The CopingStrategiesInventory is a 72-item self-report questionnaire designed to assess coping thoughts and behaviors in response to a specific stressor. The format of the CSI is adapted from the Lazarus “Ways of Coping” questionnaire (Folkman & Lazarus, 1981). Persons are requested to describe, in a paragraph or two, the events and circumstances of a stressful episode. Users have the option of requesting this stressor in an open-ended manner, or of requesting a particular type of stressor (e.g., one that precipitates headaches or one that was ineffectively coped with). The norms reported in this manual were developed with an open- ended format (see Appendix A). After describing a stressful situation, persons taking the CSI are asked to respond to 72 questions in a 5-item Likert format. Respondents indicate for each item the extent to which they performed that particular coping response in dealing with the previously described situation (see Appendix B).
The aim of our study is to validate the Arabic version of the inventory of copingstrategies of competitive sports (ISCCS) using factor analysis. After critical analyses of adapted sports versions, Gaudreau and Blondin (2002) proposed the ISCCS ques- tionnaire to measure copingstrategies in the field of competitive sports (André & Lau- rencelle, 2010). The ISCCS identify ten copingstrategies that are divided in two dimen- sions: the coping task-oriented and the coping emotion-oriented. 419 athletes (273 men and 146 women; age 16.79 ± 3.82 years, 14 to 34) in different individual and team competitions, volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected and analyzed for reliability and validity using the test-retest method, reliability, correlation analysis and confirmatory factor analyses. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 22.0.0 the IBM AMOS. The confirmatory factor analyses showed good adjustments for coping models of task-oriented (chi-square 359.35, CFI: 0.92; TLI: 0.91; GFI: 0.93; RMSEA: 0.040 and p value < 0.001), and the coping oriented emotion (chi-square 215.45, CFI: 0.93; TLI: 0.91; GFI, 0.94; RMSEA: 0.054 and p < 0.001). In conclusion, ISCCS was translated and validated in various languages, including French, English, Spanish, and Turkish… Arabic version demonstrated good psychometric properties adjustments and can be used in other surveys in the area of sports competition.
The survey questions that pertain to the causes and manifestations of teacher stress were adapted from the Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI; Fimian 1984; Fimian and Fasteneau 1990), which has been found to measure teacher stress levels validly and reliably. Like the survey instrument used in this study, the TSI is composed of a Likert-type scale that asks teachers to rate the perceived degree of an item on their overall stress level. The survey questions pertaining to copingstrategies were adapted from the Coping Scale for Adults (CSA; Fredenberg and Lewis 2000). Fredenberg and Lewis’s consideration of fi ve studies using the CSA concluded that more positive outcomes were connected to “productive” copingstrategies. Knowing what those productive copingstrategies are may empower teachers. Other researchers interested in coping skills refer to “problem-focused strate- gies” (that address the sources of stress) and “emotion-focused copingstrategies” (that deal with emotional discomfort; Trenberth, Dewe, and Walkey 1996).
Likert scale (1 = “not at all” to 5 = “very much”) to determine which copingstrategies they use for different stressful situ- ations. Task-oriented coping here was defined as making an effort to purposefully resolve the stressful situation (eg, thinking about solutions for similar stressful situations and engaging in corrective action). Emotion-oriented coping was defined as focusing on decreasing feelings of stress and concentrating on one’s own feelings (eg, self-blame, feeling upset, or hoping for the improvement of the things themselves). Avoidance-oriented coping refers to behaviors, such as distraction (eg, buying something) or social diversion (such as visiting friends), that aim to avoid having to deal with stressful situations.
Thinking about the ways you deal with stress, how often do you do each of the following? ” The 7 items that tap copingstrategies that physicians use at work are as fol- lows: I make a plan of action and work through it; I go on as if nothing has happened; I keep it to myself; I concentrate on what I have to do next; I take a time out; I talk it over with colleagues; and I use humor to lighten the situation. The 5 items that reflect those stra- tegies used outside of work are as follows: I find time to exercise; I set aside some quiet time for myself outside of work; I spend time with my family outside of work; I leave work at work; and I talk it over with my spouse. The response categories included never; not very often; sometimes; often; and most of the time. In the question- naire, we measure burnout using 5 items from the Emo- tional Exhaustion subscale from the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) (General Survey). We used Barnett et al ’ s  revised version of the MBI that directly asks about the respondent ’ s feelings and that includes mutually exclusive response categories. We limited our operationalization of burnout to Emotional Exhaustion due to space limitations in the survey. Physicians are known to be particularly prone to low response rates [15-17] and the survey needed to be brief in order to maximize the response rate. Since the survey covered several different topics, a decision was made to cover a broader range of variables using fewer items, rather than Table 1 Breakdown of physician specialty for qualitative component health region versus interview sample (June 2006) and quantitative component health region versus survey sample (June 2008)
that such a disposal option is only necessary for extreme cases where the item under consideration is very slow-moving, the recovery rate is high, and remanufacturing is almost as expensive as manufacturing.
We remark that the system is not restricted to the above ‘service part example’. In- deed, it is applicable to both product and part remanufacturing, as long as the (expected) lead time for manufacturing is larger than the lead time for remanufacturing, and man- ufacturing is more expensive than remanufacturing. Our goal is to propose a class of inventorystrategies for this single item hybrid inventory system with unequal lead times. This class of strategies should be appropriate for realistic situations with positive lead times, positive set-up costs, and stochastic demand and return.
• Make it a routine practice to review various reports available in the Activant E4W system that can provide “red flags” of wrongdoing (or error). These reports include, but are not necessarily limited to, the RDS (End of Day Sales Totals - it also shows refunds and voids totals), RPE (Price Exception Report), RVT (Void Transaction Daily Report), RDI (Daily Inventory Update Report), RDJ (Daily Journal Report) and RPC (Price Changes).
The advantages of group therapy include its widespread use in alco- holism rehabilitation; the potential facilitative effect of a group’s social environment on cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes; the sup- port system that groups provide for newly recovering clients; and the potential for cost savings with group compared to individual treatment. However, group therapy presented a number of problems from the research perspective. Clients might have to wait weeks before begin- ning treatment while groups were being assembled; it is more difficult to assess the therapist factor in outcome, and some argue that the groups (as opposed to individual clients) should be considered as the unit of analysis (e.g., Kaul and Bednar 1986). To properly evaluate the treatment, an individual therapy format was selected. This meant that some of the wording in Monti et al. had to be edited to reflect the dyadic therapeutic relationship, and some of the group-oriented role playing exercises had to be restructured. In the present manual, minor modi- fications of role-plays are described in terms of the changes made to the Monti et al. book. When the changes were substantial, the modified exercises are presented verbatim.
63 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICAL SERVICES: This space is used in the administration of personnel programs, real and personal property management, purchasing operations, transportation, public safety, and security.
Examples are personnel administration, faculty/staff insurance administration, faculty/staff records, room scheduling, facilities’ management and reporting, room scheduling, campus police, trash collection, purchasing, shipping and receiving, inventory control, central storage, motor pool, campus mail, and printing and duplicating services. The category also is General Administration and Logistical Services for space assigned to affirmative action officers, human resource officers, and risk managers who do not report directly to the chief executive officer.
Manual Measurements For a basic manual measurement from the main screen, highlight the Drop button by left clicking for the particular vessels you wish to measure. Multiple bobs may be selected, up to all the bobs in the system. Once the desired bobs have been selected, click the Measure button (Figure 15) in the upper center of the main screen to perform the measurement.
confounds. A more in-depth study would include a greater breadth of social groups, as well as respondents who were both educated and uneducated. In addition, the cross- sectional research designed was a limitation, as it did not allow for an examination of how an individual changes his/her defense styles and copingstrategies over time. Indeed, Costa and McCrae (1993) posit that on the basis of longitudinal results that aging has little effect on coping and that enduring dispositional characteristic are more important for psychologists to examine.
Learning to cope with a stress is a useful skill for nursing career and a life ahead. By setting priorities, planning ahead by organizing self, one can minimize the impact of stress. Lazarus and Folkman used the term coping to describe the "cognitive and behavioral effor ts", a person employ to manage stress, generally categorized as emotional- focused and problem- focused coping 9 .
there is statistically significant association was found between age of spouse of alcoholics (F=9.131), Monthly family income (F=3.153), duration of alcohol (F=4.762) and Family type (F=4.046) and level of stress at p value less than 0.05 level of significance. The association between level of copingstrategies and demographic variables was analyzed by ANOVA test. The result reveals that there is statistically significant association was found between age of spouse of alcoholics (F=3.113), Monthly family income (F=3.970), duration of alcohol (F=6.446) and Family type (F=3.853) and copingstrategies at p value less than 0.05 level of significance.
of stress. More than 30% of the students try to cope with the stressful situations by figuring out the way to solve their problems while improving their work performance. Around 25% of the nursing students reported that the stress was relieved to some extent by being close to someone who cares or loves (Table 4). It has been further shown that the least common strategies used by nursing students to cope with stress were smoking (76%), using drugs (73.3%), liquor, wine or beer (71.7%), drugs prescribed by the doctor (71.7%), talking to minister, priest or rabbi (58.9%), getting professional help (58.9%),being with the boyfriend or girlfriend (57.8%) and riding around in the car (53.9%) (Table 3 & 4).
Campaigns intended to promote protective behaviours via awareness-raising have been widely used, but may not always be as successful as the policy- making bodies would hope or expect: an annual campaign on flood-risk within England and Wales has been in place since 2001, but it has been found that only 60% of at-risk residents claimed to be aware they lived in a flood risk area . Similarly, a free telephone flood warning system for at-risk properties has been available throughout this period, but at the time of the summer 2007 flood events, only 41% of eligible homes were registered for the Floodline Warnings Direct service . Such behaviour patterns are not unique to the UK, nor are they peculiar to flood risk, as the literature on natural hazards worldwide will reveal [8–11]. The consistency of these findings (that awareness does not engender action) suggests that, in order to change human behaviour patterns, a more sophisticated approach may be required: this is discussed by Fischoff  in the context of risk communication strategies, in relation to a variety of hazards, over a twenty year period. If it is, therefore, accepted that appeals and advice predicated on rationality are insufficient in themselves, an examination of the psychological theories covering decision-making and behaviour change may offer a way forward in promoting resilient adaptation.
The rise of the internet and the availability of media and other digital solutions have given way to internet multitasking: the combination of any activity with at least one internet induced activity. This is not only visible in everyday life; it has become the standard on the job. However, when cognitive activities are undertaken multitasking is not feasible. It interrupts the normal workflow, results in less concentration and it decreases the ability to filter out irrelevant information while it increases task completion time. Consequently, these effects can even negatively impact stress and anxiety levels. This study set out to research the motives for internet multitasking in a cognitive context where the negative effects are most severe. Furthermore, research is conducted on strategies to manage internet multitasking in this specific context. Data is collected by means of 14 semi-structured interviews with Dutch knowledge workers. Results show seven motives for internet multitasking in a cognitive context; curiosity, reachability, fear of missing something important, habit, relaxing and seeking information. Additionally, copingstrategies to manage internet multitasking in the cognitive context have been uncovered. These can be divided into three categories; technological tools, planning strategies, and work environment strategies. Motives and strategies seem to be linked and strategies are advised to be used complementary. Future research is invited to study motives and strategies in different contexts and for different job types. Furthermore, strategies remain an underexplored part of the literature on internet multitasking and offer an opportunity to further develop these strategies in the future.
An external audit increased the dependability and con- firmability of the data. During external audit, interview texts, the extracted codes, and the categories were ex- amined by two experienced researchers in qualitative re- search, selected from outside the research team. They confirmed the correctness of the analysis. In addition, the direction and steps taken in the study were docu- mented in detail so that auditability is provided for future researchers. To verify transferability, the findings of the study were shared with 10 other abused women who had been to court or who had attended forensic medical cen- ters after experiencing violence. They also confirmed the use of these strategies in dealing with violent husbands.
2. Measurement of Individual Differences in Security Need Scale (Velichkov et al., 1998).
3. Bulgarian version of Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced scale – COPE – 1 (Carver, et al., 1989). The test includes 52 items, organized in 14 subscales. These fourteen strategies have been joined together through factor analysis into three generalized secondary factors: cognitive engagement, emotional engagement, cognitive and emotional disengagement (Georgiev at al., 2003).
Besides institutional problems, the teacher participants, in their recollections, enumerated other obstacles which were related to teachers themselves. Examples are the teachers’ lack of interest in keeping themselves up to date, their long working hours, their low-language proficiency, and their majoring in fields other than English. For some of these problems, like the teachers’ low motivation and their workload, it seems that the source of the obstacle still originates from the external sources. As they stated, mainly due to low payment, teachers are not motivated enough to make positive changes in their teaching practices by keeping up with recent innovations in the field. On this account, they have no impetus for being reflective. According to them, the low payment brings about other negative consequences, as well; teachers have no choices other than teaching for longer hours to make enough money to afford their expenses. It seems that even if some teachers are interested in upgrading themselves, long teaching hours prevents them from having the time to read about new conceptualizations in the field. Also relevant to teachers was their low-language proficiency and their majoring in fields other than teaching English; as teachers declared a substantial number of teachers in language institutes, especially those farther from the capital, suffer from low levels of language proficiencies which results in their not being able to read and understand reflective teaching principles, among other things. Moreover, a considerable part of the teacher population in language institutes is composed of practitioners who do not have a degree in English teaching. As such, they are not familiar enough with diverse teaching approaches, principles, techniques, strategies, reflective teaching included.