2.1. Humans, climate change and peatlands
The human imprint on the Earth’s ecosystems has important effects on the Earth’s climate, and anthropogenic changes to ecosystems are expected to continue at a fast pace in the near future. The enormous growth of the world’s population and industrialisation have led to rapid increases in the use of fossil fuel, biomass burning, agricultural activities and land use changes, resulting in enhanced emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Changes in the biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial ecosystems, such as the carbon and nitrogen cycles and their influence on the dynamics of the atmosphere, influence the climate in terms of temperature and precipitation. In Melbourne, Australia, for example, people had few concerns about water supply until a decade ago. But after ten years of drought, probably an impact of climate change, Melbourne is now facing a severe water shortage. And in arid and semi-arid African countries, the changing climate and increased human activities have led to land degradation and desertification (IPCC 2007). Another example is that of the Amazon region, where observations suggest that the soil surface temperature has increased, the wet season is beginning at a later date and droughts have become more severe over the last few decades. Global climate models suggest that temperature increase in the Arctic will be considerably stronger than in the rest of the world; this warming can result in permafrost thawing and ice melting. The main projected biophysical effects in polar regions are reductions in thickness and extent of glaciers, ice sheets and sea ice, and changes in natural ecosystems, with detrimental effects on many organisms – including migratory birds, mammals and higher predators. Besides the anthropogenic influences on the Earth’s climate, other major factors that also probably influence the climate on larger temporal scales are varying solar activity, volcanic activity, and changes in the ocean currents and atmospheric circulation.
sorghum production have been conducted in several places in Texas and other southern states (Gill, et al., 2014, Hao, et al., 2014, Rocateli, et al., 2012). However, due to environmental factor differences such as climate and soil properties, as well as field management differences, results from these studies are varied and hard to compare. Additionally, most studies only lasted for 2-3 years and yield was measured in finite treatments (usually N fertilization) due to labor and funding limitations (Olson, et al., 2012, Propheter, et al., 2010), which were not enough to predict very long-term effects and generalize regional patterns. Alternatively, process-based biogeochemical models may be used to predict the overall performance of long-term bioenergy sorghum production in different regions and under more complex field management
Crop residue is an important component of the soil organic carbon (SOC) budget and development of soil quality indices. However, crop residue in recent years has been considered as another potential feedstock source for ethanol production in addition to or alternative to grain. The current emphasis on using crop residue as a feedstock for future ethanol production presents a soil and environmental challenge that needs to be addressed. Additionally, there have been few studies that examine greenhousegas (GHG) emissions from agriculture soils under different residue removal rates, various N rates, and tillage practices and their interactions effects on soil C dynamics and GHG emissions. The objective of this study was to examine potential changes in crop productivity, soil C sequestration, and GHG emissions under no-till (NT) and (CT) and N fertilization rates of 0, 170, and 280 kg N ha -1 with variable rates of residue removal (0, 50, and 100%). Field studies were established in fall of 2008 on two sites, a poorly-drained soil at the Iowa State University Agronomy Research Farm (Central, Iowa, AC) and a well-drained soil at the Armstrong Research and Demonstration Farm (Southwest, Iowa, ASW) in continuous corn. After three years of residue removal, SOC, TN, microbial biomass-carbon (MBC), bulk density (ρ b ), soil penetration resistance (SPR), water stable aggregates (WSA), and infiltration (I r ) were measured. After every harvest, crop measurements included corn grain yield, above-ground biomass, and root-biomass. Weekly measurements of soil surface CO 2 , and N 2 O emissions coupled with soil moisture and temperatures were collected during the growing season. Additionally soil C budgets were calculated to provide insights on whether these management practices resulted in net gains or losses of soil C.
8 fertiliser additions, offset any CO 2 savings due to the high GWP of this GHG (Smeets
et al., 2009). The negative effects on natural biodiversity have been associated with land-use change from natural habitats to first generation crops (Dornburg et al., 2008). Second generation perennial bioenergy crops offer an alternative to first generation and alleviate many of the problems mentioned above (Havlík et al., 2011; Tan et al., 2008). Second generation crops are grown solely for the purpose of energy production and are not food crops. They can be grown on marginal or degraded land that is not suitable for food crops resulting in less competition for land. Second generation crops have been shown to have positive effects on biodiversity compared to first generation crops and annual crops (Rowe et al., 2009). This is likely to be due to the perennial natural of these crops, and in the case of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow it is harvested on a 2-5 year cycle, providing a longer-term habitat than say annual crops (e.g. wheat). Second generations crops generally require fewer inputs from fertiliser and herbicides, cutting the management intensity and potentially reducing GHG emissions, especially of N 2 O, which is a major sustainability issue associated with first generation crops. In the UK, the two main second generation crops are the perennial C 3 species willow (Salix spp.) and the C 4 energy grass Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus).
This review is the first collation and synthesis of the lit- erature on lowland peat C balances and GHG flux. As a systematic review it has included all of the available evi- dence on the subject and has objectively and transpar- ently assessed the relevance and validity of all included studies. The review results, however, are more limited than similar findings for upland peats (or peats in gen- eral) because of the relative scarcity of research in low- land peatland environments. Many of the studies that did meet the criteria for inclusion were obtained from boreal ‘mire’ systems in Scandinavia and Canada. These systems could potentially differ considerably from the smaller, temperate lowland raised bog and fen systems of other regions, such as the UK. As research on lowland peats in other regions continues, the relevance of up- dates to this review’s conclusions to areas outside the currently more studied regions will increase. Despite these limitations, this review has taken a first step in compiling and synthesising the results of the available literature, and will act as a strong foundation for future
Please note that the numbers in Table 3 are estimates, and not actual values. Research has found using international emission factors to estimate nitrous oxide emissions from the WA grain belt is not appropriate due to differences in nitrogen (N) fertiliser management, soil types and climate, and factors demonstrated to influence annual agriculture nitrous oxide emissions (Stehfest and Bouwman 2006). Studies in WA, have found the international default value for soil nitrous oxide emissions over estimated measured greenhousegas by 52 per cent in wheat (Barton et al., 2008a) and were 50 times greater than actual nitrous oxide emissions associated with growing and converting canola for biodiesel production and the burning of biodiesel (Farm Weekly 2011). A University of Western Australia (UWA) five year study looking at paddock based greenhouse emissions in WA wheat growth has changed the Australian nitrous oxide emissions standards used from one per cent of N fertiliser (IPCC values) to 0.1 per cent (Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency values) for Australian grain growers (Farm Weekly 2011). The values reported in Table 3 are from the Grains Greenhouse Accounting framework which is using IPCC values.
Partners of the Western Climate Initiative (WCI)— Arizona, British Columbia, California, Manitoba, Montana, New Mexico, Ontario, Oregon, Quebec, Utah and Washington—are designing a system to achieve greenhousegas emissions reductions of 15 percent below 2005 levels by 2020. The WCI, which was initiated by governors of the member states an provinces, plans to implement a regional cap and trade program to help reach its goal. Many participants still need the support of their state legislatures before cap and trade can become a reality for the entire region. WCI members will begin reporting their emissions in 2011, and the cap and trade program is slated to begin in January 2012. 17
alone - “due to water vapour, sulphate or soot particles, indirect effects of nitrogen oxide emissions on the concentration of ozone and methane, or through the induced formation of clouds”.
As a result of excessive emissions during take-off and landing, different factors are used in calculating emissions of short-, medium- and long-haul flights, in accordance with the GHG Protocol. Many organisations then multiply these emissions by a multiplier factor to provide a more realistic quantification of the global warming effect of aviation emissions. To date there is no universally-accepted multiplier factor, although it is believed that between 2 and 5 would be accurate. WWF, the global conservation organisation, for example, uses a multiplier effect of 2.7. This report does not include a multiplier effect for air aviation emissions.
1.2 The rationale for conducting uncertainty analyses
GHG inventories contain uncertainty for a variety of reasons. The current policy ap- proach of ignoring inventory uncertainty altogether (inventory uncertainty was/is mon- itored, but not regulated, under the Kyoto Protocol) is problematic. Emission reductions are activity- and gas-dependent and can range widely, which means that sufficient and appropriate data are required. Biases (discrepancies between true and reported emissions) are not uniform across space and time and can discredit flux-difference accounting schemes, which tacitly assume that biases are canceled out. The human impact on nature is not necessarily constant and/or negligible, and this can jeopardize a partial-system (partial, hereafter) GHG accounting approach that is not a logical subset of a full-system (full, hereafter) GHG accounting approach, and not safeguarded by one. Full accounting allows for the shortcoming of inventories, rooted in the bottom-up accounting of emissions, to be overcome. Even for relatively well-constrained industrial GHGs, global emissions based on top-down methods (using atmospheric measurements) often agree poorly with the bottom-up emissions reported (e.g., Weiss and Prinn 2011 ). Being aware of the uncertainties involved, including those resulting from our system view, will help to strengthen future political decision-making.
refueling infrastructure issues. For example, Volkswagen’s Passat Ecofuel sedan uses both a supercharger and a turbocharger to get maximum performance and efficiency when operating either on gasoline or natural gas, with 23% lower GHG emissions operating on CNG than on gasoline (Volkswagen AG, 2009). Worldwide, there are more than 9.5 million NGVs on the road, and their numbers have been growing by 30% annually since 2000 (IANGV, 2010). While there are only a little over 100,000 NGVs deployed in the USA (Yborra, 2008), about one-fifth of full-size transit buses are fueled by natural gas, and there are thousands of natural-gas fueled airport shuttles, delivery vans, trash haulers, and other vehicles. NGVs could be part of a US strategy to reduce GHG emissions and increase energy security. Given recent shale gas discoveries, they could be fueled by domestic gas. They also provide significant reductions in emissions of particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen NO x , and hydrocarbons. However, use of natural gas to
“Farming emissions” are those created by working the land with machines such as tractors and applying products to the land such as fertilizers. The farming emissions of conventional farming with fertilizers and crop protection were found, on a per mass of crop basis, to be close to those of organic farming, with some regional variation. This can be explained by the fact that the CO 2 e savings in organic farming due to avoided use of fertilizer and plant protection are largely compensated by organic farming’s considerable yield loss. So, while per hectare CO 2 e emissions are lower in organic farming, there are cases where per ton yield emissions are similar to those of conventional farming. However, as there are big yield differences, soil quality effects and CO 2 -binding and assimilation processes in different conventional and organic agricultural practices, an LCA cannot deliver unambiguous results. For the purpose of the study, conventional and organic farming emissions were assumed to be equal.
Due to the limited availability of utility consumption data, this emissions inventory was calculated using data from different periods of time. The great majority of electric data was from July 2008 through June 2009. Natural gas data was mainly comprised of consumption between June 2008 and May 2009. Fuel oil, propane, and vehicle fuel consumption were from several 12-month periods. Unfortunately there are gaps in the data and some accounts have less than 12-months of data. The periods of time for each data source are listed in the table in Appendix A. All of this consumption data was combined to create a “typical year” of emissions. While this is not ideal, it was necessary based on the information available. Utility invoices and consumption summaries were provided by Endicott College personnel.
This chapter describes the 2010 greenhousegas inventory for the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) sector. It covers both the sources and sinks of CO 2 greenhouse gases from land use, land use change and forestry. The emission of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from land use is included in the ‘Agriculture’ sector (category 4D) and the emission of methane (CH 4 ) from wetlands is not estimated due to the lack of data. All other emissions from forestry and land use can be considered to be negligible. Land use in the Netherlands is dominated by agriculture (57%), settlements (13%), forestry (10%, including trees outside forests) and 2% comprises dunes, nature reserves, wildlife areas and heather. The remaining area (19%) in the Netherlands is open water. The soils in the Netherlands are dominated by mineral soils, mainly sandy soils and clay soils (of fluvial or marine origin). Organic soils, used mainly as meadowland or hayfields, cover about 8% of the land area. The Netherlands has an intensive agricultural system with high inputs of nutrients and organic matter. The agricultural land is used as grassland (51%), arable (25%), fodder maize (12%) and the remaining agricultural land is used for horticulture, fallow, fruit trees, etc. Grassland and fodder maize are cultivated in rotation. About 80% of the grasslands are permanent grasslands (of which 5% are high nature value grasslands); the remaining 20% is temporary grassland. Since 1990, the agricultural land area has decreased by about 5%, mainly because of conversion to settlements/infrastructure and nature. The LULUCF sector in the Netherlands is estimated to be a net source, amounting in 2010 to some 2.7 Tg CO 2 equivalents. The fact that the LULUCF sector is a net source is due to the large contribution of carbon emitted from drained peat soils, which exceeds the sequestration of carbon in forestry. The LULUCF sector is responsible for 1.3% of total greenhousegas emission in the Netherlands. The structure of this section and of the main submission for the National Inventory Report and Common Reporting Format (CRF) tables is based on the categories of the CRF tables, as approved at the 9th Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Sector 5 Report tables in the CRF format have been submitted using the CRF Reporter.
A life cycle-based approach (IPCC 2006 LC) is used to include more of the upstream (life cycle) GHG emissions associated with waste management practices in the GTA for 2005 using the IPCC 2006 MC method, with the functional unit being waste managed in 2005. While a larger proportion of life cycle emissions associated with waste management are included in this method than with the IPCC 2006 MC, a full life cycle inventory analysis is not completed. The boundaries for the IPCC 2006 LC approach are presented in Figure 3, using credits/emissions applicable to scope of a municipal inventory (use of incineration residues for fertilization in forestry has been reported by Toller et al 26 ). Specifically, emissions included are those related to the collection and transportation of waste to treatment sites and those associated with the treatment options themselves. The exclusion of upstream emissions of fuels will have a negligible impact on results, since transportation of waste materials is generally a lower proportion of total waste-related emissions (Mohareb et al estimate a contribution of 8% of gross emissions or 15% of net emissions including credits for recycling) and combustion is the primary source of these emissions when diesel is used as a fuel 27,28,29 . Emission reductions from co-products directly resulting from on-site activities of treatment methods (i.e. electricity production from incineration) are included within the LC boundary as well.
Funding Upgrades and Replacements
Other innovative policy mechanisms are being developed to pay to upgrade and replace existing pipelines. Some states, such as Colorado, authorize tracker mechanisms allowing rates to change in response to the utility’s operating costs and conditions outside of a complex rate case proceeding, specifically in response to federal and state safety requirements. A similar process outside the rate case in states such as Kentucky permits temporary surcharges for partial program cost recovery. The Georgia Public Services Commission has permitted Atlanta Gas Light Company to institute a surcharge on customer bills throughout its service territory to help fund pipeline replacement, improvement, and pressure increases through the Georgia Strategic Infrastructure Development and Enhancement (STRIDE) Program. The Georgia Public Services Commission reviews the surcharge and related plans every three years, thereby eliminating the need for rate cases and associated regulatory lag. Also, from 2009 to 2012, a pilot program called the Customer Growth Program was paid for through the STRIDE surcharge. It helped fund new pipeline construction and extensions, including strategic development corridors to regions far removed from existing Atlanta Gas Light Company infrastructure. It also helped overcome the barrier of high upfront costs for new natural gas pipelines. 310 However, the STRIDE
considerably more pronounced under the high emissions scenario. Fig. 8 shows these results spatially; although the reductions are greatest in the Pacific Northwest due to large projected decreases in summer runoff, the rest of CONUS also shows falling 5th per- centile generation. Other studies of a similar purpose and geo- graphic scale have applied more extreme firm energy criteria, such as World Bank  in a study of Zambezi hydropower gener- ation under climate change, which defined firm energy as genera- tion available 99% of months. In the current study, increasing the threshold to 99% would draw out the most extreme lows, which would intensify the negative effects of climate change and poten- tial positive effects of mitigation.
Abstract: The livestock sector can be a major contributor to the mitigation of greenhouse (GHG) emissions. Within the sector, beef production produces the largest proportion of the livestock sector’s direct emissions. The objective of this study was to assess the on-farm GHG emissions in semi-arid rangelands in Argentina and to identify the relationships between emissions and current farm management practices. A survey recorded detailed information on farm management and characteristics. Assessments of GHG emissions were based on the IPCC Tier 2 protocols . The relationships between farm management and GHG emissions were identified using General Linear Models. Cluster analysis was used to identify groups of farms that differed from others in emissions and farm characteristics. Emissions per product sold were low on farms that had improved livestock care management, rotational grazing, received technical advice, and had high animal and land productivities. Emissions per hectare of farmland were low on farms that had low stocking rates, low number of grazing paddocks, little or no land dedicated to improved pastures and forage crops, and low land productivity. Our results suggest that the implementation of realistic, relatively easy- to-adopt farming management practices has considerable potential for mitigating GHG emissions in semi-arid rangelands of central Argentina.
Other studies have examined the effects of overlapping federal policies such as a cap and trade policy and state RPSs (Paltsev et al. 2009; Fischer and Preonas 2010). A few studies have examined the potential for co-firing to contribute to renewable energy policy goals nationally (McCarl et al. 2000), and in particular states, such as Illinois (Khanna, Dhungana and Clifton- Brown 2008; LaTourrette et al. 2011) and Indiana (Brechbill, Tyner and Ileleji 2011). Abt et al. (2012) examine the availability of forest biomass for bio-electricity in the Southeast. A few studies have examined the mix of forest and agricultural biomass to meet the RPS (Ince et al. 2011; White et al. 2013; Latta et al. 2013). Dumortier (2013) examines the availability of biomass for cellulosic biofuels assuming a binding constraint on demand for co-firing imposed by existing coal-based electricity plants at an exogenously set biomass price. In contrast, our analysis allows for simultaneous determination of the demand and supply of biomass, endogenously determining the regional prices that clear the markets with both the RPSs and RFS.
Image theory may help explain cost-ineffective decisions craft brewers make in their GHG emission management. Irrational (here refers to cost-ineffective) decisions can be defined in various ways, but a common example is spending more money than is deemed necessary for a desired outcome . For example, some craft breweries in Ontario may market themselves as taking extensive measures to use cleaner fuels, improve energy efficiency, and use energy sourced from renewables when there is a lack of clear evidence that this increases their customer base or reduces costs. The alternative (cost-effective) option would be to forego these measures and continue with business as usual. Applying image theory may clarify why branding images, and the actions that support a branding image, are varied between craft breweries of comparable sizes and products (i.e., why one craft brewery may implement the above mentioned measures while one may not). In line with this, image theory may help in understanding what influences craft breweries’ investment decisions to reduce GHG emissions. On the consumer side, image theory has been evidenced as influencing the ethical purchasing decisions of consumers . In Jayawardhena et al.’s study, purchasing behaviour was found to be influenced by value image, strategic image, and trajectory image; with value image having the largest impact .