The machining industry is an important and strategic industry for the manufacturing sector (Wang et al., 2013). Based on the above, investigations have been carried out on machining processes by varying the cutting conditions and measuring the various machinability responses. Additionally, investigations involving newly developed cutting tools as well as newly developed workpiece materials were also undertaken. As mentioned previously; tool life, cutting forces and surface roughness are the responses normally investigated in machinability studies. The power consumption during machining is often neglected, and this holds true in the case of turning process. There was very limited research performed in investigating the power consumption machinability response. In line with making the turning process sustainable, there is a need to conduct a study on the turning process machinability, which also considers power consumption.
According to Ciftci(2005) AISI 316 resulted in higher forces at all cutting speeds employed than AISI 304. The 2.0% Mo present in AISI 316 was considered to be the cause of the higher forces. Zhuang et al.(2010) studied two steel, free cutting austeniticstainlesssteel and austenite stainlesssteel 1Crl8Ni9Ti at various cutting speeds ,they find that the cutting forces generally decreased with the increase of cutting speed in the range 10 - 80 m/min. They reached 418 N and 336 N at 10 m/min cutting speed for steel A and B, respectively. And at 80 m/min cutting speed, principal forces were 343 N and 275 N for steel A and B, respectively. S.Agarwal et al. Measured both the axial and the tangential components of the cutting force during turning. The chips were also collected for examination of their under-surface and top surfaces in SEM. The cutting edges of the coated tools were examined in SEM to determine the extent of wear.
Abstract—AusteniticstainlesssteelAISI316L has been widely used for orthopedic implants due to its mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Machining of austeniticstainlesssteel are often regarded as 'difficult to machine' and classed a single group of steels, based on experience with the most common austenitic types. This paper presents a methodology for practical calculation of power demand based on cutting force that will be compared with experimental results especially turning process. Based on a previously proposed definition, the power demand in metal cutting is the energy required cutting. This paper provides a complete list of mathematical expressions needed for the calculation of power demand and demonstrates their utility for turning operation of austeniticstainlesssteelusingcoated and uncoatedcarbide.
AISI 316 Austeniticstainlesssteel of 600mm long and 80mm diameter were used for the dry turning experiment in the present study. Grade 316 is the standard molybdenum-bearing grade. The molybdenum gives 316 better overall corrosion resistant properties than Grade 304, particularly higher resistance to the pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments. It also has excellent forming and welding characteristics. It is readily brake or roll formed into a variety of parts for the applications in industrial, architectural, and transportation fields. Grade 316 also has an outstanding welding characteristic. Post-weld annealing is not required when welding with thin sections. Grade 316L, the low carbon version of 316 type and is immune from the sensitisation (grain boundary carbide precipitation). Thus it is extensively used in heavy gauge welded components (over about 6mm). Grade 316H, with its higher carbon content has application at the elevated temperatures, as does stabilised grade 316Ti.
Isabel, A., Barreiro, F. J., Norberto, L., Lacalle, L. De, & Martínez-pellitero, S. (2012). Behavior of austeniticstainless steels at high speed turningusing specific force coefficients. International Journal Advance Manufacturing Technology, (62), 505–515. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-011-3846-9
From the previous published papers, it has been observed that the stainless steels are hard materials to machine, due to their high strength, high ductility and low thermal conductivity. The challenges which are made during machining of stainlesssteel by using various machining parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and different inserts) are still not optimized during dry turning. Lot of research papers are available wherein various machining parameters (Cutting Speed, Feed Rate and depth of cut ), tool nose radius and cutting conditions (Cryogenic, MQL and Flood cooling) are experimented to overcome the problems of high cutting forces, short tool life and poor surface finish. But using cutting fluids pollute the environment, cause thermal cracking in interrupted cutting and harm to the health of the operators or workers. Even in MQL a minimum quantity of cutting fluid is used but still there is great power consumption is involved. So keeping in view of the pollution, thermal cracking, health challenges, economics imposed by cutting fluids in machining and high power consumption, dry machining specially shows positive effects in case of AISI 304 steels. Therefore to investigate the performance of different coatedcarbideinserts in dry machining of stainlessSteel 304L was selected.
performance measures during dry turning of AISI 304 austeniticstainlesssteel. ISO P30 grade uncoated cemented carbideinserts was used as a cutting tool for turning. Three important characteristics of machinability such as material removal rate, cutting force and surface roughness were measured. Anders Nordgren et al  the plastic deformation of tools is one of the most important wear modes in metal cutting. Such deformation changes the geometry of the cutting edge, which often results in accelerated tool wear, increased cutting forces, risk of tool failure, vibrations and poor dimensional accuracy and surface finishes. S.J. Raykar et al  the high-speed turning is emerging as a key manufacturing technology in aerospace industry. High-speed turning is generally performed on the order of five to ten times the conventional cutting speed. It has several advantages such as reduction in cutting forces and temperature, low power consumption, improvement in surface finish, low stress components, burr-free surfaces, better dimensional accuracy, and better part quality. V. Bushlya et al  presents results of super alloy machinability study with uncoated and coated PCBN tools aiming on increased speed and efficiency. Aspects of tool life, tool wear and surface integrity were studied. It was found that protective function of the coating, increasing tool life up to 20%, is limited to low cutting speed range. Harsh Y Valera et al  study of power consumption and roughness characteristics of surface generated in turning operation of EN-31 alloy steel with TiN+Al 2 O 3 +TiCN coated tungsten
The influence of cutting velocity on cutting force in the turning of austeniticstainlesssteelAISI316L and Super Duplex 2507 stainlesssteel is shown in Figure-3. It clearly appears that with the increase in cutting speed, the cutting force decreases due to decrease in shearing area. The cutting force at a cutting velocity of 79 m/min and feed rate of 0.159 mm/rev was 225 N and 245 N for the turning of austeniticstainlesssteelAISI316L and Super Duplex 2507 stainlesssteel respectively. The value of cutting force at a cutting velocity of 188 m/min and feed rate of 0.159 mm/rev was 200 N and 210 N for the austeniticstainlesssteelAISI316L and Super Duplex 2507 stainlesssteel respectively. It was observed that the less cutting force can be obtained by employing the higher level cutting speed whenturning both the stainlesssteel grade materials. This is because with increase in cutting velocities, the chip gets thinner and cutting forces reduced. The decrease in cutting force is due to reduction in contact area and partly due to the drop in shear strength in the flow zone as the temperature increases with increase in cutting speed . It was observed from the experimental results, less cutting force is required for the machining of AusteniticstainlesssteelAISI316L over Super Duplex 2507 stainlesssteel. This is because of AusteniticstainlesssteelAISI316L exhibits lower strength and lower hardness over Super Duplex 2507 stainlesssteel and also Super Duplex 2507 stainlesssteel have higher toughness and ductility compared to AusteniticstainlesssteelAISI316L.
The focus of the paper is on green machining, the environmentally friendly manufacturing (dry machining) which is ecologically desirable and cost effective. The “Cathodic Arc Evaporation Technique(CAE)” is used for depositing AlCrN/ TiAlN coating used for dry, high speed turning of AISI 304 austeniticstainlesssteel The effect of machining parameters on the cutting force, cutting temperature and surface finish were investigated during the experimentation. It is found that, as feed increases, the radial force increases therefore more friction exists between newly generated surface and the flank face so surface roughness increases. Tool-chip interface temperature increases with increase in cutting speed and it is higher because of low thermal conductivity of the coating as well as AISI 304 work material and AlCrN/TiAlN coating. Thermal stability of the AlCrN/TiAlN coating is good therefore it withstands the high temperature and gives better performance especially in case of dry turning and it also helps in reduction in cutting forces.
relationship between different tool materials and tool life whenturning Inconel 718 under different cutting conditions. Results showed that tool wear was influenced by factors such as thermal softening, adhesion, diffusion, notching and thermal cracking 7 . Hao et al. used PVD coatedcarbide cutters for machining Inconel 718. Tool wear morphology and tool wear mechanisms were investigated. Wear characteristic were changed by the cutting speeds 3 . During the finish machining of Ni-based superalloys, CVD coated cutting tools can be an appropriate coating type 8 . Thakur et al. tested the effect of cutting speed on the surface roughness, the tool wear properties, the chip morphology and the chip rate by using CVD coated cutters in the dry machining of Inconel 825.
J. Davim et al.  worked on surface roughness prediction models using artificial neural network (ANN) are developed to investigate the effects of cutting conditions during turning of free machining steel, 9SMnPb28k(DIN). I.A. Choudhury et al.  worked on the development of surface roughness prediction models for turning EN 24T steel (290 BHN) utilizing response surface methodology. W.H. Yang et al.  An orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise (S:N) ratio, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to investigate the cutting characteristics of S45C steel bars using tungsten carbide cutting tools. M. Nalbant et al.  The orthogonal array, the signal-to- noise ratio, and analysis of variance are employed to study the performance characteristics in turning operations of AISI 1030 steel bars using TiN coated tools. IlhanAsilturk et al.  focuses on optimizing turning parameters based on the Taguchi method to minimize surface roughness (Ra and Rz). H. Aouici et al.  the effects of cutting speed, feed rate, workpiece hardness and depth of cut on surface roughness and cutting force components in the hard turning were experimentally investigated. Ramesh et al.  studies the effect of cutting parameters on the surface roughness in turning of titanium alloy has been investigated using response surface methodology. Günay.M et al. , focused on optimizing the cutting conditions for the average surface roughness (Ra) obtained in machining of high-alloy white cast iron (Ni-Hard) at two different hardness levels (50 HRC and 62 HRC). N.R. Abburi et al.  develops a knowledge-based system for the prediction of surface roughness in turning process. JanezKopac et al. 
Sukacita dimaklumkan bahawa tesis yang tersebut di atas bertajuk “ Tool Wear Characterization of Carbide Cutting Tool Inserts in a Single Point Turning Operation of AISI D2 steel ” mohon dikelaskan sebagai terhad untuk tempoh lima (5) tahun dari tarikh surat ini memandangkan ia mempunyai nilai dan potensi untuk dikomersialkan di masa hadapan.
Austeniticstainlesssteel is the material commonly used in a wide variety of applications in industry because of relatively low cost. They contain between 16 to 18% chromium and about 12% nickel, which contribute to their good mechanical strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Besides, it is worth noting their hygienic and aesthetic qualities [1,2]. In view of these desirable properties, stainless steels have been used as an alternative material to the construction and installation of nuclear reactors & thermal power plants, equipment for food and pharmaceutical industry, drinking water treatment systems and wastewater, as well as chemical plants, aeronautics, pipes for transport oil & gas, etc., given the characteristics that distinguish them [3,4]. However, whenstainlesssteel is transformed into wire or pipe, it is necessary to submit it to a heat treatment (e.g. annealing) in order to relief the structure from the residual stress . During annealing a thin oxide layer of chromium depleted grows on the SS316-L base metal, it is known as scale layer and is composed by Fe +2 O -2 . These oxide layers may be removed by mechanical processes, or by means of chemical attack such as striping, thereby providing a good finish (gloss, texture, and resistance to oxidation of the material). [6,7]. The striping is a part of final production process of some steel products and is usually done with acid mixtures, where the type of acid used is important as they have a strong influence on the quality of surface finish. One of the common mixtures is usually performed with hydrofluoric acid (HF) and nitric acid (HNO 3 ). Despite its efficiency, the use of HNO 3 causes serious atmosphere damage such as
Recently, researchers have been focusing on the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation to combine the best features of both the Lagrangian and Eulerian formulations. The concept of ALE was first proposed lately. This formulation was called "the coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian method" and later on was changed to "the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Model." The ALE method was introduced into the finite element method by Belytschko and Kennedy  .It was applied to finite strain deformation problems in solid mechanics. The ALE formulation helps to solve problems with large deformation in solid mechanics. Olovsson et al.  developed FEM by using the ALE formulation so that the large strain that is caused from the high deformation in metal cutting does not affect the element distortion at the tool tip. Movahhedy et al.  presented that the arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian (ALE) formulation offers the most efficient modelling approach. He included the features of an ALE analysis of the cutting process in his conclusion.
Austeniticstainlesssteel is one of the most important engineering materials with wide variety of applications. This material is attractive because of its properties such as high hardness, toughness, yield strength, excellent ductility, superior resistance to corrosion and oxidation, compatibility in high temperature and high vacuum. But these materials are very “difficult to machine” than carbon and low alloy steels because of their high strength, poor thermal conductivity and a higher
Stabilized stainlesssteel of medical grade 1.4404 (X2CrNiMo17-12-2, AISI316L) supplied by EKOMOR lnc. was chosen for this particular study. The 3.0 mm thick sheet was cut into 150 x 50 mm samples, which were ultrasonically degreased. Chemical composition according to ASTM A240  is shown in Table 1. For this experiment three samples have been prepared and forth sample has been used without any treatment as reference for contact angle comparison. These samples have been processed according to Table 2.
Austeniticstainlesssteel (ASS) makes up over 70% of total stainlesssteel production and has been used widely in many industrial fields such as automotive, oil & gas, chemical, medical and food industries due to their excellent corrosion resistance. However, the applications of this material are severely limited by very poor surface hardness as well as wear resistance. Many investigations have been conducted to improve surface hardness of ASS and thus enlarging their possibility of wider application, but led significant loss of its corrosion resistance. This tendency occurs due to the sensitivity effect. The objectives of this investigation are to improve the surface hardness as well as corrosion properties of AISI316Lausteniticstainlesssteel. Theoretically, the low temperature treatment is to avoid the formation of nitride and carbide precipitation which can reduce the corrosion resistance of stainlesssteel. AISI316Lstainlesssteel has been treated by surface hardening technique, which is low temperature gas nitriding treatment (LTGN) in quartz tube furnace. The variable of nitriding temperature of this treatment is at 400°C, 450°C and 500 °C with constant 8 hours of nitriding time. The morphological changes, structural phase and elemental profile of the treated samples were observed by optical microscope (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). From the results, the microstructure and phase composition depend on the nitriding temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been used to confirm the formation of nitrides on the surface layer of the samples. The surface microhardness was investigated using Vickers hardness tester. The results showed that the surface microhardness values increased as the treatment temperature increased which has close relationship with elemental depth profile. The corrosion properties of unnitrided 316Lausteniticstainlesssteel and nitrided 316Lausteniticstainless steels at low temperature, e.g: 400 o C and high temperature e.g: 500 o C were evaluated by measuring polarization curves in 3.5% NaCl solution in CO 2 environment. From the result, gas nitriding at a low temperature significantly
Turning of hardened steels using a single point cutting tool has replaced the cylindrical grinding now as it offers attractive benefits in terms of lower equipment costs, shorter set up time, fewer process setups, higher material removal rate, better surface quality and elimination of cutting fluids compared to cylindrical grinding. In order to obtain desired surface quality by machining, proper machining parameters selection is essential. This can be achieved by improving quality and productivity in metal cutting industries. The present study is to investigate the effect of machining parameters such as cutting speed, feed and depth of cut on surface roughness during dry turning of hardened AISI 4340 steel with CVD (TiN+TiCN+Al2O3+ZrCN) multilayer coatedcarbideinserts. A full factorial design of experiment is selected for experimental planning and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been employed to analyze the significant machining parameters on surface roughness during turning. The results showed that feed (60.85%) is the most influencing parameter followed by cutting speed (24.6%) at 95% confidence level. And the two-level interactions of feed-cutting speed (F*V), depth of cut-feed (D*F) and depth of cut- cutting speed (D*V) are found the significant effects on surface roughness in this turning process. Moreover, the relationship between the machining parameters and performance measure i.e. surface roughness has been modeled using multiple regression analysis.
In the current research, pressure bearing capacity of AISI316Lausteniticstainlesssteel is evaluated under fatigue loading through finite element method (ANSYS 18.1) for a specimen with no notch on its surface. Thereafter, the pressure bearing capacity of the same specimen is evaluated with different types of notches on the surface. The notch geometry is changed in terms of its width, depth and the notch central angle (perimeter length). Two variants of notches, viz. rectangular and V-notch are created at the center of the specimen. Fifteen types of notch
Anirban Bhattaharya et. al.,  investigated the effect of various machining parameters during high speed machining on the work piece surface roughness. The experiments were carried out taking AISI 1045 steel as the work piece material and coatedcarbide tool. The Taguchi's orthogonal arrays and analysis of variance were employed to design the experiments. It was observed from these experiments that at the higher cutting speeds (240 m/min) the best surface roughness results were observed. Cutting speed was found to be most significant factor for surface roughness and contributes up to 76%. The interactions between cutting speed and feed rate were observed to have no significant impact.