In addition, gender inequality in educational opportunities seems to be a prevalent issue in collectivist cultures. Through the process of socialization, girls are steered towards social roles such as doing house chores and taking care of younger siblings while those who live in the villages and rural areas are often given away in marriage at an early age. Girls who are in school are often discouraged from pursuing careers in mathematics and other male dominated disciplines. Differences in male and female mathematics performances have been widely reported in studies conducted in collectivist cultures; albeit with inconsistent findings. Although many studies have concluded that male students perform better in mathematics compared to their female counterparts (Adeneye & Adeleye, 2011; Bassey, Joshua, & Asim, 2007) others have reported that female students performed better in the subject than male students (Robinson & Lubienski, 2011; Muthukrishna & Kwela, 2010; Fabiyi, 2017). Some studies, however, found no gender difference in students’ mathematicsachievement (Adebule & Imoko, 2014; Ajai & Imoko, 2015). Despite these conflicting findings, the fact remains that females are underrepresented in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. They have lower enrollment and graduation rates in college and less presence in the male-dominated careers (Watt, 2006). Moreover, female participation in these careers is low, and they are rarely found in top managerial and leadership positions (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO, 2016).
for subject teaching may become increasingly important during the lower secondary grades and beyond. however, several surveys show that teachers’ efficacy beliefs increase with experience (hoy, hoy & davis, 2009). in the present study a significant positive relation is registered between female teachers’ efficacy beliefs and female students’ math achievement, while the relationship between male teachers’ beliefs and student performance deviates from this pattern. in fact, boys taught by male teachers with high personal teaching efficacy perform poorer. as mentioned earlier, the results related to the male teachers in this study may be due to the relatively small sample size for male teachers. according to social cognitive theory, teachers’ personal efficacy beliefs influence the same types of activities that student self-efficacy affects (bandura, 1997). While teachers high on teaching efficacy believe they can enact certain teaching strategies and have effect on student learning and motivation, teachers with low efficacy tend to believe they cannot use these strategies and doubt whether they really can have an effect on students. efficacy beliefs may also refer to perceptions of controllability. a teacher might have low teaching efficacy if (s) he believes that most students’ learning is due to home or other factors outside of the teacher’s control (Guskey & passaro, 1994). teachers who feel control invest energy in their teaching, set optimal goals for their students, are persistent in their endeavours, and resilient when confronting obstacles (malmberg, 2008).
The still existing preponderance of male students in the talent pool for STEM careers (i.e., in the right tail of the distribution of math achievement), also found in this meta-analysis, may partly explain women’s underrepresentation in STEM. Another potentially contributing factor might be male students’ more mathematics-oriented achievement profiles. Having one dominant academic strength is likely to promote higher self-concept in that domain and a clear goal to invest time, effort, and energy into pursuing mathematics-related fields in one’s future career. This lines up with our finding that male students reported on average slightly higher math self-concept, self-efficacy, and stronger intentions to choose additional math courses in school and beyond compared with female students. By contrast, having multiple academic strengths is likely to result in more ambiguous expectancies and self-concepts and, consequently, less specific career goals, which is more likely true for mathematically top- performing female students as they had more balanced achievement profiles and stronger verbal motivation than male students (Valla & Ceci, 2014). In other words: “Those who can only do mathematics, do mathematics, but those with multiple extreme talents may choose to do something else” (Ceci et al., 2009, p. S3). Finally, even if mathematically top-performing female students enter STEM careers, given their specific interests in organic sciences, they would be more likely to work in medical fields or biological sciences than in inorganic sciences. By contrast, top-performing male students would be more likely to enter inorganic STEM fields, such as physics or engineering, given their respective science interests.
In line with previous results, the present study revealed that German achievement and the motivation and ability for behav- ior regulation was higher for girls than for boys. Moreover, indirect effects of gender on German and mathematics achieve- ment were mediated by children’s behavior regulation, but not by strategies of emotion regulation. Furthermore, medi- ation analyses indicated that mathematicsachievement was higher for boys than for girls. However, genderdifferences in mathematicsachievement were canceled out because of girls’ higher motivation and ability for behavior regulation that was positively associated with mathematicsachievement. Hence, further studies analyzing genderdifferences in math- ematics achievement should consider the possibility that the mathematicsachievement of boys may be underestimated when not controlling for behavior regulation. Further stud- ies should investigate whether variables such as stereotype threat moderate relations between gender, behavior regula- tion, and mathematicsachievement. Moreover, as culture influ- ences the development of self-regulation ( Trommsdorff, 2009; Heikamp et al., 2013 ), longitudinal studies are needed to draw causal conclusions concerning the effect of socializa- tion in different contexts (e.g., culture, family, school) on the development of genderdifferences in self-regulation and school achievement.
In a study examining parental influences on achievement attitudes and beliefs, 22 fifth - through eleventh-grade classrooms were included (Parsons, Adler, & Kaczala, 1982). The students were administered a questionnaire that contained several scales including: difficulty of current math course, difficulty of future math courses, current expectancies, future expectancies, self-concept of ability and performance in math, perception of effort involved in math, child’s perception of mothers’ use of math, mothers’ and fathers’ enjoyment of math, and mothers’ and fathers’ beliefs regarding both the child’s math ability and their expectancies for the child’s performance. The parents were administered a questionnaire that contained items dispersed across three categories: the parents’ perceptions of their own experiences in math and their own attitudes regarding mathematics, parents’ beliefs about their children’s attitudes toward math, and parents’ beliefs about their children’s math abilities and their children’s math experiences. Results revealed a statistically significant relationship between the sex of the child and the parent’s perceptions of their child’s math ability and on parents’
performance in math (Pajares, 1996; Seegers & Boekaerets, 1996; William, 1994; Zimmerman & Martinez Pons, 1990). Seegers and Boekaerets (1996) reported that even after controlling for achievement in mathematics, eighth-grade boys express stronger judgments of their mathematics capability than do eighth-grade girls. In addition, female students have lower self-efficacy than do male students about their prospects to succeed in mathematics-related careers (Hackett, 1985; Hackett & Betz, 1989). Research in self- efficacy beliefs suggests that genderdifferences emerge in the middle school years (Wigfield & Eccles, 1995). These age-related genderdifferences in self-efficacy beliefs have been attributed to increased concerns about conforming to gender-role stereotypes, which typically coincide with the entry into adolescence (Wigfield et al., 1996).
difference in achievement between sexes (t (98) = 0.68, p< 0.1) and also a significant relationship exists between self-efficacy and achievement (r=0.385, at 0.01 level with 98 degree of freedom). Mishra and Shanwal (2014) studied. Role of Family Environment in Developing SelfEfficacy of Adolescents The results showed positive association between family environment and self-efficacy. Ansari and Khan (2014) studied Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of Life Satisfaction among Undergraduate Students and findings of the present study showed that Self-efficacy and Life Satisfaction significantly correlated with each other and Self-Efficacy had its significant impact on Life Satisfaction among under-graduate students. Kvedere (2014) studied MathematicsSelf-efficacy, Self- concept and Anxiety Among 9 th Grade Students in Latvia and found Boys have more positive mathematical self than girls and students who come from bigger cities and towns have more negative mathematical self than those from rural areas. Sharma and Rani (2014) studied SelfEfficacy – A Comparison among University Postgraduates in Demographic Profiles and findings revealed that university postgraduates were not found to differ significantly by age-groups but significant differences were observed among university postgraduates by gender, locality and faculty. Goulão (2014) studied Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement in Adults’ Learners and analysis of the data indicated that students’ level of self-efficacy is high (average=45) and a significant relationship exists between self-efficacy and academic achievement (r=0.286, at 0.05 level). Ahmadi et al. (2014) studied the Relationship of Academic Self-Efficacy and Self- regulation with Academic Performance among the High School Students with School Refusal Behavior and Normal Students. Findings showed that: 1) the relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic performance in two groups was positive and significant; 2) the relationship between self-regulation and academic performance in two groups was positive and significant; 3) the Fisher-Z test showed no significant difference between two groups regarding to the relationships of the variables to academic performance, 4) the multiple correlation coefficient of predictor variables with academic performance was significant; 5) self-regulation was found as a good predictor of academic performance in two groups. Sharma and Garg (2015) studied Impact of Self-Efficacy on Employee Attrition: a Study
After the Russians launched Sputnik 1 on October 4 th , According to Hellum- Alexander (2010), Americans started to question the quality of mathematics and science in their schools, colleges, and universities across the country. About a year later on September 2, 1958, Congress passed the National Defense Education Act that provided funding to all the educational institutions in the United States. One of the consequences of this act was the changes in the mathematics curriculum. The New Math, as it was called, put major emphasis on inquiry based learning (i.e., teachers acted as facilitators and students discovered their learning). In addition, basic skills were supplanted by more rigorous and advanced topics such as calculus and set theory. According to Hellum- Alexander, within a few months, solving practical problems with arithmetic was replaced by more abstract activities. Mathematics became complex, students found it difficult to make the transition from the meaningful way of applying arithmetic to solve real-life problems to perform operations without purpose. Parents could no longer help their children with their homework. Even teachers had a hard time dealing with the changes because many were trained under the Life Adjustment movement. The number of people who get emotionally disturbed in the presence of mathematics increased under these new conditions. After mathematics anxiety became an issue of concern, overtime, researchers became interested in defining it and differentiating it with other form of academic anxiety (i.e., test anxiety), finding its causes, its effects on students as well as teachers, and strategies they could use to reduce it or to get rid of it.
The goal of this dissertation is to examine the relative difference in mathematicsachievement between boys and girls in the United States and how this difference changes as students move up in grade levels. To answer this question, this dissertation examines the average mathematics scores of fourth grade students who took the TIMSS test in 2007 and eighth grade students who took TIMSS test in 2011, both being part of the same cohort. Since students in this 2007-2011 cohort are representative samples of the same population, the two populations are compared. Furthermore, this analysis may provide information about factors that may have contributed to genderdifferences in this population of students, specifically self-efficacy, as it is measured by TIMSS student background questionnaire data. To do this, first, I examined genderdifferences within the same testing year and grade level. Then, I analyzed the factors, which may explain these differences by looking at the relationships between gender, self-efficacy, and mathematicsachievement at both grade levels relative to each other.
sSunjin Oh, 2011) study focuses on student teachers perceptions of their professional identity. (Hemmingsen and Rae, 2001) found that career self-efficacy is highly related to academic achievement and educational development in eleventh- grade students. (Odaci, 2013) to investigate the extent to which postgraduate students' belief in their computer self-efficacy, self-esteem and subjective well-being predicts research self-efficacy: (Femandez-Ballesteres, Diez-Nicoles, Caprara, Barbaranell, and Bandura, 2002) found that man had a higher sense of efficacy than women to contribute to the solution of social problems. Anderson, Dragsted, Evans, and Sorensen (2004) studied science teaching self-efficacy belief among new teacher of elementary science. (Mottet , Beebe, Raffeld and Medleck, 2004) studied that effects of student verbal and non verbal responsiveness on teachers self-efficacy. Some researchers reported self-efficacy in relation to gender (Brusai, 2010; Hemmingsen and Rae, 2001). Some researchers (Woolfolk, 2007; Wolf, 2008) found strong and direct effect of academic achievement.
certain advantages. The sample is convenient to access and survey response rate is high with strict control over survey administration. Using a sample that is relatively homogenous with respect to age and education level also eliminates the need to control for these particular demographic variables that may independently explain individual differences in ESE. How- ever, sampling only MBA students also limits the generalizability of our findings to other populations. Clearly the demographic profile of a typical MBA student is quite different from that of someone drawn randomly from the general population. MBA students tend to be (on average) younger, better educated and of higher social-economic background than their counterparts in the general working adult population. As a result, we would expect to find less difference between male and female MBA students in terms of gender-role orien- tation and ESE than between males and females in the general population. Future studies, using a broader and more diverse sample in terms of age, education, ethnicity and social- economic background, may reveal greater ESE differences between men and women than was found among MBA students.
Vignettes I—Intelligence ratings. Participants were given descriptions of four people—two males and two females—indicating their occupation, hobbies, inter- ests and four personality traits. One male and one female were more traditionally masculine, the other male and other female were more feminine. Three of the personality traits used in each description were taken from the masculinity and femininity scales of either Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) or Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), the fourth—from BSRI neutral scale (Bem, 1981; Spence et al., 1975). Targets’ hobbies and interests were chosen to reflect cultural stereo- types of males and females; two of them were sex-typed, one was neutral. A pilot study testing 20 people confirmed the validity of the descriptions—i.e., that rel- evant descriptions were judged as more typically masculine or feminine. Three additional descriptions of famous British people /celebrities (Jade Goody, David Beckham and Margaret Thatcher), constructed in the same way as the main vignettes, were also given and served as distracters. Participants were asked to estimate general, verbal and mathematical intelligences of the hypothetical seven persons. Estimates of the three celebrity targets were not scored.
MATHEMATICS plays a vital role in the development of science and technology. It is useful in variety of field including measurement in fashion, algorithm in computer programs, technology, and economics. However, studies on the achievement of the students based on international standards showed an alarming result for the participating countries, including the Philippines. The Filipino students perform poorly in mathematics as evidenced by TIMMS 2003 data, where the country is third from the bottom out of 38 participating countries. This condition causes distress in the educational sector. The educators are examining closely the factors associated with this problem to come up with concrete plans of improving achievement in mathematics. For several years, factors influencing students’ mathematical achievement were pointed out. John Hattie’s ,  meta-synthesis of more than 800 research articles pointed out six factors relating to student’s achievement. These factors include teacher, home, curriculum, teaching, learning, and student. The latter factor includes students’ motivation and attitude in mathematics and were considered to be significant predictors of learner’s academic achievement , . Mathematics anxiety, being considered to have an attitudinal component, is also considered to be one dimension of attitude to mathematics. It is a problem for many students to of mathematics course. Many students do not understand why they experience mathematics anxiety. It is usually connected to negative experience from a student’s math class . Tests given under time-pressure and the fear of being embarrassed in front of the class were among the conditions that contributes to math anxiety . In addition, this type of anxiety could be a result of a student’s negative experiences in learning mathematics. It could also be attributed to the experience or pressure felt by the learner from his teacher, parents or guardians .
Third, we classified each attribution as being either internal or external only. According to Weiner (1983), attributions may vary according to three “dimensions of causality”: locus, stability, and controllability. Locus refers to whether the location of the cause is within the person (internal) or outside the individual (external). Stability refers to whether the cause of a behaviour is viewed to be relatively enduring or variable across situations or from moment to moment. Controllability refers to whether or not an individual can exert choices over a cause. Ultimately, the classification of students’ attributions on the basis of their locus of causality alone provides only limited information about the attribution patterns of girls and boys. Nonetheless, future studies should compare students on the basis of all three of Weiner’s dimensions. A fourth limitation pertains to the format of the numeracy questions included in the 2001 FSA. Numeracy questions included in the assessment are typically posed with a great deal of accompanying text. According to Maccoby and Jacklin (1974), when mathematics‐related questions are posed in such a manner, it may be that the test is assessing verbal skills, rather than mathematical skills exclusively. This may have a negative impact on the performance of boys, whose reading and writing achievement has typically been surpassed by that of girls (Wentzel, 1988). Future research should examine this issue more closely. Finally, given the relatively low sample sizes included in the current study, we caution readers against making strict generalisations about the sexes based on the findings. Findings should be interpreted as trends, rather than as definitive generalisations.
Various models of SRL have been introduced, but all share the assumption that students can actively employ self-regulatory abilities regarding their cognition, motivation, or behavior in order to acquire knowledge, enhance performance and achieve educational goals (Zimmerman, 1989). For instance, a cyclical model proposed by Zimmerman, Bonner, and Kovach (1996) comprises four correlated processes: self-evaluating and monitoring, goal setting and strategic planning, strategy implementation and monitoring, and strategic-outcome monitoring. This model is recognized as cyclical because students are supposed to return to the first phase of the framework and continue to make another assessment of their strategic performance levels. Pintrich’s (2000) model, which is recognized as a social-cognitive framework, has almost same four phases of self-regulation as the Zimmerman’s. The phase one (i.e., forethought, planning & activating) involves a process where students analyze the learning task and set specific goals to accomplish the task. The phase two (i.e., monitoring) concerns various processes where students monitor the progress and effectiveness of the learning strategies to complete the particular task. During the phase three (i.e., control), students attempt to control different aspects of cognition, motivation, behaviors and contextual factors based on the monitoring phase. In the phase four (i.e., reaction & reflection), students practice self-evaluation and self-reflection about their performance in the learning task. It is important to note that this model presumes that the four phases are not hierarchically or linearly ordered but are interactively working. Each of the phases may occur at any time students actively engage in the learning task. There are learning situations in which students may engage in some but not all of the phases or they may simultaneously engage in more than one.
be more aggressive and independent than women. These gender stereotypes, when accepted as true, influence the assignment of men and women to different occupational roles (Williams & Best, 1982; Williams, Satterwhite, & Best, 1999).
Research on sex role stereotypes suggests that the traits ascribed to men form a cluster of related behaviors interpreted as reflecting competence and the ability to "get things done". These traits include independence, active, objective, confident, ambitious, assertive, and logical. Traits traditionally ascribed to women include gentle, emotional, interpersonally sensitive, and tactful forming a cluster interpreted as reflecting warmth and expressiveness. The resulting stereotyping pattern is one where occupations associated with higher levels of rationality and assertiveness are viewed as masculine occupations. On the other hand, occupations associated with dependency, passivity, nurturing, and interpersonal warmth are perceived as feminine occupations (Sinar, 1975). Examples of occupations perceived as "masculine" include law enforcement, engineering, and architects. Occupations perceived as "feminine" include nursing, elementary school teacher, and flight attendant. Occupations perceived as "neutral" include school principal, psychologist, pharmacist, and veterinarian (Sinar, 1975; Couch & Sigler, 1988).
Mathematics teaching self-efficacy is about how teachers influence students positively to foster success in mathematics and reduce anxiety and negative beliefs about mathematics (Kahle, 2008). Researchers have shown the need for teacher self-efficacy and teaching self-efficacy and how they affect the types of learning environment in a classroom (Kahle, 2008). Understanding the beliefs or perceptions of teachers about their abilities is essential to improving their professional training (Pajares, 1992). Bandura (1993) said, “Teachers’ beliefs in their personal efficacy to motivate and promote learning affect the types of learning environment they create and the level of academic progress their students achieve” (p. 117). Research has shown teacher teaching self-efficacy affects teacher’s choice of instructional method and classroom environment, which in turn affect both student learning and student self-efficacy (e.g. Siegle & McCoach, 2007; Kahle, 2008). It means students’ learning of mathematics can be affected either positively or negatively, depending on whether the teacher has high or low sense of mathematics teaching self-efficacy.
Both teacher participants discussed the use of prompting, a questioning technique, to elicit student understanding and potential gaps in learning. Beth also referred to the use of exit tickets at the end of class to develop a basis for the next lesson’s discussion. Students are required to answer a question on a piece of paper, which they must hand in to the teacher as a ticket to leave class at the end of the period. Beth described, “I really want to be able to cluster their responses and say okay, well these are the different kinds of responses. What do you think? I’ll take the answers up so that will be the opener for the next lesson.” This organization of responses provides the opportunity for discussions to explore student understanding, while discussing important issues dealing with the mathematics topic. Similarly, Beth highlighted using student misconceptions as a topic for classroom discussions to further develop understanding and to explore important issues in achieving learning goals. For example, when discussing exponential growth and decay functions and the corresponding rate of change, students frequently made errors. Beth made this the topic of discussion in order to explore and develop student
There are a number of potential reasons why the quantity of previous anatomical experience alone no longer predicted the level of anatomical self-efficacy at the end of the medical anatomy course. First, it may be that the concentrated and numerous anatomical experiences available over medical gross anatomy course brought all students, regardless of the quantity of anatomical experiences before medical school, onto an even playing field in terms of their exposure to mastery experiences so that they could judge their self-efficacy with the most reliable and influential information for accessing self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977, 1986, 1994, 1995, 1997; Schunk, 1991, 2004). Secondly, it may be that because of the reduction of survey responses by the end of the semester, the study became underpowered and thus was unable to demonstrate a significant predictive nature of anatomical experiences prior to medical school for medical student anatomical self-efficacy at the end of the medical gross anatomy course. Lastly, as previously discussed, the timing and/or length of the final survey administration may have made the self-efficacy report from the students confounded. As post-survey 4 was administered as the students completed their final examination for the course, most students were likely exhausted, excited about the course ending, and/or just wanting to leave the final exam administration rooms. This could have influenced their responses, as well as the response rate. In the future, a different administration time for the final self-efficacy survey should be scheduled.
24 Studies conducted in the 1990s also demonstrated consistent findings that parenting styles have strong effects on the academic achievement of college and/or university students. Strage and Brandt‟s (1999) study, for instance, revealed that both current and childhood levels of parental autonomy granting, demandingness, and supportiveness (i.e., the characteristics of authoritative parenting) significantly and positively predicted students' academic achievement, as measured by Grade-Point-Average (GPA), and other personal characteristics, such as confidence, persistence, task involvement, and rapport (i.e., relationship) with their teachers. Specifically, the more autonomy, demand, and support (i.e., the characteristics of authoritative parents) parents provided to their college students, the more students were confident, persistent, and successful in their academic achievement. As Turner, Chandler, and Heffer (2009) suggested, these investigators also noted that parents through their parenting styles continue to have a significant influence on the academic success of their late adolescents and young adults in colleges/universities. Similarly, Strage (1998) reported that students who perceived their parents as authoritative and emotionally close to them had clear personal and professional goals, and the feelings that they were in control of their academic lives. In contrast, this researcher demonstrated that students who described their parents as authoritarian had perceived lack of control over their academic lives. Strage concluded that students with authoritative parents had positive academic dispositions. Moreover, Weiss and Schwartz (1996) found that male students who characterized their parents as authoritative had significantly higher academic achievement, as measured by Grade-Point-Average (GPA), compared to their counterparts with authoritarian-directive parents.