Experience shows that various watershed development programs brought significant positive impact. There have been marked improvement in the access to drinking water due to groundwater recharge in the project area, increase in crop yields and substantial increase in cropped area, rise in employment and reduction in migration of labour. Availability of fodder has also improved leading to a rise in the yield of milk. The most important factor accounting for the positive impact of watershed developmental programs is community participation and the decentralization of program administration. Joshi et al. (2009) assessed the impacts of watershed programs in India through the meta-analysis of published results and identified the drivers of collective action in watersheds such as tangible economic benefits to small and marginal farmers, good local leadership, peoples’ participation, bottom-up approach, knowledge-based entry point activity, good community-based organizations, decentralized decision-making, targeted activity for women and vulnerable groups with good capacity building and technical backstopping. The experience especially from Maharashtra shows that the encouraging performance of the watershed program can be attributed largely to the positive response from the people, especially in the tribal areas with their traditions of community participation and the political and administrative will for decentralizing the administration and strengthening the Panchayat Raj Institutions (Rao, 2000). Watershed development and management has become of big concern in India. As the Central and State governments are making investments in watershed development, a proper assessment of the benefits accrued to the economy is essential. A programme such as watershed development, which involves a hierarchy of administration and communities at the grass roots level in highly varying agro-climatic and socio-economic conditions, invariably requires periodical assessment for achieving developmental objectives. Typically, an implementing agency would see a greater value in spending a few extra crores of rupees for undertaking works in the field rather than spending this money for monitoring and evaluation. However, according to some observers, mid-course corrections can help improve the benefits substantially, in some cases up to 100 per cent. But even if we consider the improvement to be very modest, say, 10 per cent, then a one per cent of program outlay on meaningful monitoring, evaluation would have a very high pay-off in terms of achieving the program objectives. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to put in place an institutional mechanism for research and monitoring and evaluation in the field of watershed development by involving reputed institutions in the country for upgrading the quality of evaluation.
Merry DJ, Namara R and De Lange M. 2006. Agricultural water management technologies for small-scale farmers in Southern Africa: An inventory and assessment of experiences, good practices and costs. International Water Management Institute, Pretoria, South Africa. 105 pp. Moyo R, Love D, Mul M, Mupangwa W and Twomlow SJ. 2006. Impact and sustainability of low-head drip irrigation kits in the semi-arid Gwanda and Beitbridge Districts, Mzingwane catchment, Limpopo Basin, Zimbabwe. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 31: 885−892. Namara RE, Upadhyay B and Nagar RK. 2005. Adoption and impacts of micro irrigation technologies: Empirical results from selected localities of Maharashtra and Gujarat states of India. Research Report 93. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute. 51 pp.
absence of participatory monitoring approaches and with increasing reliance on limited but hi-tech monitoring, some of these studies on monitoring display a general lack of understanding of the socio- cultural aspects that need to be looked into. An excessive focus on valuing outcomes has sometimes led to limited understanding of the socio-ecological processes through which resources get regenerated, technologies are adopted and modified, conflicts are negotiated and social norms are developed. The entire monitoring process will therefore have to be preceded by a benchmark survey to collect data and information on the pre-project status of the community and its natural resources. This information helps to monitor the progress, assess the changes and measure impacts. A combination of conventional and remote sensing approaches can be utilized to generate the benchmark data. Since any WSDP covers a substantial area which makes any detailed survey time-consuming, the survey has to be based on multi-stage sampling for data collection and monitoring. For instance, the sub-watersheds can be randomly chosen based on their agro-climatic zone, general land use and soil. Within each sub- watershed, a few micro-watersheds can be selected at random, representing ridge, middle and valley portions. Thereafter households can be selected and sampled based on land holding i.e. marginal, small, big and landless using ‘probability proportion to size’ criteria. Suitable sampling intensity can be worked out for data collection and analysis to achieve acceptable accuracies or estimates keeping in view the project objectives. For monitoring impact benchmark watersheds in target ecoregion can be monitored for parameters such as runoff, soil loss, nutrient loss, ground cover biodiversity and carbon sequestration etc. other sample parameters can be monitored in all the watersheds by adopting participatory approaches.
The importance of investigations related to carbon transformation in agroecosystems, which has become es- pecially obvious in recent decades   , is conditioned by abrupt changes of the natural environment and the climate. The attention to the processes of technogenic pollution—a kind presently obviously negative factor, which influence the processes of carbon transformations—is still insufficient. There is obvious and doubtless necessity to obtain qualitative estimates and predict carbon transformations under the conditions of environmental pollution at the background of climate variations. Correct computations of the data related to the emission of CO 2 into the atmosphere and to the balance of carbon for the ecosystem related to various natural-
The role of pharmacists in immunisation and vaccination varies across the world; in some countries and/or organise vaccinations activities and campaigns; in other countries, however, pharmacists are not able or authorised to play an active role in immunisation. This section of the report presents the outcome of a global survey which was disseminated to 137 FIP membership organisations and (at the time) applicant organisations. The aim of the Report survey was to gather a better understanding of the role of pharmacists in immunisation across the world and the impact of these activities. The set and format of the questions was developed by the University College London FIP Collaborating Centre and was validated by a selected group of expert representatives from FIP member organisations; the survey included six main questions on the various roles of pharmacists in immunisation (see Appendix ). The questions focused on 6 main subjects: advocating for immunisation (Q1), administering vaccines (Q2), training the pharmacy workforce for immunisation/vaccination services (Q3), access to vaccination records (Q4), additional services related to immunisation (Q6). Responses were collected during February and March 2016. The data collected was coded and entered into a database for subsequent analysis. Any incomplete data fields for specific variables are accounted for in all the reported per cent numbers in this section.
The purpose of the study was to assessODLstudents views on the implementation of Zimbabwe„s new education curriculum Building and Impact in Zimbabwean primary and secondary schools. The findings of the study can be adopted, modified or improved for use by the Public Service Commission and the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education.
Liberia is the first African country to undertake a full assessment of the impact of the crisis on employment with ILO support. The recently published Guide 1 provided the basic methodology for determining the approach, and we wish to extend our appreciation to the many national stakeholders and development partners who took part in the process. Liberia is facing an important cross-road in its development strategy given the impact of the crisis on both employment and incomes, and on public and private revenues. Strategic choices will need to be made in light of the increasingly constrained resource envelop for development. Alignment of the activities of the many development partners with these choices in order to ensure maximum impact under these difficult circumstances should be actively encouraged. Inclusive job-rich growth needs to be squarely and firmly in the focus, and strong support by the international community towards reaching HIPC completion point is a necessary prerequisite for getting on a sound development path. Liberia’s support from the international community and its credibility remains unabated, and it is ILO’s intention for this report to illustrate our continuing commitment to being an active development partner.
This patient grouping, are the main focus of the framework and therefore this framework will have a positive impact on them. However, patients who have sensory impairment may score low on cognitive tests due to their physical rather than their cognitive ability.
Abstract This paper presents a global scale assessment of the impact of climate change on water scarcity. Patterns of climate change from 21 Global Climate Models (GCMs) under four SRES scenarios are applied to a global hydrological model to estimate water resources across 1339 watersheds. The Water Crowding Index (WCI) and the Water Stress Index (WSI) are used to calculate exposure to increases and decreases in global water scarcity due to climate change. 1.6 (WCI) and 2.4 (WSI) billion people are estimated to be currently living within watersheds exposed to water scarcity. Using the WCI, by 2050 under the A1B scenario, 0.5 to 3.1 billion people are exposed to an increase in water scarcity due to climate change (range across 21 GCMs). This represents a higher upper-estimate than previous assessments because scenarios are constructed from a wider range of GCMs. A substantial proportion of the uncertainty in the global-scale effect of climate change on water scarcity is due to uncertainty in the estimates for South Asia and East Asia. Sensitivity to the WCI and WSI thresholds that define water scarcity can be comparable to the sensitivity to climate change pattern. More of the world will see an increase in exposure to water scarcity than a decrease due to climate change but this is not consistent across all climate change patterns. Additionally, investigation of the effects of a set of prescribed global mean temperature change scenarios show rapid increases in water scarcity due to climate change across many regions of the globe, up to 2 °C, followed by stabilisation to 4 °C.
Recommended that a further communication is undertaken to ensure that staff and patients/carers are kept informed of service.
11. Additional Information and Evidence Required
If further evidence is required, please note how it will be gathered. If appropriate, mark this report as interim and submit updated final report once further evidence has been gathered.
Stream ordering has been assigned based on the number and type of tributary junction. The two watersheds and the sub-basins were ranked according to the stream ordering system developed by Strahler . Stream order represents a preparatory indicator of stream size, drainage area and discharge. The total number of streams in W. Rajil watershed is 1995, and the first order streams ac- count for 78.3% of the total stream numbers. The total number of streams in W. Wuheida is 490, and the first order streams constitute 79% of the total streams. The details of stream characteristics validate Horton’s  first law, or, the “ law of stream number,” which stated that the number of steams of different order in a given drainage basin tends to closely approximate an inverse geometric ratio . W. Rajil consists of 16 sub-basins which are assigned as fourth-order ba- sins, and W. Wuheida is composed of 5 sub-basins of the same order. Applica- tion of Strahler’s ordering procedure through Arc GIS (10.1) reveals that W. Ra- jil is classified as seventh order; and W. Wuheida is sixth order.
When asked why they made changes in their farming practices, FFS and joint MF-FFS graduates reported they now understood the difference between the old and new practices. The new practices are easy to follow and implement, work well under some conditions, and are more profitable. PAE graduates explained they were primarily applying water conservation practices. Master Farmer graduates said they were following extension recommendations because the extension officer makes periodic checks, and farmers get punished if they are found not implementing recommended practices. Clearly, the greater impact of FFS on soil fertility practices is because learning-by-discovery and carrying out experimental trials gives farmers additional skills and confidence, and convinces them that the new technologies give high rates of return on investment. The likelihood of failure is also reduced because farmers have better skills and decision-making ability. The greater impact of PAE on soil and water conservation is that households are able to resolve labor constraints through collective action and labor-sharing work parties, facilitated by the PAE process.
Notification of Revenue (B) Department, Government of Kerala G.O.(P)No.30/2020/RD dated 20/03/2020 published in Kerala Gazatte (Extra ordinary) No.1047 dated 7 th April
2020, stated that approximately 30.3590 hectares of land comprised in Choornikkara, Keezhmadu, Aluva West and Thrikkakara North Villages of Aluva and Kanayannur Taluk in Ernakulam district for the construction of Seaport-Airport Road Phase II, Section A Package 2&3. The said Notification also accorded sanction to Social ImpactAssessment Unit - Rajagiri outREACH, Rajagiri College of Social Sciences, Kalamassery- to conduct the Social ImpactAssessment Study of the project as insisted in Section 4 of RFCTLARR Act 2013. Further, a team was constituted by the SIA unit with experts who have engaged in similar projects and deployed them into the project with a set of specific roles and responsibilities.
So far, relatively little scholarly attention has been given to the scientific, societal and economic impact of gender equity in research. Debate on gender equity in research has been primarily driven by human rights and equality imperatives and is based on evidence that is sparse and of variable methodological quality . Im- portantly, experimental research shows gender differ- ences in how the quality of evidence revealing gender bias is evaluated by women and men . There is a need to systematise the current evidence to map more precisely the state of knowledge, ignorance and uncer- tainty in the field, and identify gaps in the evidence base where new research is needed. Such a scoping exercise is likely to highlight the need for further comparative ef- fectiveness research to determine the most effective pol- icy interventions, as well as the conditions under which particular interventions can be effective in different settings. Additionally, fields beyond medicine (such as higher education studies and the sociology of science) may provide important theoretical perspectives that will help guide the design of empirical studies. We recom- mend that, where appropriate, research funders support theoretical and applied research on the scientific, societal and economic impact of gender equity in research.
“Those of us who rank must also be outspoken about the abuses, not just the uses, of our output. There is no doubt that global rankings can be misused […]. “Global university ranking tables are inherently crude, as they reduce universities to a single composite score. […] One of the great strengths of global higher education is its extraordinarily rich diversity, which can never be captured by the THE World University Rankings, which deliberately seek only to compare those research-intensive institutions competing in a global marketplace. [...] No ranking can ever be objective, as they all reflect the subjective decisions of their creators as to which indicators to use, and what weighting to give them. Those of us who rank need to work with governments and policy-makers to make sure that they are as aware of what rankings do not – and can never – capture, as much as what they can, and to encourage them to dig deeper than the composite scores that can mask real excellence in specific fields or areas of performance. […] Rankings can of course have a very useful role in allowing institutions […] to benchmark their performance, to help them plan their strategic direction. But [rankings] should inform decisions – never drive decisions”. (Baty, 2012a)
Research published through 2000, questioned the yield advantages of cultivars introduced in this region by ICRISAT (Matlon 1987, 1990), also emphasizing the need to combine them with soil fertility and water management practices to raise profitability (Sanders et al. 1996). Matlon (1990) reported that, “under normal rainfall conditions, and with low to moderate input levels under farmers’ management, the yield advantage of most improved cultivars rarely exceeds 15% and is often negative” (p. 27; see also Matlon 1985). He estimated an overall adoption rate for improved sorghum and millet in the region that did not exceed 5%, citing the region’s “enormous agroclimatic diversity” and the poor adaptation of introduced materials, among the primary constraints. However, as noted by Yapi et al. (2000), Matlon’s estimates referred only to the introduced varieties, and did not include selections from superior local landraces. When Yapi et al. (2000) grouped materials by breeding strategy, they found much higher overall rates of adoption in Mali. In their sample survey covering 53 villages, data indicated that 34% of sorghum growers in the Mopti region, 36% in Segou region, and 52% farmers in Koulikoro region grew improved varieties. Most adopted varieties were based on improved selections of local Guinea ecotypes, as compared to crosses based on the introduced, Caudatum types. Adoption rates for improved varieties were higher in the more favorable rainfall zones of the Koulikoro region than in either Segou or Mopti regions, and rose between 1990 and 1995. Notably, less than one percent farmers used chemical fertilizers, although almost all used manure.
ecosystem stability in mathematical models of ecological networks (May, 1972). This result was based on the assumption of random interactions between consumer and resources, i.e., on randomly constructed networks. The differences between theoretical predictions and what was observed in empirical systems was later explained by the non-randomness of ecological systems (Yodzis, 1981). This non-randomness resulted from empirically determined links between interacting species. A manipulative experiment showed that the increase in plant species diversity increased the stability of plant communities (Tilman and Downing, 1994), which supported the early suppositions of increased stability with increased complexity. Extensive empirical and theoretical work in various ecosystems have corroborated this early finding and increased evidence pointing towards a positive relationship between diversity and ecosystem stability, productivity, multi-functionality, and protection against species invasion (Tilman et al., 2014). This positive relationship raises concerns on the impact of continuous loss of biodiversity on ecosystem services, including the loss of natural enemies on the biological control of agricultural pests.
Therefore, the aim of the present study is to develop a CSDI for shaded cocoa agroecosystems under tropical con- ditions in southwestern Nigeria. This area is currently suf- fering from soil degradation arising from low input cocoa agroecosystems. Soil conditions under age-sequenced peas- ant cocoa agroecosystems are investigated. The cocoa agroe- cosystem ages of 1–10, 11–40, and 41–80 years – hereafter referred to as young cocoa plantation (YCP), mature cocoa plantation (MCP), and senescent cocoa plantation (SCP), re- spectively – were targeted as this is in line with the biologi- cal cycle of the cocoa tree (Isaac et al., 2005; Jagoret et al., 2011, 2012; Saj et al., 2013). Our goals are to (i) identify the most important soil degradation processes, (ii) select a MDS of soil degradation indicators using multivariate sta- tistical techniques, (iii) integrate the MDS into a CSDI, and (iv) statistically validate the CSDI and evaluate to what ex- tent the CSDI can be used as a tool by researchers, farmers, agricultural extension officers, and government agencies in- volved in rehabilitating degraded cocoa soils in southwestern Nigeria (and similar environments).
1. Thus, brand of territory as an object of tourist interest is under impact of different risks which determine the whole perception of this territory from the side of tourists. Risks show by itself the set of factors, different by the character and degree of influence, which can have both subjective and objective character, in any case difficultly controlled, serve as a reason of onegative situations in a region, which, in its turn, reduce the level of positive perception of tourist brand. At the same time it does not reduce complication of prognostication of risks and management of them that proves the actuality of problem of the practical use of risk management with the purpose of decline of risks which really influence the positive image of that or other territory.