnetite. This patina with evident decorative effect, while protective of the corrosion and the rust, was obtained artificially to hightemperature as it is deduced of the microstructure resulting from the steel of the rings. The research was carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy (M.E.B.) and X-ray diffraction.
insulation properties. The diversity of polymers and therefore the skillfulness of their properties ar accustomed create a massive array of merchandise that bring medical and technological advances, energy savings and numerous other societal benefits. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased substantially over the last 60 years from 0.5 million tonnes in 1950 to over 260 million tonnes today. In Europe alone the industry encompasses a turnover in way over three hundred million euros and employs one.6 million people. Almost all aspects of daily life involve plastics, in transport, telecommunications, clothing, footwear and as packaging materials that facilitate the transport of a wide range of food, drink and other goods. There is considerable potential for new applications of plastics that will bring benefits in the future, for example as novel medical applications, in the generation of renewable energy and by reducing energy used in transport. Some plastics wastes are suitable for pyrolysis such as: HDPE (high density polyethylene), LDPE (low density polyethylene), polypropylene' polystyrene' polyvinyl alcohol, polyoxy- methylene, polyamide, polyurethane, polyphenylene, polyvinyl chloride etc. But for tire pupose of this study low density polyethylene (LDPE) was used since it is.
The pollution resulting from wastewater of animal origin which contains high loads of nitrogen and phosphorus has created serious threats to the aquatic environment, the main problems are eutrophication of waters, air pollution by volatilization of ammonia and land degradation (Godos et al., 2010). In Ecuador, the pork sector presented a dynamic growth in recent years and equally, posing an environmental threat because of their improper disposal. The ability of microalgae to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater has allowed the use of microalgae cultures as tertiary treatment, presenting great advantages over physical and chemical conventional systems, because they do not generate secondary pollutants and presents
Production of biodiesel using vegetable (hingot) oil from magnetic stilling method and effect of various different parameters (e.g. molar ratio, weight percentage of catalyst, reaction time, etc) on the yield of biodieselproduction is know from the varies the above parameters one by one. There are several methods to produce biodiesel using vegetable oils e.g. conventional method (magnetic stirring), hydrodynamics cavitation method, ultrasonic irradiation method, microwave iteration method. But I had adopted the magnetic stirring method. Generally from many vegetable oils biodiesel is produce in single step called “transesterification” which is lowFFA containts oils but hingot oil is containing a highFFA so the production of biodiesel is not possible in single stage therefore in this oil two steps is needed for production of biodiesel called “esterification” and “transesterification”
ical properties of the activated catalysts were char- acterized by XRD, N 2 sorption, CO 2 -TPD, TGA– DTG, XRF and SEM, while the catalytic activity was tested in producing biodiesel via transesteri- fication on palm oil with methanol under micro- wave conditions. The effect of microwave power, reaction time, methanol-to-oil ratio and catalyst loading was investigated. The experimental results revealed that the catalysts exhibited a high content of CaO (99.2 wt%) with high density of strong base sites. The catalytic testing demonstrated a remark- able enhancement for biodieselproduction using microwaves compared to conventional heating. The max. yield of fatty acid methyl esters reached 96.7% under the optimal condition of reaction time of 4 min with 900 W microwave power, methanol- to-oil ratio of 18:1, and catalyst loading of 15%. The results indicated that the CaO catalysts derived from eggshells showed good reusability and had a high potential to be used as biodieselproduction catalysts under microwave-assisted transesterifica- tion of palm oil.
ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the synthesis of biodiesel from residual goat tallow at laboratory scale, determination of free fatty acid profile, lowering the level of free fatty acid content fordecrement of the viscosityto meet the standards for usage in diesel engines. The obtained product is also tested for different rheological, thermodynamic and physical properties such as Viscosity with respect to temperature, Shear Stress with respect to temperature, Calorific value, Flash point, Fire point, PH value, density etc. These results are then compared with existing standards for petroleum diesel. Further a comparisonof the cost of the produced biodiesel with petroleum diesel has also been provided.
Abstract— Increasing energy demand and environmental concerns have encouraged an evolution of alternative fuels. In this paper, a comparative review of the current technologies up to now used to produce biodiesel has been investigated. There are four most important ways to make biodiesel, transesterification, thermal cracking, direct use or blending and micro emulsions. The most common methods in the production of biodiesel, was emphasized in this review. The two important types of biodieselproduction process; transesterification and thermal cracking are discussed at length in the paper. Both the advantages and disadvantages of the transesterification and thermal cracking methods are also discussed.