An immediate opportunity for us to mainstream the povertyalleviationstrategies within our own public investment programmes is the new decentralization process, which was enacted in early 2001. This new Law on Regional Administrations provides for more regional autonomy to regulate and take care of the interests of local communities at their own initiatives and on the basis of their aspirations. One of the immediate tasks to be decentralized is the responsibility to develop and maintain ruralinfrastructure. It is here where we could influence and assist the local administrations to optimize the use of their resources. Labour based methods, for example, will be best accepted by the people who will directly benefit from their use. Decentralized financing, management and implementation provides an considerable potential for mainstreaming labour based methods. However to take advantage of this potential requires that our focus is on assistance to the local governments in developing capacity and tools to effectively use the resources that they have available. This means understanding and assisting in the planning process, the management structure and the financial administration.
The rural economy is an integral part of the overall Indian economy. As majority of the poor reside in the rural areas, the prime goal of ruraldevelopment is to improve the quality of life of the rural people by alleviating povertythrough the instrument of self-employment and wage employment programmes, by providing community infrastructure facilities such as drinking water, electricity, road connectivity, health facilities, rural housing and education and promoting decentralization of powers to strengthen the Panchayati raj institutions etc. The various strategies and programs of the Government for ruraldevelopment are discussed below:
Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of good governance for povertyalleviation, citing Malaysia as a case study. Malaysia has experienced sustainable growth along with impressive record of poverty reduction. This has been made possible through good governance and pragmatic pro-growth and distribution policies, strategies and programs for povertyalleviation which was implemented since the era of the New Economic Policy (NEP, 1971-1990), National Development Plan (1991-2000) and will be carried over to National Vision Plan (NVP, 2001-2010). The good governance incorporates an enabling policy framework for povertyalleviation which includes the supportive role of the state, effective delivery system embodying an efficient planning and implementation machinery, incorporating top-down and bottom-up processes of strategic planning, targeting and participation, effective implementation coordination, monitoring and evaluation. The public sector has to shoulder good governance by efforts to improve the public service delivery system to make it more efficient, transparent and accountable. Direct targeting of beneficiaries results from identification of the poor and hardcore poor by rural and urban strata and states, supported by a specialized delivery system of a microcredit program, minimizes leakages of povertyalleviation program’s allocations and benefits. Pragmatic pro-growth and distribution policies and strategies in 5-year development plans ensures effective povertyalleviation.
Agriculture to be sustainable it should be economically viable over the long term. Conventional agriculture involves more economic risk than sustainable agriculture in the long term. Governments are inclined to view export-oriented production systems as more important than supply domestic demands. Focusing on exports alone involves hidden costs: in transport, in assuring local food security, etc. Policies should treat domestic demand and in particular food security as equally important to the visible trade balance. It is a popular misconception that specific commodities promise high economic returns. But market production implies certain risks as markets are fickle and change quickly. Cheap foreign food may sweep into the national market, leaving Indian farmers without a market. As a World Trade Organization signatory, the Indian government is under pressure to deregulate and open its economy to the world market so it cannot protect its farmers behind tariff walls. The main source of employment for rural people is farming. Trends towards specialization and mechanization may increase narrowly measured "efficiency", but they reduce employment on the land. The welfare costs of unemployment must be taken into account when designing national agricultural support programs. Sustainable agriculture, with its emphasis on small-scale, labor-intensive activities, helps overcome these problems.
For several decades, scientists, demographers and advisors around the world have been alerting their governments, and the wider public, to the emergence and implications of a set of interlocking global trends that will require prompt, large scale and profound decisions to be taken if their potentially devastating effects are to be averted or minimised. Over the years, the UK government has received advice and information of the highest quality from its various advisory bodies, alerting it to the consequences of increasing environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, natural resource depletion, rapid urbanisation, a warming climate, and so on. Sir John Beddington, the Government Chief Scientific Advisor, attracted considerable public and political attention by his description of the gathering strength of a ’Perfect Storm’ of interlinked issues. Critically, the natural resource and environmental trends that scientists and NGOs have been measuring and increasingly agitating about are in many cases exacerbated by a set of social and demographic trends. These trends include the profoundly political issues of poverty and wellbeing, taxation and equity, infrastructure strain, population growth and the quality and quantity of our current consumption patterns and model of economic growth.
Povertyalleviation is a cautious and articulated programme aimed at improving sustained self dependence of the vulnerable (poor) members of a society. The relegation of the poor in formulation and implementation of policies affecting them is adversarial to sustainabledevelopment. The paper examined povertyalleviation and sustainable human development of the physically challenged in a recessed economy of Imo State, Nigeria. The theoretical thrust of the paper is the elite theory. Cross-sectional survey design was employed and respondents were the Mbaise members of the Association of Persons with Disability (APWD). The sample size was 150 and they were selected using multi-stage sampling procedure. The major instrument for data collection was questionnaire. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used in data analysis. The result revealed amongst others, that 42.2% of the respondents believed that they were left out of pro-poor policy formulation due to ignorance of policy makers; 31.1% attributed it to wrong perception of their physical challenges, and 5.0% blamed it on corruption. Again, it was found that majority (51.6%) of the respondents indicated that support gadgets (like wheelchairs, walking staff, eye glasses etc) were part of palliatives they usually receive and 25.9% said it was philanthropic stipends/alms. However, 16.9% held the view of periodic entertainments; while just 4.8% indicated skills acquisition/small business establishment. Findings of the study indicate that povertyalleviation programmes have not really impacted the physically challenged persons in Imo State and that without adequate educational (scholarships), or skills empowerment, many of them will continue to live dependent lives. It therefore recommended amongst others, that government should as a matter of fairness and social justice appoint a member of the APWD as a Special Adviser (S.A) on disability affairs; povertyalleviation for the physically challenged should be geared towards academic scholarships and skill acquisition/business establishment. Lastly, government should create Ministry of Disability Affairs where a member of the APWD will be the Minister or Commissioner to cushion the effect of years of neglect as to restore confidence of total inclusion in governance.
In addition, cross-sectional data collected through the structured questionnaire were used. Purposive survey was also used to select three out of six states from the Geographical zone namely Ogun, Oyo and Osun states. 1,145 Questionnaires were distributed to the respondents out of which 1,136 were collected from the sampled respondents. 1,134 were effectively used for the analyses; comprising 594 loan beneficiaries and 540 non-beneficiaries. In this context, loan beneficiaries are those individuals who obtained microfinance loan in at least previous three years. While the non-Beneficiaries are those who have similar characteristics with the latter and applied for microfinance loan in the previous three years but could not scale through the process. In this study, an individual beneficiary of microfinance loan is regarded as a derived one from the household perspective. In essence, if one or more members of a household obtain microfinance loan, the entire household is classified as beneficiary (Ashraf and Ibrahim, 2014).
The questions were also asked about the financial assistance given by NRLM to SHGs in rural areas. In Hamirpur district, about 35 percent respondents stated that loan was given to SHGs through NRLM in rural areas however, about 65 percent reported that no financial assistance was extended through NRLM to SHGs. In Shimla, about 30 percent respondents stated that loan was given to SHGs through NRLM however, about 70 percent reported that no financial assistance was extended through NRLM to SHGs. In Kinnuar district, about 32 percent respondents reported that loan was given to SHGs through NRLM in rural areas however, about 68 percent reported that no financial assistance was extended through NRLM to SHGs. Overall nearly one third respondents reported that financial assistance was given to SHGs through NRLM, however majority of them denied the fact that any financial assistance was given or offered to SHGs under this scheme.
Based on the past experiences and learning, the Adivasi community has demanded to change the approach from microfinance to cooperative credit program. In so doing, the CCUs had been originated in the Adivasi communities of greater Mymensingh districts in 2012. For attaining economic emancipation, a total of 8,764 (of which 5,688 are female) have been covered through 18 CCUs out of 25,123 VDCs’ members. As per information from ICDP, 15 Credit Union has been formed newly and three Credit Unions were existing in the respective working areas (in Modhupur 2, and Fulpur 1, which are already registered with Cooperative Society). The VDC members as well as group members of the Modhupur and Fulpur are encouraged / advised to get admission in the existing CCUs. Among the total figure, there have been 5,116 new members (of which 3,334 are female) in newly formed 15 CCUs in 2013 (CB, 2012). The distribution can be shown in the following pie chart:
Igbo people, one of the three major tribes of Nigeria, recognise the place of soil in life and have stylishly and uniquely deployed soil to speak in proverbs that depicts maturity, wisdom, identity, environmental management and good home-training. Such strategy for an enduring communication has gone global and should be preserved. The substance of soil resource for food secu- rity, human health, fertility and plant Nutrition, povertyalleviation, land use planning, sustainabledevelopment and degradation control, remediation and reclamation, land use change, history, philosophy, and sociology of soil sci- ence, justified the declaration of the International Year of Soils by the United Nations in their Sixty-eighth General Assembly of December 20th, 2013, where they also recognized December 5th as World Soil Day. The author pays tribute to the phenomenal role of the soil resource in the social, behavioural, agricultural, and environmental life sciences. Some of the Igbo proverbs show-casing relevance and diverse application of soil are discussed.
The Self help groups (SHG)-Bank linkage programme has emerged as the largest micro credit programme in the world. At the grassroots level, the program is being implemented by the commercial banks, cooperatives, and regional rural banks. The SHG-Bank linkage program was conceived with the objectives of developing supplementary credit delivery services for the unreached poor, building mutual trust and confidence between the bankers and the poor and encouraging banking activity both on thrift as well as credit and sustaining a simple and formal mechanism of banking with the poor. SHG-Banking linkage (SBL) programme for credit has been able to reduce transaction costs. It has enabled the banks to achieve better loan recovery and mobilize low cost deposits. The SHG-Bank linkage programme in which SHGs are linked to banks in a gradual way-initially through savings and later through loan products-is considered to be an effective strategy to ensure financial inclusion. The SBLP has changed the attitude of the banking system-that the poor are not bankable and that commercial principles cannot be applied in lending to the poor.
The emergence of self-help groups can be seen as a response to industrialization, the breakdown of the kinship system, and the decline of the community (Katz & Bender, 1976; Humm, 1997; Kessler et al. 1997), although alternative views see it as a reflection of an ineffective, inefficient and dehumanizing formal system of care (Gartner & Riessman, 1977). Currently, the increasing interest in providing services that are family-centered is also considered a factor contributing to the increased number of self-help groups (Rosenbaum et al., 1998). Despite the variety of explanations for the self-help phenomenon, the consensus is that there is a need for a new model to supplement and complement professional services, and that self-help groups are growing at an unprecedented speed worldwide. For example, about two percent of Canadians belonged to self-help groups in 1987 (Gottlieb & Peters, 1991), approximately 10 percent of Israel‟s population, was estimated to have some type of involvement in a self-help group (Ben-Ari & Azaiza, 1995), and cancer self-help groups were found to be prevalent in major cities in China (Mok & Zhang, 2001). In the United States, self-help group participation amounted to 10 million in 1996 (Kessler et al., 1997) and it was recently noted that more Americans try to change their health behaviours through self-help than through all other forms of professional programs combined (Davison et al., 2000). The proliferation of self-help groups in various countries can be seen as an initial indication of self-help group effectiveness, because groups will cease to exist without value.
After the World War II and cold war contexts, the United Nations (UN) was build up to diminish the new world security threats, facilities cooperation in human rights, economic developments, laws, social progress and world peace with its 193 members and 17 specialized agencies (UN, 2011). Among all these agencies for education, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) plays a major role where others also assist in spite of having differences on policies and programs. UNESCO and the World Bank (WB) both are specialized agencies of the UN but their policies and functions are different in education and development sectors. These are not only UN‘s principal education agencies but also most controversial agencies among others. UNESCO is influenced by the westernization and globalization and WB is debated by its lending policies which creating periodic inconsistency for the borrowing countries, whose focus was not education on the early period of its establishment (Jones and Coleman, 2005. p.1). However, mission and mandates of UNESCO and WB are working with education for development but they have some similarities and differences on their ways of work and implementation are now also. Like other developing countries, Bangladesh has also strong relationship with both multilateral agencies for its development concern. Thus, these two agencies are working with their full power in Bangladesh. This paper will try to explain the similarities and differences of the UNESCO and the WB on their education policies and practices. It will also try to evoke the underpinning thinking about education and development, base on Education for All (EFA) in Bangladesh.
Merode et al. 2004; Bharucha and Pretty 2010). Understanding these values are important as they can help shape policies that conserve and develop environmental assets for the poor in a targeted manner (Babulo et al. 2009). Consequently of particular interest is the use of natural resources that meet basic needs and sustain livelihoods, and in this respect the use of wild foods has received particular attention, primarily across Africa (e.g. Paumgarten 2005; Bennett et al. 2007; Shackleton et al. 2011). Wild foods, such as bushmeat, fish and plants, are often critical for providing opportunities for income generation and balancing nutrition (Harris and Mohammed 2003; Shackleton et al. 2011). The poor tend to be the most dependent on wild foods, both for consumption and income (Wunder 2001) and particularly in times of need (e.g. before the main agricultural harvest, during illness or crop failure) (Angelsen and Wunder 2003). However, wildlife is becoming increasingly depleted around the world (Fa et al. 2003; Milner-Gulland and Bennett 2003) bringing in to question the continued importance of natural resources for rural livelihoods, and subsequently the role natural resources are able to play in povertyalleviation. In parts of Asia where wildlife has been heavily depleted, people have switched to cash-earning jobs and alternative sources of food, such as domesticated protein (Bennett 2002) suggesting that natural resources lose importance in depleted environments. However, the poor are often excluded from, or lack access to alternatives (Cinner et al. 2009a), and are generally forced to choose lower-return livelihood strategies, even ones with continually declining returns (Barrett et al. 2006) and therefore, even when availability is reduced, natural resources may still remain an essential resource for the rural poor.
Based on the laws and policies that have been made by the government, the legal framework has been designed to provide acceleration synergy implementation of povertyalleviation efforts in Indonesia, among which are ( a) of Act No. 11 of 2009 on social welfare ; ( b ) of Presidential Decree No. . 5 of 2010 on RPJMN 2010-2014 ; ( c ) Presidential Decree 3 of 2010 on Equitable Development Program , include : Program Pro People , Justice For All, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) : and Circular Sesmenko on the Division of Public Welfare Coordination Task To Accommodate Instruction 3/2010. Consistently with these rules planning and budgeting, and implementating of pro- poor is a decision- making activities of a number of options regarding the objectives and the means to be implemented in future and the financial planning process in order to achieve the desired objectives, namely poverty reduction, as well as monitoring and evaluating the progress of implementation, which will be conducted in a systematic and continuously .
The importance of co-operative organization for rural community development has been declared highly important by many scholars in the developed countries. It is on the basis of this, that the objective of this paper is to examine the role of co-operative organization towards povertyalleviation in rural community in Nigeria. It goes further to assess the effort made by the co-operative organization in Nigeria, more specifically in ideato local government area of Imo State to bring about real development at the grassroots level. In attempt to do this, clarification of concepts like development, community development, co-operative organization was carried out. The study employed collective active theory and Talcott Parson’s Theory of AGIL (social needs) as well as some empirical review. Primary and secondary data were collected and analyzed with descriptive statistics. At the end, the study recommends that the cooperative organizations in the rural community areas should be accorded more recognition in terms of budgetary provisions and provision of social and economic amenities by the Nigerian government so as to enable them function adequately and attain their objectives, mission, and vision on rural community development since over 70% of Nigerian population live in the rural community areas and produce the greatest wealth of the nation through agricultural production.
sub-parameters in the lives of rural residents. Study findings revealed that in Haryana majority of residents (29%) found a significant change in the ease to carry out daily household activities. Around 24% residents from Haryana and 25% from HP were happy with the increase in leisure time especially housewives who could now finish the household chores in morning hours and could get additional time to rest in the afternoons. They could now watch their favourite television series, cookery shows, news or indulge in hobbies. Evenings could now be utilized to prepare special dishes for children, spending time with family and taking walk with neighbourhood friends. This gave them a lot of cheer and happiness in life. Many housewives shared that before the use of RETs, their mornings and evenings were extremely busy. All the tasks had to be finished before dawn such as cooking food, shopping for daily supplies (grocery, fruits, vegetables, milk etc.), assisting children to complete their homework, fetching drinking water from nearby sources, collecting fuelwood and fodder, etc. They could not even think about relaxing. One of the resident of Bhagwanpura village, Haryana shared her positive experiences with use of solar cooker. “(The use of parabolic solar cooker had brought a lot of comfort and convenience as ours is joint family. We use it to cook lentils, pulses and rice along with heating water for various household purposes. This had led to decrease in fuelwood usage and collection of fuelwood is no more an everyday task for me.)”. A farmer from Morni Block, Haryana shared the positive changes that had come with the installation of solar grid in his village. “(I am a farmer, when I come home from work I am usually very tired but could not rest due to absence of electricity. There was no provision of indoor cooling but solar grid in the village has brought so much comfort. We now have a ceiling fan and after working hard for the day I can sleep comfortably.”)
Poverty has hindered economic development and people’s income level in the world (Yu, 1998) . Dollar & Kraay (2002)  showed that economic growth was the key to reduce poverty. However, Du and Sun (2009)  found that 1991-1997 poor people benefited from the economy less than non-poor people, but it was opposite during 1997-2004. In general, economic growth process dri- ven by market forces will benefit the rich rather than the poor. This is not only because the rich in the market economy mechanism have many comparative advantages, and the rich have high returns in the initial allocation. What is more, it is because the poor lack of assets and the production factor is cheap. In the primary distribution of labor, income rate is very low, so depending on the nat- ural growth of economy profit will enlarge the gap between rich and poor (Luo, 2012) . Therefore, in order to overcome the poverty, economic growth should How to cite this paper: Yang, Y. (2017)
It is very difficult for the individual beneficiaries to earn much from loan that would be sufficient to meet their daily requirements and save a part for the repayment of loans with interest. In many cases it is found that though most of the beneficiaries are given an amount of loan as subsidy, they are even unable or unwilling to repay the rest with interest. After a few years the accumulated debt become overburdened and it becomes difficult for those to meet the same. It is generally happened because of the lack saving habit and accumulated saving are not transformed into capital or used for repayment of loan on a regular basis In many cases banks are not cooperative in providing credit/ subsidy to the rural poor for
This study examines the relationship between government expenditure and poverty level in Nigeria so as to be able to find out how expansionary public expenditure has helped in alleviating poverty. The theoretical framework and methodology of this study is based on the Keynesian macro economic framework which assumes that any increase in government expenditure has positive and significant impact on economic growth and by implication on the level of poverty. Therefore, the level of government expenditure on education (especially rural); targeted povertyalleviation; power generation and rural roads are significant in stimulating growth and reducing the poverty level. The study found out that foreign aid has no impact on povertyalleviation, the more the foreign Aid the more the level of poverty. Besides, power generation and total savings are not also significant in reducing or alleviating poverty in Nigeria. The more the expenditure on power, the more the level of poverty. Following the findings, the study therefore recommends the need for establishment of more povertyalleviation programmes and strengthening the existing ones. Further, that the rural areas should be opened up so that the rural dwellers can have access to basic needs of life.