Keywords: socio-economicdevelopment, competitive advantages, ruralareas, borderlands
Streszczenie. Na przykładzie rejonu jaworowskiego obwodu lwowskiego rozpatrywane są cechy planowania roz-
woju społeczno-gospodarczego obszarów wiejskich położonych w pobliżu granicy. Zidentyfikowano cechy pozy- tywne, które tworzą przewagi konkurencyjne obszarów wiejskich w rejonie, wśród nich dogodne położenie geogra- ficzne, odpowiednio rozwinięta infrastruktura transportowa, unikatowe cechy naturalne, podkreśla się także główne wady hamujące rozwój, w szczególności dotyczy to konserwatyzmu w podejściu do percepcji istoty obszarów wiej- skich w jej nowoczesnym sensie przyjętym w krajach Unii Europejskiej. Pokazano, w jaki sposób planowanie rozwoju w trakcie funkcjonowania sowieckiego systemu dowodzenia i administracji wpłynęło na stan wiejskich obszarów Jaworowa, szczególnie na aspekt ekologiczny. W trakcie rozważań nad rozwojem terytoriów proponuje się stosowanie pojęcia „innowacyjnego zrównoważonego rozwoju” (IZR), zidentyfikowano też jego główne elementy. Pod- kreślono konieczność korelacji wszystkich planów rozwoju lokalnego z już istniejącymi regionalnymi oraz krajowymi planami i programami. Wskazano na potrzebę wprowadzenia praktyki „Transition network” na obszarach wiejskich powiatu jaworowskiego i na obszarach wiejskich całego kraju. Zdecydowano, że dalsze badania w tym kierunku powinny koncentrować się na planowaniu rozwoju społeczno-gospodarczego odrębnych wspólnot terytorialnych.
A recent OECD report on agricultural policy and rural economies (OECD, 1998) shows that the socio-economicdevelopment of ruralareas, and the management of rural landscape have become important issues for agricultural policy design in many OECD countries. A key conclusion of the report is that traditional agricultural support policies are increasingly ineffective in accomplishing ruraldevelopment objectives, and that agricultural policy reform can enhance the contribution of the agro-food sector to a viable development of rural economies, in the long-run. However, the benefits of such policy reform are not instantaneous, and the impacts could be greater in the downstream and upstream sectors then within agriculture itself. Moreover, such policy reform involves adjustment processes, and thus costs in the short term, while most benefits are not directly perceived by decision- makers. The latter are often more interested in realising immediate improvements of the agro- food industry and regional economy in terms of competitiveness and employment. These short-term objectives can be in conflict with the long-term objective of maintaining the overall capital base of the region, since short-term orientation of development strategies can undermine the dynamic competitiveness and development potential of ruralareas. This potential does not only depend on the economy’s production capacity, but also on a variety of environmental conditions and the social competence of local actors.
One villager’s thought who is the head of the farmer group is that the pump could not be returned or transfered to the other party. The new board selected of group made an agreement among members, such as pump management mechanism, technical cultivation or schedule of land preparation and planting, partnership formation with funders, including the afford to pay all its obligations with 20 percent amount of gas costs to be borne to the farmers. Revenue generated from the water pump is used as a reward for the water regulator. In addition, the members will be penalized if the water is set individually to their own fields. One sack of grain is as a punishment for each taking individually water and the members will not be given anymore water if they have been three times in individually taking water to his field. These sanctions have been applied to two members and after then, the individual water taking did not happen yet again.
Keywords: Information and communication technologies, E-Community Learning Resources Center, World Education Forum, CBES.
The advancement of ICT, its efficiency and effective utilization in education has increased demands, and also develop socio-economic status of the Nation, the way ICT can be used to strengthen the education and how to provide quality of education is a task of experts, ADB(2004, 2008b). ICT has lead to many learning and teaching techniques such as Open distance learning(ODL), computer assisted instruction(CAI), personal learning(PL), and virtual learning(VL) which remove space and time from students and teachers, and most communication occur through electronic medium such as radio, internet, TV etc, therefore to achieve personal goals, social status, education, and careers in emerging market place the information literacy is very important factor, which empower individual use , information creation and assessment oneself, therefore, the information literacy is basic human rights in the world of digital age, UNESCO Doc(2008b). ICT also provides environment for teachers, learner as well as positive effects on their career, critical thinking, problem solving, and collaborative learning (Michael, 2010; M. Semih, 2010; Dj. Kadijevich, 2008)
Firstly, all the employees in the agency are local people who speak same language and share same social, economic and cultural background with the members. This is not only the foundation to carry out all the publicizing and mobilization work, but also the premise to establish the micro-finance credit system. Secondly, the joint guarantee group consists of 4 to 7 households. To team up with who is completely up to their own choice. Since these households in the same village are all very familiar with each other, those bad-credit households would have been eliminated in the first place because the members in the same group should be able to face common risks and assume common responsibility. In addition, local customs also play important role when it comes to repayment. Thirdly, the director of the agency is usually those with high integrity in the village. The employee will take director’s opinion into consideration when choosing clients, which has further lower the risk. In personal guaranteed loan, it is required by CFPA that a co-borrower is needed besides the guarantee. The co-borrower can be spouse, siblings or other relatives.
leisure, recreation, social belonging, and so forth (Nussbaum, Sen, 1993; Gregory et al., 2009). Such reasoning reaches back to Maslow’s now classical ‘hierarchy of needs’ (Maslow, 1943). Today, basic human needs in developed nations – the physio- logical (such as food, sleep, homeostasis or excre- tion) and safety-related (such as security, health or employment) – viz., needs that previously were the main target areas of governance, are no long- er sufficient and are now being complemented with higher levels of human well-being, such as cultural belonging, esteem and self-actualization. Such de- velopment is also in line with the now broadly ac- cepted social sustainability paradigm (UCLG, 2008). In order to monitor this brand of development, di- verse indicators of QOL have spurred interest across various disciplines and scales of inquiry, including studies on the psychology of happiness and work on the so-called SWBs (subjective well-being surveys) (Costanza et al., 2008). Perhaps one of the most fa- mous indicators of QOL is the Quality-of-Life Index, surveying (on a national level) the following nine factors: health, family life, community life, materi- al well-being, political stability and security, climate and geography, job security, political freedom and gender equality (The Economist Intelligence Unit, 2005). Being such a diverse mixture of economic and non-economic, as well as (more or less) sub- jective components, QOL is a delicate concept that is difficult to implement in a complex reality. In re- gard to policy, particularly, while having served as an explicit or implicit goal for a long time, QOL’s adequate definition and measurement – as Costan- za et al. (2008) have put it – “have been elusive”.
Even though it may be true that rural tourism is not as economically attractive as most of other sec- tors, in the end it contributes to the protection of demographic structure of ruralareas and supports the specific cultural heritage and environment. The question whether it is only financial resources needed and the income gathered from job availabil- ity comes up. Next and equally important sources are social capital, social network. These relate to cooperation and relation among people. Economic benefits alone are not the strategic asset of ruralareas, but it is rather the hope for the “romantic” side of life. Nevertheless, within strategic develop- ment of ruralareas, it is necessary to have in mind small enterprises and to support them in their in- novativeness.
Urban-rural united development does not follow an uniform requirements that denies of the remarkable feature and characteristics between areas, but a unified planning of urban-ruraleconomic and socialdevelopment in order to realize coordinated development. In fact, rural tourism development produces a series of social and cultural impacts that can not be ignored. The positive impacts mainly are reflected in improving the local farmers’ cultural quality, promoting the development of rural compulsory education, expanding rural residents’ horizons and reviving the folk culture and so on. On the other hand, rural tourism also brings about some negative effects, such as excessive commercialization and a shock against traditional culture. Therefore, more attention should be paid to these two sides of impacts so as to draw on advantages and avoid disadvantages. What’s more important, developers should make every effort to preserve the characteristics of countryside traditional cultural, advocate the construction of spiritual civilization, and give correct guidance as to foster a benign and healthy social conduct.
Geoff Walsham (2010) analyzed whether ICTs have been valuable in providing broader development benefits to all Indian citizens. It is argued that ICTs should not be seen as ‘silver bullets’ for development but neither are they irrelevant. Rather, they are potentially important contributors towards development in India but only through their integration in wider socio-technical interventions. The literature analyzed in this paper suggests that ICTs have contributed to ‘economic facilities’ through initiatives such as telecentres, the use of mobile phones for farmers and others, improved agricultural supply chains, and better banking services. ‘Social opportunities’ have been generated through the widespread use of mobile phones and the more limited use of telecentres. ‘Transparency guarantees’ can be seen in the visibility of computerized land records, and e-government services for the payment of bills. The contribution of ICTs to ‘political freedoms’ can be seen as rather limited to date, NGOs empowering slum dwellers through the provision of improved information.
ICT can be deployed in many business activities carried out by the ARN. When evaluating the business opportunities coming from tourism activities, farmers can be helped by the large amount of data available from a variety of sources. A good start- ing point can be offered by social media platforms which are taking an important role in supporting tourists in decision support both for planning and enjoy a journey expe- rience. Data coming from the social activities of tourists are important to point out new trends in destination choices and preferences in tourism experience. According to , a multidimensional analysis of such a data can be deployed to improve market- ing strategies. The use of mobile devices, during the journey experience, generate another class of data very useful to depict and track tourist behaviors in different contextualized scenarios. Smartphones can interact with other smart “objects” to generate an “augmented tourism experience” within the local territory . Internet- of-Things technologies let farmers create and manage cyber-physical systems, CPS, in tourism activities in order to perform virtual interactions with visitors using sensors already present in their devices . Bluetooth beacons, NFC tags, GPS positioning, e.g., can help user to improve the information quality of the destination, to digital control and manage access to physical resources, to guide and support orienteering . In , a service oriented architecture of CPS in tourism infomobility is pro- posed in order improve the tourism management activities. The concept of CPS, as integration of digital and physical processes, can lead to the achievement of valid smart tourism management to ensure its sustainability and efficiency. All these inter- actions can be analyzed both at farm and at ARN level to better tune the overall expe- rience and plan an improved bundle of suggested activities within the ARN territory .
The WTO commission for Europe points out that rural tourism could be used as a tool for ruraldevelopment since it could “deliver additional sources of income to rural communities”10, such as transport, services or health. It also could break the isolation of some communities and give cultural exchange opportunities. Rural tourism could also contribute to the preservation and improvement of environment since it depends on its attractiveness. This commission drew the economic and social costs that could create the development of rural tourism: increase demand for public services, increase in the prices of land and traditional buildings and even of goods; what would prevent local people from buying it. These statements show that, at the European level, authorities want to use tourism for developing ruralareas but are also conscious of the negative effects to which this development could bring.
Index y34 presents the share of persons employed in the real (material production and trade services) sector of the economy. It indicates a high dependence of the level of development of the national economy on traditional, raw material industries, as well as the limited choice of employment directions in the country's labour market. It is characterized by a high degree of correlation with the share of economically active persons with full tertiary education, capital investments per person. It reflects the inverse relationship with the resultant indicator, which is explained by the limited opportunities for diversification of the development of economic activity in ruralareas;
Abstract: The rural area is a very important multifunctional space, with landscape enhancement value and function. These factors are then necessary for the directions of development process in rural communities. The countryside creates an important part of economic and social state system. The area of work and the employment of population into the productive age present ones of significant macro-economic indicators of the capacity of national economy. Changes of economy in the market space, transforma- tion of companies of agricultural primary production to new legal form, restructuring of production and manpower in agriculture caused leaving of part skilled of the workers, as well as other workers to another branches of national economy. In 1990’s, especially in the beginning during the transformation of Czech economy, there was a big boom of private business and new forms of business activities and subjects emerged. Traditional lifestyle, which continues in the Czech countryside, determined that small enterprise prevails here. Current economics clearly shows that small and medium enterprises have an unsubstitutable role in our economicdevelopment and greatly contribute to creating new jobs in individual regions.
In the past decade, Europe has suffered a number of major floods, causing fatalities, displacement of people, high economic losses and a large impact on nature. Since floods are natural, climate-driven processes, they can never be completely prevented. Apart from their possible negative impact, the beneficial effects of floods for society should also be remembered. They are part of the hydrological cycle of rainfall, surface and ground water flow and storage. Floods supply the flood plain with sediment and nutrients, which was the reason for early settlement and agricultural development in flood plains. Wetlands provide important services to people, for example as sources of food (fish, meat), as agricultural land and for harvest of semi-aquatic products (reeds, fibres, wood). In addition, intact wetlands provide an environment for highly valued social services (aesthetic value, recreation, education, ceremonies).
The so-called “well-being that goes beyond GDP” refers to other social aspects of economic activity (Munitlak Ivanović, 2012: 49-62). UN terminology introduces the term “human development” that is related to the quality of life at the micro level and at the level of the family, but also at the level of gender equality. This is the reason why inadequately informed individuals identify the concepts of “sustainable development” and ecology, but they do not recognize other subsystems of the concept of “sustainable development”: economic and social subsystem that includes the issue of gender equality (Munitlak Ivanović, 2005: 87-116). As we can see the economic growth itself is not, nor should it be, a goal, because if it does not show the quality of life of the population of both genders at the micro level, this indicator has no purpose. As an attempt to expand the GDP per capita index, the organization “Redefining Progress” created the indicator Genuine Progress Indicator -GPI as an alternative to GDP (Anielski, 2001). It is interesting that the GPI was in the stage of stagnation in the territory of the USA in the seventies of the XX century until 2004, while the GDP had a trend of growth in this period.
In the Act No. 43 Year 2008 about the State Territory, it was stipulated in the Article 14 that the borderareasmanagement controlled by the central government and implemented by BorderManagement Agency at central and regional levels (Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, 2008). The implementation of the law manifested in the establishment of Presidential Regulation No. 12 Year 2010 about the Establishment of the National Agency for BorderManagement (Badan Nasional Pengelola Perbatasan/BNPP), the preparation of policies directed by the Coordinating Minister for Political, Legal and Security Affairs, the Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs and the Coordinating Minister for People's Welfare (Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, 2010). BNPP headed by the Minister of Home Affairs and composed of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Defence, the Minister of Justice and Human Rights, the Minister of Finance, the Minister of Public Works, the Minister of Transportation, the Minister of Forestry, the Minister of Maritime and Fisheries, the Minister for National Development Planning (Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Nasional/BAPPENAS), the Ministry of Rural, Disadvantaged AreasDevelopment and Transmigration, the Commander in Chief of the Indonesian Army Forces, the Chief of the National Police, the Chief of State Intelligence Agency, the Chief of Geospatial Information Agency, and the Governor of the provinces that have borderareas. BNPP assisted by a Permanent Secretariat that has daily duties and functions to assist the Head of BNPP and provide technical support, coordination, and administration to BNPP.
Social media, which is based on ICT, has become an integral part of most people's personal and business lives. Social media platforms include emails, SMS, WhatsApp, Instagram, Linked-in and Facebook. It is also an integral part of communication, entertainment and business (Essoungou, 2010). Accessibility of the internet on almost all devices like smartphones, iPads and laptops gives people access to information and knowledge wherever they are; hence distance has been removed as a barrier of communication. Marketers can use social media for brand advertising, introducing promotions or specials, getting feedback from clients, getting ‘likes’ from the public, etc. (Hoffman and Fodor, 2010). Social media has expanded its services to allow sharing of pictures, links, commenting, tagging and private messaging between users or the creation of group chats (Essays, 2017). ICTS is also commonly used in political marketing such as elections (Cheeseman and Klaas, 2018) for example, analysing and managing audience character with Social Media Marketing principles (Demydov et al., 2020).
6917. Retrieved from
http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_L AW_310139/) provides for the following measures for information-analytical and scientific support of state policy: “improvement of statistical tools for studying, analyzing and forecasting the migration situation; determination of the parameters of the analysis of the migration situation, reflecting its impact on economic, social, cultural, national, ethno- confessional and other aspects of the life of Russian society, and organization of monitoring of the migration situation on the basis of the indicated parameters, which allows providing relevant and objective data for making management decisions in the field of migration ” Literature review
important that the business process keep a balance between organizational structure and type of entrepreneurial activities while considering the external environment.
Studies have demonstrated the role of external environmental factors on the development of entrepreneruship (Dahles, & Bras, 1999). Thus, the term entrepreneruial environment refers to a the overall economic, sociocultural, and political factors that influence people‘s willingness and ability to undertake entrepreneurial activities (Fogel, 2001). Empirical research on business creation shows that availability of financial resources (Pennings, 1982), lower levels of regulation, policies of tax reductions and incentives, and access to training and counseling services (Dana, 1990) are likely to increase the rate of new-business creation. Entreprenerial behavior is also influenced by a complex set of social and personal factors that, according to Morrison, Rimmington & Williams (1999), are a product of society. They argue that individuals become entrepreneurs in reaction to elements of their social context such as family tradition, community value system, and regional politics. In addition to gender, age, education, and