After the resorts were separated into the two groups, <3,500 feet and >3,500 feet, it was apparent that those resorts residing in the <3,500 feet group offered far more products than those with a base elevation of >3,500 feet. This is quite different than the research from (Nelson, 1997). Out of the 32 product categories, 22 of those had a higher frequency in the <3,500 feet group. Those products included skiing, snowboarding, sledding/tubing, cross country skiing, ice rink, festivals out of season, mountain biking, educational outreach, sponsorship/team racing, rentals, pro shop, restaurant, ziplining, horse rides in season, snowshoeing, wildlife tracking in season, wildlife tracking out of season, lessons, and parties out of season. Some of these products were found in the work of Clark (2011) such as wildlife tracking, hiking, and sledding/tubing. Products offerings have increased since the 1970s and 1980s (McCune, 1994) and it can be seen from this study because resorts are offering much more than skiing and lodging. Some of the product variation by elevation can be explained due to the topography of the resorts. Cross country skiing requires flatter areas so a region such as the Rocky Mountains have higher elevations, relief, and steepness, which would make the sport quite difficult to perform. The same effect could apply to sledding/ tubing. As for the racing/sponsorship product, many of the Rocky Mountain and Pacific Northwest resorts are well known for their racing teams. Resorts such as Breckinridge and Keystone do not market sponsorship racing on their website. A potential reason for this could be that they have the resources to find talented skiers and snowboarders. Their racing teams are viewed as marketing tools not a source of revenue.
The impacts of climatechange in France and Spain are affecting ski tourism, leading to previously unseen temperature changes throughout the year; this, in turn, is a threat for the management of skiresorts. Rising temperatures are beginning to affect the scheduling of activities. A lack of snow means that the ski season starts ever later; the seasons themselves are more unstable; they are also longer since they tend to finish later [ 10 – 12 ]. One published article finds that measured snow-depth is a significant predictor of skier days in French ski areas [ 13 ]. Similarly, another work studied the vulnerability of Spanish alpine skiresorts to climatechange, and evaluated the potential socio-economic and environmental implications [ 14 ]. Results show that lower-altitude areas may be more vulnerable to climatechange than higher-altitude areas. A further change is that the tourist tends to divide their vacation time more, with shorter stays in each destination; they appreciate their free-time more and choose their destinations later. In addition, as they have fewer vacations and are better informed, they have become more demanding. Technological advances mean that they often use smartphones to find, compare and contrast information in real-time [ 15 ].
Past research on ski centers and sustainability is limited and centered on the attitudes of skiers about environmental concerns (Holden, 2000), the future of the skiing due to climatechange (Moen & Fredman, 2007), the problems related to restructuring of winter sports resorts (Tuppen, 2000), and the ski operators perceptions regarding the impact of an environmental charter on their respective operations exists (George, 2004). Bridges and Wilhelm (2008) assert that for many years, marketing has been perceived as part of the problem rather than the solution to societal problems such as pollution, overconsumption, the depletion of natural resources and unhealthy lifestyles, consequently the authors emphasize the need for managers to have the requisite motivation to implement sustainable practices. Thus it is important for ski center managers to identify the underlying elements, specific service features and actors, that affect the sustainability of ski center services.
During 2003–2009, areas with mass balance management on Stubai Glacier, Pitztal Glacier, Kaunertal Glacier, and Sölden Glacier ski resort were monitored extensively, with at least two surveys per annum and a maximum of weekly surveys on Stubai Glacier. After finishing these projects, the sites were still monitored on an annual basis with some ablation stakes and a photographic documentation of the evolution of the glacier surface. Based on this documentation, areas with continuous mass balance measured within these ski re- sorts were selected for this study. Although not included in the initial research projects 2003–2009, sites in the Hinter- tux Glacier ski resort were added to this study, as these are the sites with the longest history of mass balance manage- ment by on-glacier snow production. Mass balance manage- ment takes place in areas where technical infrastructure lo- cated on solid ground is adjacent to ski pistes on glacier parts with high subsidence rates and at pylons on glacier or boarder parks with jumps and pipes. Three representative lo- cations with mass balance management are shown in Fig. 2. The middle station at Schaufelferner (Fig. 2a) is located on a rock, with the surrounding glacier showing high subsidence rates. Glacier covers have been applied since 2004 to allow access to and exit from the station. The steepening tongue of Rettenbachferner is kept in shape with a combination of snow production and covers to provide easy access to the val- ley station, where the photograph in Fig. 2b was taken. The subsidence of glacier surface is most extreme at the tongues but also takes place at highest elevations. The most disturb- ing effects are observed close to the cols and at the transi- tion to solid ground in highest elevations. The exit from the top station, where the photo in Fig. 2c was taken, crosses a steepening and subsiding slope, which is kept in shape and at the same altitude by covers. The upper left side of the photo shows covered snow/firn hills used as jumps for snow board- ers and free skiers. The lidar DEM hillshade of the site ST5 in Fig. 2a shows the location of the prominent glacier cov- ers, with clearly lower thickness losses than the surroundings (Fig. 3).
relatively new theory, therefore it is still being developed and, as mentioned previously, has not been thoroughly empirically tested (Hunt, 2000a). As well, it has been stated that the theory’s definition o f “the constant struggle among firms for comparative advantages in resources that will yield marketplace positions o f competitive advantage for some market segment(s) and, thereby, superior financial performance” (Hunt, p. 135) provides only a single industry definition of competition (Heiser, McQuitty & Stratemeyer, 2005). Due to the diverse nature of the ski industry, however, it is necessary to look at the process o f the competition in resorts specifically, as it is simply too great in size to look at the whole industry in relation to all others. This study, therefore, finds the single industry definition to be acceptable. Also, it has been noted that resource-advantage theory has stated the concept o f resources as both too general and too vague (Hodgson, 2000; Hunt, 2000b), and further sources on resources were therefore employed in developing the literature review.
The results are surprising since we expected a positive impact from the modern, high ‐ speed chairlifts. What is surprising is the negative sign on the weekend rather than the magnitude of the elasticity: to compensate for the increased high speed lift capacity (excess capacity), the ski area charges lower ticket prices to stimulate more skier demand and covers the extra operating costs. Innovation in the skiresorts will lead to more competition among skiresorts, but the final outcome on the total revenue for the lift operators is still uncertain or negative 9 . Therefore, if modernizing the lift systems does not result in significant increases in the number of the users, the major investment costs will only create additional problems for the sustainability of the ski resort. While high ‐ speed chairlifts may increase the number of skiers on weekends and reduce the waiting time at the downhill station, on weekdays the innovation has a positive effect on ski lift prices, which was estimated with a positive and significant coefficient in the range of 0,33 ‐ 0,43. To provide an indication of the effect’s magnitude, we calculated the elasticity of the price with respect to the share of fast lifts. The coefficient of 0,35 translated into an elasticity of 0,03 (= β * Percentage Average Share = 0,35 x 0,080=0,0280), but it could increase up to 0,15 in Abetone and Cimone because of their higher share (40 percent) of high ‐ speed chairlifts, the same order of magnitude of the length of slopes on weekdays.
In addition to the psychological benefits of different types of terrain there are other determinants that vary with the terrain. Testwuide (2010) describes the connection between the difficulty of terrain and the satisfaction of a skier. Testwuide explains that customer satisfaction is a determining factor of attendance, thus the difficulty level of the terrain is also related. 22 The type of skiers attracted to resorts with difficult terrain are inherently more experienced, but the key finding is that different skiers are attracted to different resorts based on terrain and other outside factors. Matzler (2008) further supports the assumption that different levels of skill will determine where a particular skier will chose to ski the study concludes that a diversified ski resort (in terms of terrain) will more likely attract a larger volume of customers than a resort that caters mainly to one ability level. 23 The quantification of the diversity will be further explored in the data section of this thesis.
Variability and change in the weather and climate of the sub-Antarctic have received very little attention in the scientific literature. This region of the Southern Hemisphere has its southern boundary near the Antarctic convergence and a somewhat arbitrary northern boundary around 40 ° 5.
Data from five meteorological observatories in the selected stations were used in the analysis of climatechange. The observed monthly and annual mean temperature, the estimated moving average and the observed values and trend of precipitation, humidity and temperature data were plotted for all stations and for regional analysis (Figures 1 to 3). These results indicate a statistical relationship between climate variability and temperature and can be used to estimate the impact of future climate variability. Precipitation did not show a significant trend (Figure 4 and Table 1). However, it showed a weak increase in annual time series. On the other hand, temperature parameters (Max, Min & Mean) showed increasing trends which was significant in 5% level where as the relative humidity showed a significantly decreasing trend (Figures 5 and 6 and Table 2). Figures 7 and 8 show the graphs for temperature trend assessment and Table 3 depicts the relevant modeling and its results.
One problem here is that climate and global change will not act on plant health in isolation, but in addition to other worldwide processes, from dwindling fossil energy sources to a still growing global human popu- lation, from sea-level rise to freshwater scarcity, from attempts to improve food safety/security to those trying to arrest biodiversity loss/homogenization (Gregory et al. 2009; Flood 2010; Chimera et al. 2010; Kulakowski et al. 2011; Reganold et al. 2011; Savary et al. 2011b). Multiple, interconnected processes such as these will require interdisciplinary science, long-term funding and the increased use of meta-analysis (e.g. Zvereva and Kozlov 2006; Blankinship et al. 2011; Fischer et al. 2011; Kozlov and Zvereva 2011; Rohr et al. 2011). At the same time, there is a need for the evolution of plant health regulatory frameworks to catch up with the latest scientific developments, from taxonomic advance- ments (e.g. the identification of novel Phytophthora species: Jung et al. 2011; Vettraino et al. 2011) to net- work epidemiology (Jeger et al. 2007; Keller et al. 2011) and digital pest diagnostics and severity estimation (Bock et al. 2010; Norton and Taylor 2010). The in- volvement of the many stakeholders in plant health (Furstenau et al. 2007; Macleod et al. 2010) deserves repetition in more than one section of this review, as it can be beneficial not just to adapt the regulatory frame- work, but also to improve dissemination of plant health knowledge (Jacobi et al. 2011; Rebaudo and Dangles 2011) and to devise effective response strategies to new invasive pathogens (Crall et al. 2010).
One main argument for modeling socio-ecological systems is to advance the understanding of the dynamic correlations amongst various human and environmental factors, including impacts and responses to environmental changes. Examples come from a broad spectrum of spatial phenomena such as dynamics in ancient human and primate societies (Kohler et al., 1999, Axtell et al., 2002; Janssen, 2009), land use and land cover change (Manson and Evans, 2007; Parker et al., 2003), water management (Smajgl et al., 2009; Viaggi et al., 2009; Bithell and Brasington, 2009), residential segregation in urban contexts (Crooks, 2010) or insect outbreak spreading (Perez and Dragizevic, 2010). However, few studies have analyzed individual human and environmental interactions in tourism phenomena. Gimblett & Skov-Petersen (2008) and Itami et al. (2002) in particular, used ABM for the simulation and visualization of movement patterns of visitors in recreational landscapes, such as parks and protected areas. Johnson & Sieber (2009, 2010 and 2011) developed an ABM of tourism dynamics including travel, lodging and activity patterns. Regarding winter tourism, responses to environmental impacts and changes in tourism dynamics, Pons-Pons et al. (2012) developed a georeferenced ABM to analyze the climatechange impacts on the ski winter tourism in Andorra and Balbi et al. (2013) used a spatial agent-based model for assessing strategies of adaptation to climate and tourism demand changes in an alpine tourism destination. In recent years ABM models have been identified as a promising methodology to analyze tourism dynamics (Baggio, 2008). First, because they model and characterize interacting human-nature processes of heterogeneous individual behaviors that occur over space and time (Axtell, et al. 2002, 1996; Parker et al. 2003). In an ABM, tourist agents can be characterized with more realistic heterogeneous behaviors, governing activity, decision or accommodation preferences. For example, the visitor response if a ski resort were closed, as well as spatial characteristics, such as travel distances. Second, this approach is well suited for scenario development, data analysis, problem diagnosis and policy comparison (Ligmann- Zielinska & Jankowski, 2007; Johnson & Sieber, 2011). Since ABM facilitates the representation of individual-level spatio-temporal interactions, they have a relevance to representing and understanding the dynamics and characteristics of tourism.
The ski market shifts through several drivers. It is a multi-factor equation and we still do not monitor all parameters and variables. Besides long term weather and snow conditions, there are a number of other factors. The evolution of western demographics is a major issue, as well as increased worldwide competition in holiday and lei- sure activities, in addition retention rates and learning the sport. The latter may be the most widely spread problem that the industry will have to face in the upcoming decade. This does not only affect mature markets struggling to renew their customer base, but also developing markets such as China that risk to turning candidates away skiing if the industry fails to develop teaching methods that are better aligned with today’s consumption patterns. With the increasing development of short stays at skiresorts (the traditional ski week is reduced to a few days, the daily trip to the slopes is reduced to an evening) it is becoming necessary to adapt the teaching method. It has been widely acknowledged by the industry that the first experi- ence for beginners is very often unpleasant and that most of them will not return. Without proper teaching methods that will allow nov- ice skiers to have fun on their first visit after 30 minutes on skis, the conversion of beginners to loyal skiers will become more and more difficult. Not only does the market desperately need teaching meth- ods adapted to customers who are connected, zap from one activity to another , and lack a sports culture, it is also needs an army of ski instructors to meet with the growth perspectives in China.
Abstract ：This study analyzed changes on the best condition of temperature and relative humidity for making artificial snows in the Yongpyong Ski Resort using data from Daegwallyeong. Depth of snowfall and snowfall days have decrease since 1990s. If the Yongpyong Ski Resort has only to depend on natural snows, it would be difficult to make and maintain ski slope. There are two times of snowmaking during ski seasons: one is the first snowmaking (October- November) for opening ski slopes and the other is the reinforcement of snowmaking (December-March) for maintaining snow quality during the seasons. Days having the best condition for the first snowmaking (daily minimum temperature below -1°C and daily average relative humidity 60 to 80 percent) decreased after 1970s. Days having the best condition for the reinforcement of snowmaking also decreased. While temperature changes are more evident than humidity changes for the first snowmaking, humidity changes are more obvious than change of temperature for the reinforcement of snowmaking. In the future climate projection by A1B scenarios, the length of ski seasons projected to decrease a 10 to 40 percent against the period of 1973-2008. The climate condition for the snowmaking projected to be poor, especially the due to increase of temperature.
Respondents were then asked to identify potential opportunities for the Canadian tourism industry with regard to climatechange. The two most commonly cited opportunities were the potential advantages of warmer weather (as Canada has historically been a colder weather climate) and the potential for Canada to leverage itself as an environment-friendly tourism destination. Respondents felt that Canada‘s tourism industry was less susceptible to climatechange than other nations, and Canada could become a more appealing destination as such. As temperatures become warmer, potential for new tourism opportunities could develop. Some felt that the northern region would benefit economically from the opening of the Northwest Passage. One respondent noted: ―Many times we see people from the United States come… because there is sometimes no longer snow in the Northeast part of the United States.‖ There were several other opportunities identified by respondents. One DMO suggested that Canada has a strong climate research infrastructure in place, and Canadian tourism could benefit from being on the forefront of scientific research. Another saw the issue of climatechange as an opportunity to educate and motivate consumers and business to adopt more sustainable habits and practices. Interestingly DMOs did not discuss their role in helping their members.
Currently more than one-sixth of the world’s population lives in glacier or snowmelt–fed river basins which are very likely to experience a decline in water volumes stored in glaciers and snow cover in the future due to warming of the climate. The impact of this will be increased flows and flooding due to melting in the short-term, and permanently reduced summer and autumn flows in the medium-long term. While runoff and water availability are very likely to increase at high latitudes and in some wet tropics, areas that are presently water stressed in the mid-latitudes and dry tropics are predicted to experience drops in these variables. These changes will probably increase the frequency and severity of floods and droughts. The number of people living in severely stressed river basins is projected to increase from 1.4 -1.6 billion in 1995 to 4.3-6.9 billion in 2050 for the A2 scenario (see above). Freshwater availability will also be reduced in coastal areas as sea level rise increases the extent of areas of groundwater and estuaries that are subject to salinisation. Ecosystems, human health and water system reliability and costs are likely to be impacted by exacerbated water pollution resulting from higher water temperatures, increased precipitation intensity and longer periods of low flow. The most severe hydrologic effects this century are likely to be reductions in subtropical precipitation. Water stress may become particularly acute in the southwest US and Mexico, and in the Mediterranean and Middle East, where rainfall decreases of 10-25% (regionally) and up to 40% (locally) are projected. (Shindell, 2007)
Thus, to our knowledge, the influence of anthropogenic activities (GW extraction) on soil moisture has not been ex- plicitly quantified. Therefore, the main purpose of our study was to assess the relative contribution of GW extraction and climatechange to soil moisture trends. To address this issue, the historical land simulations of the Land Surface, Snow and Soil Moisture Model Intercomparison Project (LS3MIP) were employed (van den Hurk et al., 2016). Four global me- teorological forcing datasets covering the 20th century were used with the land surface model for the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS-LSM), which considers human water reg- ulation (HWR) and the movement of frost and thaw fronts (Xie et al., 2018). We compared the simulations with in situ observations and the ESA-CCI satellite-based product to validate the capacity of the CAS-LSM to simulate soil moisture trends. Furthermore, we investigated the interan- nual variation and trends in simulated soil moisture. Finally, the response of soil moisture temporal variability to climatechange and GW extraction was investigated, which can fur- ther our understanding of the relationship between soil mois- ture and climate.
Let’s use the Durham campus of UNH as an example. The University has completed a detailed greenhouse gas emissions inventory quantifying the amount of green- house gas emitted every year since 1990. In 2006, a new combined heat and power (CHP) plant was built on campus to generate electricity and to heat/cool university buildings. The efﬁciency of this CHP plant is about twice that of a basic electrical generating plant because the “waste” heat is captured and used on campus. When the CHP plant came online in the spring of 2006, our green- house gas emissions fell by about 20% below 1990 levels. This is about three times below what was called for in the Kyoto Protocol, the international agreement that the United States chose not to ratify. Here is the kicker. The University will save $30–$40 million over the next 20 years because of the improved efﬁciency of the CHP plant. Our approach to the global warming problem can no longer be the economy verses the environment. The UNH and other examples show that good economic policy and good environmental policy go together. Following a more sustainable energy pathway in the future actually solves four problems at once. First, in- creasing our production of homegrown renewable energy and using that energy more efﬁciently will reduce our re- liance on foreign fossil fuel and thereby improve our en- ergy security. Second, investing in energy efﬁciency and renewable technology can jump start a new, high-tech economy that will require well-trained workers and well- paying jobs that are good for our economy and the job market when you graduate. Third, reducing carbon diox- ide emissions will also reduce emissions of a wide range of pollutants that will lead to improved public health. And ﬁnally, we will address the climatechange issue. However, the sustainable pathway will not happen without considerable effort to change the way this na- tion operates. One of the not-so-subtle ironies of climatechange is that it is the baby boomers “gift” to your generation. The lifetime of carbon dioxide in the atmo- sphere is about 100 years. While we are beginning to ex- perience the effects of human-induced climatechange, the boomer generation will be long gone by the time
Satellite imagery used for this study consists of multispectral Landsat data that includes MSS 1972, TM 1984, TM 1986, TM 2000 and Landsat 8 2014 (Table 2). The Landsat series of satellite imagery are used for multitemporal land use transition and land degradation assessment over a period of more than four decades. Landsata-8 launched in February 11, 2013 carries two sensors: OLI and TIRS both with enhancements in scanning technology by replacing whisk-broom scanners by two separate push-broom (OLI and TIRS) scanners (Li et al., 2013; Roy et al., 2014). All the Landsat imagery is geometrically corrected Level 1T (L1T) data obtained from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) ( http://glovis.usgs.gov ). The imagery used for this study acquired during the dry season and is free of cloud cover. As there is vibrant behavior of phenological changes over time, it is vital to consider using similar season imagery in order to avoid natural phenological changes during the interpretation of actual land use changes (Verbesselt et al., 2010). Multitemporal imagery was selected based on some policy changes, sociopolitical transitions and availability of suitable imagery. Since the change in government in 1991, the country has adopted an Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) strategy mainly focusing on export led development which calls for huge foreign investments (MoA, 2013).
By mid-2011 whl.travel could see the potential two add channel management capabilities two what whl.travel was doing two Provide a complete online solution for accommodation providers. whl.travel at this point approached ResOnline Limited (a leader in channel management services in Australia) two see if they would be interested in joining forces in a new company where we could combine the best of the whl.travel technology and the better of the ResOnline two technologies Provide a complete digital marketing services for accommodation providers. A verbal agreement was reached with ResOnline in September 2011 two forms a JV with two WHL Group Provide this new package of services globally. WHL Group then proceeded two setting up the company, Hotel Link Solutions Limited, in October 2011 and in the interim a formal JV has been agreed and signed with ResOnline Limited and the process started two equity transfer two ResOnline. Hotel Link Solutions Limited is hence the global operating company now supplying the new comprehensive digital marketing and booking packages two accommodation providers around the world.