v I I I I N T R O D U C T I O N
In almost every chapter I talk about lens choice, and suggest what type of lens you should use for a particular shot. If you’re not the sort of director who’s interested in lens choice, I encourage you to get a basic grasp. Even if you consider yourself an “actors’ director,” remember that you can’t do the actors’ performances justice unless you know the best way to shoot them. It only takes an afternoon with a 35mm Digital SLR, or just using the zoom on a HI-DEF camera, to see what effect different lenses have. (Although a zoom is a single lens, you can think of it as many different lenses, ranging from short to long.) Don’t leave the lens choice to your Director of Photography. Although your DP can do the job for you, there’s no way you can accurately plan your shots (or come up with them on set) unless you have an understanding of lenses. There are many books that explain the difference between lenses, and what they achieve, but there is no substitute for getting out there with a camera and having a go. If, in any given chapter, I suggest that a long lens works better, try it, and then try it with a short lens and see whether you think I was right or not. What you learn from that is more important than anything I could put in words. This is not a book about lenses, but I know that a random lens choice leads to a random shot and a potentially meaningless scene. This book is about camera moves, and the mastershots that make your scene work. For every scene you need to
A careful reading of the original paper does show all three formulae. However, the directed graph that accompanies the former version of the formula (E - N + P) also shows that there is an edge drawn from the exit node to the entrance node that is not there when McCabe uses the latter equation (E - N + 2P). This edge is drawn differently than the other edges—as a dashed line rather than a solid line, showing that while he is using it theoretically in the math proof, it is not actually there in the code. This extra edge is counted when it is shown, and it must be added when not shown (as in our example). The P value stands for the number of connected components. 12 In our examples, we do not have any connected components, so by definition, P = 1. To avoid confusion, we abstract out the P and simply use 2 (P equal to 1 plus the missing theoretical line, con- necting the exit to the entrance node). The mathematics of this is beyond the
Up to now, we have dealt with “infrastructure-based” wireless communications, where certain components (base stations, TV transmitters, etc.) are intended by design to be in a fixed location, to exercise control over the network and interface with other networks. The size of the networks may differ (from LANs covering just one apartment to cellular networks covering whole countries), but the central principle of distinguishing between “infrastructure” and “user equipment” is common to them all. There is, however, an alternative in which there is only one type of equipment, and those devices, all of which may be mobile, organize themselves into a network according to their location and according to necessity. Such networks are called ad hoc networks (see Figure 1.6). There can still be “controllers” in an ad hoc network, but the choice of which device acts as master and which as slave is done opportunistically whenever a network is formed. There are also ad hoc networks without any hierarchy. While the actual transmission of the data (i.e., physical layer communication) is almost identical to that of the infrastructure-based networks, the medium access and the networking functionalities are very different.
But here's the problem: when you hear about a dramatic transformation (like someone losing 100 pounds) or a incredible success story (like someone building a million dollar business in 1 year), the only thing you know is the event that people are talking about. You don't hear anything about the process that came before it or about the habits that led to the eventual result.
In the demographic transition model, a country begins in Stage 1, the preindustrial stage. In Stage 1 (Figure 3.4), both birth rates and death rates are high. The high death rates are because of disease and potential food scarcity. A country in Stage 1 of the demographic transition model does not have good health care; there may not be any hospitals or doctors. Children are not vaccinated against common diseases and therefore many children die at a young age. Infant and childhood mortality rates (death rates) are very high. A society in Stage 1 is likely based upon agriculture and most people grow their own food. Therefore, droughts or flood can lead to widespread food shortages and death from famine. All of these factors contribute to the high death rate in Stage 1. Partly to compensate for the high death rates, birth rates are also high. High birth rates mean that families are large and each couple, on average, has many children. When death rates are high, having many children means that at least one or two will live to adulthood. In Stage 1, children are an important part of the family workforce and are expected to work growing food and taking care of the family.
Cisco equipment is used for the examples within this book and, with very few excep- tions, the examples are TCP/IP-based. You may argue that a book of this type should include examples using different protocols and equipment from a variety of vendors, and, to a degree, that argument is valid. However, a book that aims to cover the breadth of technologies contained herein, while also attempting to show examples of these technologies from the point of view of different vendors, would be quite an impractical size. The fact is that Cisco Systems (much to the chagrin of its competitors, I’m sure) is the premier player in the networking arena. Likewise, TCP/IP is the protocol of the Internet, and the protocol used by most networked devices. Is it the best protocol for the job? Perhaps not, but it is the protocol in use today, so it’s what I’ve used in all my examples. Not long ago, the Cisco CCIE exam still included Token Ring Source Route Bridging, AppleTalk, and IPX. Those days are gone, however, indicating that even Cisco understands that TCP/IP is where everyone is heading. I have included a chapter on IPv6 in this edition, since it looks like we’re heading that way eventually.
In a language like C++, if I create a CreditCard object that encapsulates my mother's maiden name and my account number, I would probably decide that those entities should be private to the object and provide the appropriate methods to operate on those entities. But nothing in C++ prevents me from cheating and accessing those entities through a variety of back−door operations. The C++ compiler is likely to complain if I write code that attempts to access a private variable of another class, but the C++ runtime isn't going to care if I convert a pointer to that class into an arbitrary memory pointer and start scanning through memory until I find a location that contains a string with 16 digits −− a possible account number. In C++ systems, no one typically worried about such occurrences because all parts of the system were presumed to originate from the same place: it's my program, and if I want to work around my data model to get access to that data, then so be it. 
Once the selection was complete, the work turned to editing the recipes, and to merging multiple recipes, as well as incorporating important contents from many significant comments posted about the recipes. This proved to be quite a challenge, just as it had been for the first edition, but even more so. The recipes varied widely in their organization, level of completeness, and sophistication. With over 300 authors involved, over 300 different "voices" were included in the text. We have striven to maintain a variety of styles to reflect the true nature of this book, the book written by the entire Python community. However, we edited each recipe, sometimes quite considerably, to make it as accessible and useful as possible, ensuring enough uniformity in structure and presentation to maximize the usability of the book as a whole. Most recipes, both from the first edition and from the online site, had to be updated, sometimes heavily, to take advantage of new tools and better approaches developed since those recipes were originally posted. We also carefully reconsidered (and slightly altered) the ordering of chapters, and the placement and ordering of recipes within chapters; our goal in this reordering was to maximize the book's usefulness for both newcomers to Python and seasoned veterans, and, also, for both readers tackling the book sequentially, cover to cover, and ones just dipping in, in "random access" fashion, to look for help on some specific area.
Normally, one might expect the labor demand function in Figure 2.5 to slope downward smoothly from left to right. It has this peculiar ‘stepped’ feature here because of the linear nature of the production technology. In Appendix 2.1, I consider a slight modiﬁcation to the production technology (by introducing capital and assuming a diminishing marginal product of labor) that generates a more ‘normal’ looking demand function. But for present purposes, this ‘stepped’ function simpliﬁes things considerably, without detracting from basic intuition. In general, the equilibrium real wage is determined by both labor supply and demand (as in Appendix 2.1). However, in our simpliﬁed model (featuring a linear production function), we can deduce the equilibrium real wage solely from labor demand. In particular, recall that the ﬁrm’s proﬁt function is given by d = (z − w)n. For n ∗ to be strictly between 0 and 1, it must be the case that w ∗ = z (so that d ∗ = 0). That is, the real wage must adjust to drive proﬁts to zero so that the demand for labor is indeterminate. With w ∗ determined in this way, the equilibrium level of employment is then determined entirely by the labor supply function; i.e., n ∗ = n S (w ∗ ). The general equilibrium allocation
The German r is one of the most challenging consonants for native speakers of English to master. Its pronunciation depends on a number of factors, including its position within a word, how fast the speaker is talking, and where the speaker is from. In this chapter, we’ll focus on how the first two factors affect the pronunciation of r in Standard German (for regional variations, see chapters 7, 8 and 9). By itself, the German r sounds a lot like the word “err” in English as if you’re gargling mouthwash. But what happens when it’s placed in words? When you are online and click on each German word below, pay close attention to the differences you hear between the r sounds!
At the national level, ESF Member Organisa- tions should be actively involved in the monitoring of the application of legislative provisions on animal experimentation. For this reason it is essential that ESF sets out its views on this issue and that the ESF Member Organisations adopt guidelines for the ethical use of animals in research 1 .
Bringing regenerative medicine from bench to bedside is a complex process covering basic, patient-oriented and public health research with regulatory and ethical considerations, and involving various actors including pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and competent regulatory authorities. REMEDIC aims to put in place a network to facilitate the transfer of knowledge among basic researchers, clinicians and industrial partners, gather information on the current regulations, standards and patents in regenerative medicine and map the current technical research and development resources (see Box 1 on page 5 for a summary of the aims). REMEDIC is led by a Steering Committee com- posed of a Chair, Vice-Chair and 11 other members representing the national organisations that support the programme and these members, all of whom are researchers in the field of regenerative medicine, have the primary objective of ensuring that the high-level sci- entific objectives outlined below are achieved. They are also responsible for the management of the programme activities and the promotion of these activities as widely as possible within the larger community of regenerative medicine and within their own country, ensuring that their communities benefit from REMEDIC.
The last benefit to signing up with an email marketing site is the ability to track statistics on the email, such as who opens the email and how many times, when it was opened, and links clicked. There is also the ability to manage bounces and undeliverable messages. Some helpful hints for sending out a productive e-blast are: 1) ensure the send and reply address is your own and current; 2) offer the ability to opt-out; 3) ensure the subject line or email address clearly informs the audience who the email is from; and 4) make the subject line simple yet catchy. There are many different online sites that provide this service, such as Constant Contact (www.constant contact.com), Lyris (www.lyris.com), and VerticalRe- sponse (www.verticalresponse.com). Most e-market- ing sites charge by the total number in a mailing list, though some may charge additional for number of emails sent. MailChimp (www.mailchimp.com) offers free e-marketing services to groups with mailing lists under 500 addresses.
John has built a reputation internationally as a leading trainer of trainers. He is founder of the highly-regarded Master Trainer Institute, a total learning facility located just outside Geneva which draws trainers and facilitators from around the world. He set up the Institute after 30 years’ experience in international consulting and human resources management positions in the UK, France, the United States and Switzerland – notably as a European Director of Executive development with GTE in Geneva where he had training responsibility for over 800 managers in 15 countries. During his long career as a trainer of trainers he has not only helped to spread the unique Master Trainer Institute philosophy across the world via his conferences, seminars and bestselling training videos, but also written a number of widely translated management and professional guides.
As well as the data fields and format, the time period over which the request is made is an important decision. Data integration projects may integrate data over a monthly, quarterly, or annual cycle. This requires precise definition of which records should be supplied for each period, without overlap or gap. Again, using the field names on the data model helps avoid misunderstandings. For example, “all records collected in December quarter 2002” and “all records with creation date field within 1 October to 31 December 2002” could result in different datasets. In the first instance records updated in that period could be included, while in the second instance that would not happen.
Fully updated from the first edition, this book compares and contrasts tools and techniques used in risk management, showing readers how to implement a generic risk management mechanism. Including up–to–date guidance on new regulations in corporate governance, including updates on the Turnbull and Sarbanes Oxley acts, the Higgs report and European legislation, the book presents a fully updated and expanded model framework for analysing risk at corporate, strategic business and project levels.
Share Capital is shown on the Balance Sheet at its ‘Nominal Value’, eg: £1 per share. If shares are issued above nominal value the premiums are put into the
Share Premium Account.
Example: Company X has shares with a nominal value of £1. The company issues