The sewerage assets were exposed to several risks in line by time so risk assessment is needed in order to reduce the risk that involved. Risk assessment commonly defined as a method for analysing the risk of system failure in a good way that gives benefit for the future. This assessment also can give the priority for resources to reduce risk in a very active way. For the recent years, risk assessment has been used in the technical industries which are suitable for seweragesystem that aimed for their planning and operational goals . The scope of the asset for seweragemanagement has evolved throughout history with changes in socioeconomic conditions and environments. Sewerage infrastructure that well planned and correctly operated can support urban sanitation and related activities . Effective sewerage managements are compatible with maintaining ecosystem integrity. It's also vital for improving the environment through proper drainage and disposal of wastewater . It's also good to prevent floods through a removal of drain water and preserve the received water quality to the household. The recent developments for sewerage managements also can improve the reliability and efficiency of the treatment system to treat sewage in order to meet standards and reduce the land area occupied by the treatments works through natural treatment rates in quick motion under a controlled condition. Example asset for seweragesystem is shown by Chan (2015). Assets for seweragemanagement faces many risks that cannot be anticipated and require a more efficient way to reduce the risk. Risk analysis for assetmanagement of sewerage by using spatial analysis can be the best method to analyse risk assets which can give negative impact to the process in the seweragesystem. Some risk that often occurred is because of the age of the pipe, slope failure, pipe erosion, sewer collapse or infiltration .
delivery of T-notes with a remaining maturity between 6- 1/2 to 10 years. This includes a rather wide variety of securities with varying coupons and terms until maturity. Because these securities may be valued at various levels, the contract utilized a Conversion Factor (CF) invoicing system to determine the price paid by long to compensate the short for the delivery of the specific security. Specifically, the principal invoice amount paid from long to short upon delivery of securities is calculated as a function of the futures price multiplied by the CF. Technically, CFs are calculated as the price of the particular security as if they were yielding the “futures contract standard” of 6%. The system is intended to render equally economic the delivery of any eligible for delivery security. However, the mathematics of the CF system is such that a single security tends to stand out as most economic or cheapest-to-deliver (CTD) in light of the relationship between the invoice price of the security vs. the current market price of the security. Typically, long duration securities are CTD when prevailing yields are in excess of the 6% futures market standard; while short duration securities are CTD when prevailing yields are less than 6%. It is important to identify the CTD security because futures will tend to price or track or correlate most closely with the CTD.
Although macroprudential policy is now seen in many quarters as an essential tool in the effort to mitigate and reduce the susceptibility of the financial system to systemic risk, its application has been almost exclusively focused on the banking sector. In the estimation of policy makers and regulators, this has left much of the remainder of the financial system exposed to possible systemic risk. A number of measures have been put forth to deal with the perceived vulnerabilities, including identifying certain non-bank financial firms as Systemically Important Financial Institutions (SIFIs), which subjects them to extra regulatory scrutiny and rules. In addition, specific rules and regulations are being considered for the operation of asset managers, insurance companies and other nonbank entities.
When the state of the built environment was assessed in Finland in 2016-2017, the condition of water and wastewater infrastructure was rated a little over 7 by a group of Finnish water and wastewater experts on a scale from 4 (fail) to 10 (ex- cellent). They pointed out that it is highly alarming that water and sewage net- works as a whole are still decaying, although the networks are rehabilitated more systematically than earlier. Only less than ten per cent of the municipalities have comprehensive information, for example, about the condition of their water dis- tribution network. In 2013, approximately twenty per cent of the municipalities had no knowledge at all of the condition of their water distribution system. More than 80 per cent of the municipalities have no cost estimates for rehabilitation requirements of their water services infrastructure. The experts recommended therefore, that the arrangements for introduction of the physical asset manage- ment framework should be taken care of in all municipalities .
Global standards such as ISO 31000: RiskManagementSystem, are supported by other standards and handbooks that provide greater detail on the risk methods. For example, IEC 60812: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, provides a detailed description of a core asset related riskmanagement technique intended to discover how designed systems might fail. Such analyses can be undertaken on spreadsheets, although more complex applications will usually require the support of commercial software.
The All Party Parliamentary Group on Highway Mainte- nance recently called for the incorporation of highway assetmanagement plans (HAMPs) within local authorities high- way departments to become mandatory (APPGHM, 2013). Moreover, recommendations exist to make funding streams from the Department for Transport accessible only if HAMPs are in place. Therefore, specific risk information, in this case relating to the spatial distribution of hazardous soils, is vital to these assetmanagement plans. Within LCC, integration of clay-related subsidence assessment within the planning of highway maintenance has provided the basis for a decision- support tool for establishing which specific treatments high- way engineers can use to improve drought-damaged road sections. Whereas previously a blanket approach to resur- facing would have been applied to all affected sections, it is now recognised that unclassified road sections on drought- susceptible soils are predominantly prone to failure. There- fore, with large capital investment not being an option, other value-for-money options are being sought.
This software or hardware is developed for general use in a variety of information management applications. It is not developed or intended for use in any inherently dangerous applications, including applications that may create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software or hardware in dangerous applications, then you shall be responsible to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy, and other measures to ensure its safe use. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates disclaim any liability for any damages caused by use of this software or hardware in dangerous applications.
Oracle Utilities Work and AssetManagement is designed for easy configuration, not complex customization. This minimizes implementation time and lowers the total cost of ownership. If you need to make changes to the system after it goes live, it’s easily accomplished with almost no impact on system availability. You can typically install product upgrades in less than a day.
Sewer Utility Management Center in Municipal Corporation Greater Mumbai used High End GNSS and Digitized Base map with GIS Software in sewer network design and analysis processes, in establishing network analysis tool enables identification of flow direction, selection of best route and/ or best location of pumps, determination of service area etc. In addition GPS and GIS provide user-friendly working environment and powerful tools for mapping and display of results .
AssetManagement Strategy A strategy for management of water supply and sewerage assets covering, at a strategic level, the development and implementation of plans and programs for asset creation, operation, maintenance, rehabilitation/replacement, disposal, and performance monitoring to ensure that the desired levels of service and other operational objectives are achieved at least cost.
Monitoring large scale urban infrastructure such as water supply and sewer networks for detecting leaks, changes in water quality and preventing water contamination caused by sewer overflows.There is a variety of telemetry solutions which the water utilities are using and frequently these solutions are integrated into SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems. The schematic of a typical SCADA system is shown in Figure 11, and it has four major components that are interconnected via a network: (i) remote telemetry and automation devices, such as outstations, data-loggers and PLCs (Programmable Logic Controller); (ii) data gatherers which acquire and manage the telemetry data; (iii) data server providing telemetry data for users and other applications; and, (iv) workstations which provide a user interface.The outstations are connected to the data gatherers via a range of different media including telephone lines, leased lines, radio,private networks, fieldbuses and satellite. The workstations communicate with the data gatherers via local and wide area networks. Communications interfaces between workstations, data gatherers and corporate systems are provided through Industry Standard Protocols such as TCP/IP or OSI standards. The data gatherers (DGs) provide the data collection service at the heart of the system by scheduling and executing telemetry polling, managing and distributing the real time database, and serving the workstations. The outstations are grouped into sets and then each set is interfaced to two DGs: a primary and a secondary, to minimize the risk of failure. During normal operation, the primary DG polls the set’s outstations and collects the corresponding data. This data is forwarded to the secondary DG where a further copy of the set’s database is maintained .
In business intelligence, OLAP and dimensional analysis are such facilities that can be used to monitor the risk in insurance business. The critical question in rate making is the following: “What are the risk factors or variables that are important for predicting the likelihood of claims and the size of a claim?” Although many risk factors that affect rates are obvious, subtle and non-intuitive relationships can exist among variables that are difficult, if not impossible, to identify without applying more sophisticated analyses. Modern data mining models can more accurately predict risk, therefore insurance companies can set rates more accurately, which in turn results in lower costs and greater profits.
Vessel and Crew safety is of paramount importance to all maritime organizations. The MAMS Safety ManagementSystem is a comprehensive tool which enables vessel owners and operators to manage safety, reduce risk, to prevent human injury or loss of life, and follow best practices.
Throughout history, people have devised systems for getting and using water more efficiently: the qanat systems of underground conduits in Persia, for example, are effectively pollution proof, suffer no evaporation losses and are over 3,000 years old. Progress really picked up speed in the Enlightenment era. In the 18th century, a rapidly growing population fueled the establishment of water supply networks. In London and Manchester, sanitation systems were added in Victorian times, once it was established that sewage contaminated water was a source of cholera. Since then, rapid urban population growth in developed and developing countries has triggered the establishment of governmental, municipal and private water utilities around the globe. Water utilities have invested billions of dollars in laying down the infrastructure required to supply the increasing demand for high-quality water, and for maintaining a reasonable level of service to their customers.
Assetmanagement is defined as “ A systematic process of maintaining, upgrading and operating assets, combining engineering principles with sound business practice and economic rationale, and providing tools to facilitate a more coordinated and flexible access to preparing the decisions necessary to reach the public’s expectations”.
6. Agency: It is very important to verify which agencies own this asset. The ITS radio technician must select the appropriate agency for the new or redeployed portable radio. If it is a loaner, select “ITS - Radio Services” and indicate which department temporarily borrowed this radio in the Location field.
ewerage system is a physical infrastructure being governed by the urban local body of an area. In Dharamshala, Irrigation and Public Health & Municipal Corporation are the two responsible agencies for this system and they have a key role to assess the household connections, suitable disposal methods & compatible technology. Every city should have a Sanitation Plan (Development Plan) to detail out the framework and agenda for the waste management. It is a statuary plan prepared with respect to approved perspective plan of a particular region. According to WHO, Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces.  This city has a natural cover of dense forest of 36% of a total planning area and it compels
• f2 differs fundamentally from its competitors by taking a user / role centric approach to data which benefits the users directly, providing an easy system to navigate with instant access to the information they need. This in turn provides a better ROI for the organisation; an accessible information network increases the effectiveness of operational workflow by reducing time, effort and pain points to run a medical engineering environment.
Since the study case’s user for this system is Advanced Information Technology Institute (AITI), therefore the Institute will become the primary reference while the Building Property Office and the Treasury Office will be the supporting references. The system will be installed and executed at AITI for evaluation, utilization and where appropriate, would be recommending to other faculties/departments/centres of UTM as well as other IPTA.
While most risk models agree that risk comes from the distribution of actual returns around the expected return and that risk should be measured from the perspective of a marginal investor, who by definition should be well diversified, they part ways when it comes to measuring non-diversifiable or market risk. The risk and return model that has been in use the longest, and is still the standard in the practitioners’ world, is the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) (Sharpe, 1964; Lintner, 1965; Mossin 1966). It assumes that there are no transaction costs, that all assets are traded, investments are infinitely divisible (i.e. you can buy any fraction of a unit of the asset) and that everyone has access to the same information. Making these assumptions allows investors to keep diversifying without additional cost. At the limit, their portfolios will not include every traded asset in the market but will have identical weights on risk assets - which then would be called the market portfolio. The risk of a stock becomes the risk that it adds on to the portfolio. This, in turn, is measured with a beta, measured against this portfolio: