Top PDF Market Structure in Services and Market Access in Goods

Market Structure in Services and Market Access in Goods

Market Structure in Services and Market Access in Goods

By exploring these issues, we examine an important though somewhat ignored aspect of the trading system. In the European Union, for example, internal trade in motor vehicles has been hampered by an antitrust exemption for the distribution and servicing of automobiles. (See both Flam and Nordstrom, 1995, and Lutz, forthcoming.) Access to the distribution system was also at the heart of a dispute between the United States and Japan involving Kodak and Fuji film (Nanto 1998). These issues also lurk behind the impact on trade of the retail distribution systems both in Switzerland and Japan, as well as the German experience with retailing cartels and the threat of foreign retail entry to established domestic players. With the elimination of trade barriers for textiles and clothing under the WTO’s Agreement on Textiles and Clothing in 2005, the market power of such huge buyers as Wal- Mart may also be an important factor in the transmission of price and quantity changes across global textile and clothing markets. Finally, evidence is emerging that the benefits of non-reciprocal tariff preference schemes may be captured by high-income country importing firms, rather than the low- income country exporter firms for which the programs are intended. (See, for example, Olarreaga and Ozden 2005).
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Granting Preferential Market Access in Services Sequentially versus Jointly with Goods

Granting Preferential Market Access in Services Sequentially versus Jointly with Goods

and 1b corresponding to S n ij and S ij e , respectively). Country pairs that notied STAs and GTAs jointly (as opposed to sequentially) were, on average, more distant and less similarly sized, with larger per-capita-income dierences both relative to each other and to the rest of the world. They had higher average and more dierent levels of services-trade restrictiveness. Country pairs that put STAs and GTAs jointly (as opposed to sequentially) into force were, on average, less distant, larger, and more similarly sized, but with bigger per-capita-income dierences both relative to each other and to the rest of the world. They had higher average but more similar levels of services-trade restrictiveness. Overall, Figures 1a-1b suggest that, unconditional on other factors, there are some dierences in the dierential characteristics between STAs that were merely notied and ones that were actually put into eect.
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Exporting goods, services and technology to the Chinese market. EUSME. Centre

Exporting goods, services and technology to the Chinese market. EUSME. Centre

Many European SMEs are considering entering the Chinese market. If your company’s business is based on valuable intellectual property, you may consider exporting your technology to China. There are many reasons to enter the Chinese market: access to growing Chinese demand, establishment of R&D facilities, engagement in cooperative development, access to a skilled work force, access to a large number of suppliers, or the development of long-term partnerships with Chinese businesses. One way to get a foothold in China is to license or transfer ownership of your key technology and designs to Chinese subsidiaries of European firms, joint venture partners, or Chinese manufacturing and service companies. One of the challenges facing European companies using this way to enter China is devising creative solutions to minimise the risk to their IP associated with technology transfers.
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Market structure and market access

Market structure and market access

domestic competition matters for trade. Indeed, problems with competition in domestic distribution and trade activities are likely to themselves act as barriers to trade. In a European context, this means that continued competition exemptions for automobiles, for example, should indeed be expected to hinder trade substantially. In the context of multilateral negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO), this also means that WTO-based liberalization of these service sectors under the GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) may also mean improved market access conditions for affected goods sectors along the lines developed here. More broadly, this supports the notion that the benefits of trade for exportering countries is a function of their market power vis-` a-vis trade and distribution firms in the importing countries. At the same time, increased FDI flows in the service sectors leading to increased concentration and less rather than more competition in distribution and trade services, ironically may lead to an erosion of market access for goods, both in a customs union and bilateral setting. It may also erode multilateral concessions on market access for goods.
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Market structure and market access

Market structure and market access

(21) The sign of equation (21) is negative whenever q ∗ m > 0. These relationships are illustrated in Figure 2, where we plot optimized tariffs, welfare, and quantities for a range of competition index values. The figure is based on the same set of model coefficients as in Figure 1. The key difference is that we are now varying our index of competition σ and then plotting optimum quantities q m ∗ and q ∗ d , along with welfare W and the optimum tariff t ∗ = (τ − 1). As can be seen in the figure, the optimal tariff rate falls with our market power index σ, as does welfare W and domestic shipments qd, while from equation (20) imports remain fixed. With the additional distortion in the market, in the form of an imperfectly competitive distribution sector, the welfare implications of trade policy become more complicated. It is evident that the optimal tariff declines with increasing concentration in services. Indeed, as illustrated in Figure 2, the optimal tariff when the service sector is a monopoly is a subsidy. In the absence of such an optimal tariff offset by the government, the more concentrated the service sector, the greater its exercise of its market power and, consequently, the lower the trade volume. A tariff further reduces the volume of trade, whereas a subsidy increases the level of imports and hence consumption. Such a subsidy benefits the service sector but, as their profits are part of national welfare, a welfare maximizing government would be prepared to offer it. We summarize the relationship between tariffs, profits, trade, and welfare in the following propositions:
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Market Structure and Market Access

Market Structure and Market Access

1 Introduction Rules and regulations governing international trade and investment in services are an in- creasingly important aspect of regional and multilateral trade agreements. International negotiations have focused on regulatory restrictions and barriers to cross-border trade and FDI, while research has emphasized quantifying barriers and exploring the role of traded services as inputs to the manufacturing sector. 1 In this paper, we emphasize a different role for services in economic integration, highlighting the impact of domes- tic market power in margin services on goods trade. We thus highlight a set of issues at the nexus of domestic competition policy and international trade, the interaction be- tween international goods trade and domestic market structure in trade and distribution sectors. Analytically, domestic market structure in the service sector has a direct and predictable impact on market access. Our empirical results indicate that these effects can be strong enough to nullify the promise of expanded market access expected under free trade agreements and customs unions (like the EU’s single market program), as well as market access concessions linked to trade preferences and multilateral agreements. 2 This follows from the determinants of domestic margins applied to goods between the border and final consumers. These margin activities include domestic shipping and lo- gistic services, of course, as well as the wholesale and retail sectors and other links in the distribution chain that carries imported goods to the industrial or household consumer. In a very real sense these services make possible any interaction between producers and exporters in one country and final consumers in another.
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Chapter [ ] National Treatment and Market Access for Goods ARTICLE 1: OBJECTIVE

Chapter [ ] National Treatment and Market Access for Goods ARTICLE 1: OBJECTIVE

– ARTICLE 14: TRADING RIGHTS AND RELATED RIGHTS 1. Vietnam shall adopt and maintain in force appropriate legal instruments allowing foreign pharmaceutical companies to establish foreign-invested enterprises in order to perform importation of pharmaceuticals, which duly got the marketing authorization from Vietnam's authority. Without prejudice to Vietnam’s Schedule of Specific Commitments in services contained in Annex […] under Chapter […], such foreign-invested enterprises are allowed to sell pharmaceuticals legally imported by them to distributors or wholesalers that have the right to distribute pharmaceuticals in Vietnam.
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Market Expansion Services for fast moving consumer goods

Market Expansion Services for fast moving consumer goods

Network of unique scope and depth No other company has direct access to as many customers in Asia as DKSH. Thanks to our strong local presence and network of modern distribution centers, we cover the modern and traditional trade channels, from hypermarkets, supermarkets, conve- nience stores and mom-and-pop-stores, to the medical channel and specialty stores. Our strong relationships with customers allow us to gain greater insight and to stay on top of what is happening to our client’s business. We work directly with customers to track performance and conduct in-store marketing activities to drive sales. Why work with DKSH in Consumer Goods
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Efficient Access Pricing and Endogenous Market Structure

Efficient Access Pricing and Endogenous Market Structure

The current model bears resemblance with few other earlier works in the literature on access pricing. Lewis and Shappington (1999) consider mechanisms under price competi- tion and asymmetric information where the entry decision is taken as given. Gautier and Mitra (2003) consider an environment where the firms produce homogenous products and compete sequentially in quantities. In their model, the market structure is endogenous and they show that inefficient entry can occur, i.e., a more cost effective firm could not enter the market or a less cost effective firm may enter the market. As an alternative to Ramsey pricing, the efficient component pricing rule (ECPR) prescribes that the access price should be equal to the incumbent’s opportunity cost for the retail services. With this type of access pricing, (a) potential entrants can enter profitably the market only if they are more cost efficient and (b) entry is neutral with respect to the incumbent’s profit. In
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Welfare versus Market Access - The Implications of Tariff Structure for Tariff Reform

Welfare versus Market Access - The Implications of Tariff Structure for Tariff Reform

appropriate generalized mean and variance are based on marginal substitution effects rather than on average trade shares. 3 In a special CES case, we show that the generalized mean and variance reduce to the trade-weighted mean and a simple function of the trade-weighted variance. In surprising contrast to the one-good case, welfare increase and market access increase are substantially in conflict. The two cones of liberalization are disjoint except on a single path along which tariff changes preserve relative domestic prices, so the economy is identical to one in which only a single composite commodity is subject to tariffs. This highlights the inadequacy of the one-good framework: the coincidence between the sufficient conditions for welfare improvements and market-access increases falls apart once we move to the realistic case where two or more goods are subject to tariffs. A key reason for this contrast is that reductions in dispersion are good for welfare but bad for market access.
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Russian Luxury Goods Market

Russian Luxury Goods Market

Russians have a history for the love of expensive things. There is a proverb: “We are not rich enough to buy cheap stuff.” According to experts in the field of social psychology, the purchase of elite goods or services is always a question of prestige, of special status as well as a sign of the social "elitism" of its owner. Unlike any other consumer, the Russian consumer of luxury goods is the most glaring example of the concept of conspicuous consumption and status-seeking, concepts formulated by the economist Thorstein Veblen. There is a number of explanations for such behavior. First, the wealth has been acquired during the last 10-15 years and is therefore quite “young”, and in Russia there are absolutely no traditions for the financial management of such million-dollar fortunes. Such traditions are usually formed over centuries. The second important factor influencing people in the average age category is backlog demand. The generation of today's successful 35 to 45 year-old businessmen grew up in the period of total deficiency in the country and was denied free access to information available in the rest of the world. In this consumer group the exaggerated consumption and desire to show off is a natural psychological response to its current rise in its financial status and its awareness of global fashion trends. Essentially, Russian consumers are easily influenced by public opinion, and it is therefore important for them that the product they choose is recognized by others. Thus, in order to determine the current fashion trends in clothing, cosmetics, vacation, etc., interviews with prominent personalities, who express their consumer preferences, are frequently used.
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Welfare vs. Market Access: The Implications of Tariff Structure for Tariff Reform

Welfare vs. Market Access: The Implications of Tariff Structure for Tariff Reform

generalised moments serve in effect as sufficient statistics for the whole n-by-one vector of tariff rates. Of course, the generalised moments are not independent of the structure of the economy: on the contrary, they are defined in terms of the general-equilibrium substitution matrix. But there is clearly a huge economy of information from the fact that everything that is relevant to small changes in welfare and market access can be summarised in terms of changes in the two moments. However, there is no guarantee that the generalised moments are closely related to the standard moments which can be calculated using only information on the tariff schedule and the levels of imports. In this section, we show that the generalised moments coincide with the standard moments in a special but important case, where preferences take a homothetic constant- elasticity-of-substitution (CES) form, and where imports are imperfect substitutes for home- produced goods. The latter assumption follows Armington (1969) and is made in the vast majority of CGE models. Hence our result greatly enhances the usefulness of the generalised moments and the results based on them presented in previous sections. 16
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Endogenous Market Structure and Foreign Market Entry

Endogenous Market Structure and Foreign Market Entry

The effects of the alternative market-structure assumptions on the profits of the entering multinational are interesting. Use the fixed assumption as a benchmark and now introduce free entry and exit. If the firm chose green- field under the former or switches from exporting to greenfield, its profits will increase with entry, whereas if it initially chose acquisition the situation is a bit more complex. If the multinational continues to choose acquisition or switches to exporting it must be worse off. But if it switches to greenfield, it can be either better or worse off: free entry reduces the profits from ac- quisition but increases the profits from greenfield. If that latter profit level “jumps over”acquisition profits sufficiently that greenfield profits are now higher than the initial acquisition profits, then the multinational is better off.
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Market structure and inefficiency in the foreign exchange market

Market structure and inefficiency in the foreign exchange market

IV. Results of the experiments A. The issues Before considering the experimental results, it is useful to review the issues that make them relevant. The first three experimental variables (M, B and C) could imply normative policy implications. If there were some market composition minimizing the inefficiency measures, and the market. is not currently achieving that optimum, then it would be in the general interest exogeneously to impose barriers to entry or exit, to force the market toward the optimal composition. Such a direct approach falters here on the standard vector optimization problem: none of the four experimental variables is uniformly good or bad across all five inefficiency measures. Establishing an objective function for inefficiency .minimization would require some implicit or explicit prioritization of the different types of inefficiency. Such a weighting is not attempted here. A more holistic analysis of the results proves fruitful, however. It is suggested that a single microstructural fact
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BME Direct Market Access Services the fastest direct access for non member firms

BME Direct Market Access Services the fastest direct access for non member firms

The benchmark was run on one of the machines to be used in the production environment. The outcome was obtained through a benchmark program which runs iterations, making a block of calls to the nanoFilters library functions in each iteration. Each library call represents the processing associated with the validation of a new order or modification. Cancellations were not included in the benchmark, as their latency is less than that for an order or modification. The order data (security, price, etc.) is changed in each library call, so that the access to the filters resembles the real situation in a production setting.
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MARKET ACCESS FOR THE FUTURE

MARKET ACCESS FOR THE FUTURE

In 2009, in response to a global recession, the failure of the WTO Doha round negotiations and concerns about protectionism, there was a growing recognition that a proactive approach to market access was needed to protect and advance Canada’s export interests. As a result, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) and the Canola Council invested in the Canola Market Access Plan (CMAP) to develop a long-term strategy for maintaining and increasing access to current and potential canola markets. Funded through AAFC’s Agricultural Flexibility Fund, as part of the federal government’s Economic Action Plan to create jobs and economic growth, the CMAP has succeeded by maintaining or growing access to markets worth over $2.3 billion in 2012 – markets whose value continues to grow each year. The CMAP encompasses the following initiatives:
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Market Structure.

Market Structure.

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Market structure, productivity and scale in European business services

Market structure, productivity and scale in European business services

having less efficient division of labour, and having less opportunities for spreading fixed managerial costs, overhead costs, fixed human-capital costs, and fixed-capital costs. Further research could establish the reasons for the presence of the minimum-efficient scale size. Apart from scale-related inefficiencies, we find evidence that X-inefficiencies related to input choices may occur in all size classes. Estimation results for the generalised stochastic frontier model (GSF) indicate that X-inefficiencies caused by sub-optimal input choices are affected by market characteristics and the regulatory environment of firms. In particular we find that business- services markets may be segmented by size class of firms. This means that firms from different size classes on average only have weak competition with firms in other size classes. Small firms hardly compete with large firms and vice versa. They possibly serve different market segments, have different clients and also different types of products.
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Essays on Agglomeration, Access To Medical Services, And the Real Estate Market

Essays on Agglomeration, Access To Medical Services, And the Real Estate Market

The U.S. housing market has been through significant boom and bust in recent years. The U.S. housing price indexes, published by the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA), ran up by almost 40% from January 2003 to June 2006, followed by a 28% drop, unprecedented in the U.S. history. Time series studies on housing price movements using the U.S. national data include Meen (2002) and Gallin (2006). Also, Malpezzi (1999) uses a panel of 133 metropolitan areas in the USA over the period 1979 to 1996. More recently, Holly, Pesaran, and Yamagata (2010) use a panel of 49 states over the period of 1975 to 2003 to show that state-level real housing prices are driven by economic fundamentals, such as real per capita disposable income, as well as by common shocks, such as changes in interest rates, oil prices, and technological change. They apply the common correlated effects (CCE) estimator of Pesaran (2006) which takes into account spatial interactions that reflect both geographical proximity and unobserved common factors. This estimator is consistent under heterogeneity and cross-sectional
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Access to the market in goods transport by inland waterway. Information Memo P-53/67

Access to the market in goods transport by inland waterway. Information Memo P-53/67

The neasures to control the growth of capacity have been drafted Ln such a way ae to leave transport undertaklngs the greatest possibJ-e margin of freedom.. The system envieageI nakes it[r]

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