Top PDF A Matrix Usage for Load Balancing in Shortest Path Routing

A Matrix Usage for Load Balancing in Shortest Path Routing

A Matrix Usage for Load Balancing in Shortest Path Routing

In general, the current shortest path routing suffers a problem of arising congested links (Fortz et al., 2002b) (Fortz and Thorup, 2004). It is due to the extremely usage of the shortest paths, while the other paths are unutilized. Many ISP’s have a huge infrastructure based on routers running shortest path protocols like OSPF (Retvari and Cinkler, 2004). Congested links could appear if they have lower link weights because all the traffic from any source to any destination will follow the shortest paths, while still other links or paths unutilized (Fortz and Thorup, 2002a). OSPF is known to be a simple routing protocol in two senses. Firstly, its routing is completely determined by one weight for each link. Secondly, it provides simple load balancing by splitting traffic loads almost equally among equal cost paths. (Retvari and Cinkler, 2004).
Show more

25 Read more

Load Balanced Short Path Routing in Wireless Networks

Load Balanced Short Path Routing in Wireless Networks

For the traffic patterns, we consider two cases: random traffic pattern and aligned traffic pattern. In the random traffic pattern, a packet is generated by choosing the source and destination of a packet uniformly randomly among all the nodes. In the aligned traffic pattern, a packet is originated from the left end and destined to the right end, i.e. each packet has to be relayed from the left to the right. In both cases, our experimental results suggest that the load-balanced routing works much better than the shortest path routing in terms of balancing the load. In addition, we measure the length of the paths produced by our algorithm and compare it with the shortest path routing. From time to time, our algorithm produces path noticeably longer than the shortest path. However, on average, the path length is only slightly longer. This indicates that the load-balancing is achieved at the price of increasing the path length but only by a small fraction. a) Unlimited energy and random traffic: We generate 1000 random packets, each with size randomly chosen between 1 and 10. In Figure 9, we plot, for both the load balancing routing and the shortest path routing, the maximum load in terms of the number of packets delivered by the network, if the communication range has radius 5. According to the data, the ratio of the maximum load of the shortest path routing to that of the load-balanced routing is about 5. We also compare the length (the number of hops) of the paths produced by our algorithm to the shortest path length, both in the worst case and on average. Figure 10 shows the worst case and average ratio of the length of the paths produced by our algorithm to the shortest path length, as well as the ratio of the maximum load under shortest path routing and load-balanced routing under different communication ranges. The observation from Figure 10 is that we achieve substantially in terms of the maximum load ratio by paying a little higher price on the maximum and average delay.
Show more

10 Read more

Load Balancing Routing with Bounded Stretch

Load Balancing Routing with Bounded Stretch

radii to level the load. Gao and Zhang [26] consider a special case when all nodes are located in a narrow strip with width at most √ 3/2 times the communication radius. They proposed an algorithm that achieve bounded stretch factor and bounded load-balancing ratio (the constant bounds are 4 and 3, resp.). In [27], the same authors discussed the trade- o ff s between the competitiveness factor and load balancing ratio in routing on certain type of graphs (namely, growth restricted graphs). Recently, Popa et al. [6] also proposed a similar routing technique with our CSR, called curveball routing, to map the 2D network on a sphere using the stereographic projection method and route the packets based on their virtual coordinates on the sphere. The di ff erences between our CSR and curveball routing are (1) the mapping method is different, CBR uses the projection method as shown in Figure 2(b) while CSR uses the projection method as shown in Figure 2(a); (2) CBR directly uses the spherical distance as the routing metric while CSR uses the circular distance; (3) they did not give any theoretical analysis of the stretch factor of their routing method, while we theoretically proved that CSR has a bounded stretch factor, that is, it can guarantee the total distance traveled by packets is constant competitive even in the worst case compared with shortest path routing; (4) we extend CSR to a localized version by modifying the greedy routing without any additional communication overhead, which is more suitable for wireless networks; (5) we investigate how to design CSR for 3D networks by providing two mapping methods for 3D CSR, that is, wireless nodes in a 3D network are projected on a 3D and 4D sphere and give theoretical proofs of their stretch factors. All the previous work deals with load balancing in 2D networks, to the best of our knowledge, our paper is the first one to target at the design of load balancing routing in 3D wireless networks.
Show more

16 Read more

Load Balanced Short Path Routing in Wireless Networks

Load Balanced Short Path Routing in Wireless Networks

Then the load-balanced routing can be formulated as to minimize the maximum load on the nodes in the network. The ideal algorithm would be to minimize both the latency and the maximum load simultaneously. However, these two goals are conflicting to some extent: the shortest path routing restricts the resources that can be used, while load-balanced routing aims to use all the available resources to even the load. One can construct an example to show that these two goals are indeed conflicting, i.e. shortest path routing algorithm necessarily creates heavily loaded nodes, and the optimum load-balancing algorithm necessarily uses long paths (See Appendix IX-A for an example). In practice, the nodes are often distributed in special ways such that we may be able to achieve good, though not necessarily the best, performance in terms of both measures simultaneously. In this paper, we consider a special case arising from practice and present algorithms whose performance is within a small constant factor of the optimum solution in terms of both measures.
Show more

12 Read more

Research Article Load Balancing Routing with Bounded Stretch

Research Article Load Balancing Routing with Bounded Stretch

However, 2D assumption may no longer be valid if a wireless network is deployed in space, atmosphere, or ocean, where nodes of a network are distributed over a three-dimensional (3D) space and the difference in the third dimension is too large to be ignored. In fact, recent interest in wireless sensor networks hints at the strong need to design 3D wireless networks. 3D wireless networks can be used in many applications, such as a underwater wireless sensor network [ 12 ] for 3D ocean environment observation or a 3D space network for space explorations [ 13 ]. In a 3D network, the problem of uneven load distribution also exists. Figure 10(a) shows a 3D grid network with 6 × 6 × 6 nodes. Consider an all-to-all communication scenario, that is, each node sends one packet to all other nodes using shortest path routing protocol. Figure 10(b) illustrates the cumulative node traffic (i.e., number of packets passing through) for each node. Clearly, the center nodes of each level have higher load and the two middle levels have much higher load than the top and bottom levels. Therefore, nodes in the center or in the middle levels may run out of their batteries very quickly. To avoid the uneven load distribution of shortest path routing, we are also interested in how to extend the circular sailing routing to 3D wireless networks. To the best of our knowledge, our 3D method (3D-CSR) is the first one to target at the design of load balancing routing in 3D wireless networks.
Show more

16 Read more

Research Article Load Balancing Routing with Bounded Stretch

Research Article Load Balancing Routing with Bounded Stretch

Routing in wireless networks has been heavily studied in the last decade. Many routing protocols are based on classic shortest path algorithms. However, shortest path-based routing protocols suffer from uneven load distribution in the network, such as crowed center effect where the center nodes have more load than the nodes in the periphery. Aiming to balance the load, we propose a novel routing method, called Circular Sailing Routing (CSR), which can distribute the traffic more evenly in the network. The proposed method first maps the network onto a sphere via a simple stereographic projection, and then the route decision is made by a newly defined “circular distance” on the sphere instead of the Euclidean distance in the plane. We theoretically prove that for a network, the distance traveled by the packets using CSR is no more than a small constant factor of the minimum (the distance of the shortest path). We also extend CSR to a localized version, Localized CSR, by modifying greedy routing without any additional communication overhead. In addition, we investigate how to design CSR routing for 3D networks. For all proposed methods, we conduct extensive simulations to study their performances and compare them with global shortest path routing or greedy routing in 2D and 3D wireless networks.
Show more

16 Read more

Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Shortest Path Routing Problem with Collaborative Neighbors

Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Shortest Path Routing Problem with Collaborative Neighbors

grained parallel model are implemented upon Waxman and Mesh network. In this article fine- grained parallel model in order for optimal use and load balancing distribution among processors are resorted to. In fact, in this paper a fine-grained parallel genetic algorithm using neighborhood techniques for shortest path routing problem is provided. Main goal of this paper is to improve computation time by running parallel GA. The proposed algorithm was implemented in Visual C#.Net 2013 and MPI messaging passing interface.
Show more

6 Read more

Load Balancing Dynamic Source Routing Protocol Based on Multi-Path Routing

Load Balancing Dynamic Source Routing Protocol Based on Multi-Path Routing

There are two basic working modes of mul- tipath routing: (1) Multiple paths (simultane- ous multipaths) are used at the same time; (2) The main path is used first; replacement paths (replace the multipath) are used after the main path have failed. To deal with the load balanc- ing problem, the multipath mode is superior to the replacement multipath mode. In this respect, many existing multipath protocols are not de- sirable to some extent. For example, the disad- vantage of MSR is that the processing overhead increases drastically when sending packets. The SMR has too many RREQ packets to transmit. In AOMDV, the data transmission often cannot use the shortest path. The load balancing mech- anism of the shortest path routing algorithm has the problem of congesting network due to excessive load on some nodes. The widespread deployment and application requirements of the wireless network are rapidly increasing. There is a large space for the further optimization of multi-path routing protocols and further im- provement of equilibrium mechanisms.
Show more

11 Read more

Routing With Load Balancing In Wireless Mesh Networks

Routing With Load Balancing In Wireless Mesh Networks

The popular AODV and many other ad hoc routing protocols use hop by hop routing and shortest path (based on the number of hops) to the destination as routing metric. Using AODV ad hoc routing protocol, the node with traffic to send begins the route discovery in order to set up a route to the destination as shown in the flow chart in Appendix A. AODV finds route to the destination using route RREQ and RREP messages. The route discovery starts by broadcasting a route request (RREQ) message by a source to its immediate neighbours, the neighbours further broadcast the RREQ message received to their own neighbours forming a reverse path, the broadcast continues until the route request message arrives at the destination [9]. Upon receiving the route request (RREQ) message the destination replies by sending a route reply (RREP) message. This message use the route followed by the route request (RREQ) message (the reverse path formed) and is unicast to the source node from the destination. The RREP sets up the path by updating the routing table at the intermediate nodes with information regarding the traversed path. The source node can start transmitting its first packet after receiving the RREP message [10].
Show more

6 Read more

Load Aware and Load Balancing using AOMDV Routing in MANET
                 

Load Aware and Load Balancing using AOMDV Routing in MANET  

Here we design algorithm for Enhance AOMDV with location aware routing under MANET, in algorithm very first we create sender and receiver node’s and configure routing protocol to each node as AOMDV, that routing protocol uses alternative path means each communication uses two path name as incoming and outgoing path that balance the load of all existing path and uses equal priority base resource after that in internal module we add location aware routing that provide estimated location of destination to the source that LAR protocol minimize routing overhead because every communication failure case routing packet broadcasted by the sender node but the our LAR module minimize routing broadcasting to all direction into only specific estimated location direction. in external TCL (tool command language) very first we set initial network parameter like physical parameter, MAC protocol channel type, antenna type and routing protocol after that we create mobile node with sender and receiver node and routing as AOMDV after that compute route function call and discover route from source to destination on the bases of shortest path for transmissions and alternative path for acknowledge incoming into the sender node, if route break in certain time so route function repetitive call and broadcast route packet that increases route overhead so we use LAR (location aware routing) that module is very use full for route overhead minimization, that case receiver node send location information to the sender node time to time manner and useful for route discovery process and route packet flood only expected zone on the bases of previous location table, here we deploy algorithm step by step in below.
Show more

8 Read more

Shortest Path Based Geographic Routing In Clustered Wireless Sensor Network

Shortest Path Based Geographic Routing In Clustered Wireless Sensor Network

The WSN is built of "nodes" – from a few to several hundreds or even thousands, where each node is connected to one (or sometimes several) sensors. Each such sensor network node has typically several parts: a radio transceiver with an internal antenna or connection to an external antenna, a microcontroller, an electronic circuit for interfacing with the sensors and an energy source, usually a battery or an embedded form of energy harvesting. Sensor nodes can be partitioned into a number of small groups, which is known as clusters. These are the organizational unit for wireless sensor networks. Each cluster has the coordinator, called cluster head (CH). In a clustering scheme the sensor nodes in a WSN are divided into different virtual groups, and they are allocated geographically adjacent into the same cluster according to some set of rules. The cluster heads can consolidate the data and send it to the data center as a single packet, thus reducing the overhead. Clustering has advantages for reducing useful energy consumption by improving bandwidth utilization, reducing wasteful energy consumption by reducing overhead. Most of the algorithm aims to extend the network lifetime by balancing energy consumption among nodes and by distributing the load among different nodes from time to time.
Show more

7 Read more

Load Balancing With Multipath Routing In MANAET

Load Balancing With Multipath Routing In MANAET

paths to each destination. All the above protocols are based on the source routing proto- col DSR. Ad hoc on-demand distance vector multipath (AODVM) [3] is also a multipath routing protocol based on AODV. It proposes a routing framework to provide ro- bustness to route breaks. Many disjoint multipath rout- ing techniques [5,6,7] have been proposed for ad hoc net- works, which have focused on improving the reliability of routing using path disjointness or redundancy. Saha et al.[5] proposed a maximally zone-disjoint multipath routing, which computes a set of zone-disjoint shortest paths for traffic load balancing. The zone-disjointness of paths minimizes the congestion for the traffic sent simul- taneously over the multiple paths. Disjoint multipath source routing proposed in [6], statically multiplexes the data traffic over multiple disjoint paths at all nodes on the primary path. It achieves better transport capac- ity by doing so, when compared to the original source routing algorithm, in which packets go on a single path from source to destination. Tsirigos and Haas proposed a disjoint multipath routing protocol that can be used in the presence of frequent topological changes. It uses multiple paths simultaneously, by splitting the informa- tion among the multitude of paths. Disjoint multipath routing [4] proposed by Abbasand Jain tries to reduce the effect of path diminution problem in finding node- disjoint multiple paths. As this routing technique also requires the route request packets to carry the traversed path, it suffers from the same disadvantage as the pre- vious protocol. In [7], Ducatelle et al. propose a hy- brid multipath routing based on ant colony optimization framework for traffic load-balancing. Multipath fresnel zone routing [9] proposed by Liang and Midkiff take the capacity of intermediate nodes into consideration for se-
Show more

7 Read more

Bridging the gap among actor–sensor–actor communication through load balancing multi path routing

Bridging the gap among actor–sensor–actor communication through load balancing multi path routing

actor. In order to make effective energy consumption, the shortest length of routing path, and the lowest rout- ing time, the main problem is how to plan routing path of actor when an event occurs. Those researches always adopt linear programming and prediction method [49] to achieve the above objectives. But the shortages of those schemes are: because the occurrence of the event is unpredictable, if the scheme can predict the location where the event occurs, actor can move to the area where the event occurs using the method of prediction to deal with the problem quickly. But if it does not, it will cost more to solve this problem. Another is actor– sensor–actor communication (ASAc) which is same as our research. In the main task of this scheme is that de- tecting sensed areas need to be completed by actor with deployed sensor nodes. In WSANs, the difference of building routing between actor–sensor communication and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is the routing is generally stable in WSNs, the destination node of rout- ing path is always sink. But in WSANs, the routing is dy- namic. Because actors often move, which resulting in network topology changes frequently, this leads to its routing requires to be adjusted constantly. Thus, a better robust are needed for establishing routing mechanism to adapt to this change. At present, routing mechanism is still in the primary stage in WSANs, the main goal is to establish communication routing, and the routing qual- ity is less considered [1, 21, 47, 50].
Show more

22 Read more

Balancing Traffic Load in Wireless Networks with Curveball Routing

Balancing Traffic Load in Wireless Networks with Curveball Routing

We address the problem of balancing the traffic load in multi-hop wireless networks. We consider a point-to-point communicating network with a uniform distribution of source-sink pairs. When routing along shortest paths, the nodes that are centrally located forward a disproportionate amount of traffic. This translates into increased congestion and energy consumption. However, the maximum load can be decreased if the packets follow curved paths. We show that the optimum such routing scheme can be expressed in terms of geometric optics and computed by linear programming. We then propose a practical solution, which we call Curveball Routing that achieves results not much worse than the optimum. We evaluate our solution at three levels of fidelity: a Java high-level simulator, the ns2 simulator, and the Intel Mirage Sensor Network Testbed. Simulation results using the high-level simulator show that our solution successfully avoids the crowded center of the network, and reduces the maximum load by up to 40%. At the same time, the increase of the expected path length is small, i.e., only 8% on average. Simulation results using the ns2 simulator show that our solution can increase throughput on moderately loaded networks by up to 15%, while testbed results show a reduction in peak message load by up to 25%. Our prototype suggests that our solution is easily deployable.
Show more

10 Read more

Combined Multi-Path And Clustered Routing In Wireless Sensor Network For Efficient Load Balancing

Combined Multi-Path And Clustered Routing In Wireless Sensor Network For Efficient Load Balancing

The objective of the wireless network design with respect to a specific application should be energy conservation [1]. To increase the life cycle of the network it becomes essential to follow an optimal routing method [2]. The optimized routing method not only focuses on detecting a shortest path but also balancing the consumption of energy in the overall network [3, 4]. In conventional approach optimized route estimation problem is solved using a dynamic programming approach such as Dijkstra [5] and Floyd- Warshall [6]. These conventional approaches produce optimal solution at an expensive computational cost. In the recent past a variety solution for route optimization in WSN are proposed using meta-heuristic algorithms based on evolutionary or nature inspired approach. Designing a single algorithm to estimate optimal route solving multiple issues is not possible. In general, the routing techniques are classified as either single or multi path routing. Single path routing are less complex to implement and scalable in nature. They are not efficient to satisfy the requirements of network due to resource constraints. The route between the mobile node and the base station will be established in a specific period of time. The complexity of the route estimation remains same irrespective of the node density in the WSN. When the unique characteristics of the WSN are considered the single path, routing is not efficient due to the following reasons,
Show more

6 Read more

Analysis of Average Shortest-Path Length of Scale-Free Network with Secure Routing

Analysis of Average Shortest-Path Length of Scale-Free Network with Secure Routing

Abstract: Computing the average shortest-path length of a large scale-free network needs much memory space and computation time. Hence, parallel computing must be applied. In order to solve the load-balancing problem for coarse-grained parallelization, the relationship between the computing time of a single-source shortest-path length of node and the features of node is studied. We present a dynamic programming model using the average out degree of neighboring nodes of different levels as the variable and the minimum time difference as the target. The coefficients are determined on time measurable networks. A native array and multimap representation of network are presented to reduce the memory consumption of the network such that large networks can still be loaded into the memory of each computing core. The simplified load-balancing model is applied on a network of tens of millions of nodes. Our experiment shows that this model can solve the load- imbalance problem of large scale-free network very well. Also, the characteristic of this model can meet the requirements of networks with ever-increasing complexity and scale.
Show more

8 Read more

DSR based Load Balancing Routing in MANETs using MATLAB

DSR based Load Balancing Routing in MANETs using MATLAB

In this thesis, we have performed performance analysis of DSR routing protocol and DSR based load balancing algorithm. Throughput, end-to-end delay(latency) and packet delivery ratio are used to analyze the protocols. To do so, we presented an effective graph based method that enables applying varied routing protocol policies to DSR. Shortest path is calculated with the minimum cost criterion. Best effort traffic flow is used which do not have any specific requirement. This best effort traffic flows through the network edge using centrality metrics. A node centrality metric is used, which is defined as the number of its neighbour in the network and applied to the DSR. Symmetric cost assignment is the basis to balance the load between the nodes and in the network. All the parameters which provide QoS are shown through graph. And we conclude that our proposed method performs better in MATLAB. As a future scope for this thesis, we can apply the same algorithm to the real time traffic as we are getting better result in best effort traffic. The parameters like bandwidth, power and energy can be considered in the simulation to make the network more reliable.
Show more

10 Read more

A Routing Metric for Load-Balancing in Wireless Mesh Networks

A Routing Metric for Load-Balancing in Wireless Mesh Networks

In this paper, we proposed a routing metric for load balancing over multiple paths in wireless mesh net- works. We also proposed a traffic splitting algorithm to divide the traffic among mesh routers. The basic features of the proposed scheme were described and compared with existing similar schemes qualitatively and qualita- tively. The quantitative evaluation was carried out in a simulation settings using NS2 simulation tool. Further experimental evaluation is being carried out to compare WCETT-LB with all other similar metrics. We are also investigating the effect of the values of the thresholds for the parameters σ and δ on the over all network per- formance. Future work includes the extension of the proposed scheme for load balancing in the presence of the inter-domain mobility and in multi-radio and multi- channel network environment.
Show more

6 Read more

USAGE OF DYNAMIC LOAD BALANCING FOR DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM IN CLOUD COMPUTING

USAGE OF DYNAMIC LOAD BALANCING FOR DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM IN CLOUD COMPUTING

a) Distribution of Cloud Nodes: There are many algorithms being proposed for loadbalancing in cloud computing. Among them some algorithms might produce efficient results withsmall networks or a network with closely located nodes. Such algorithms are not suitable forlarge networks because those algorithms cannot produce the same efficient results whenapplied to larger networks. There are many reasons that affect the efficiency in larger networkslike speed of the network, distance between the clients and server nodes and also the distancebetween all the nodes in the network [2]. So while developing a load balancing algorithm oneshould try for better results in spatially distributed nodes balancing the load effectively reducing network delays.
Show more

7 Read more

Cloud Load Balancing using Round Robin and Shortest Cloudlet First Algorithms

Cloud Load Balancing using Round Robin and Shortest Cloudlet First Algorithms

Load balancing is done with the help of load balancers where each succeeding request is redirected and transparent to users who make the request. Based on different parameters like availability of current load, the load balancer uses different scheduling algorithm to decide which server should handle and forwards the request to the selected server [5]. There are different scheduling algorithm exist in load balancing like Round Robin(RR) , First-Come-First-Served (FCFS), and some other scheduling algorithm. Most of these algorithm concentrate on maximizing throughput and minimizing the turnaround time, response time, waiting time and number of context switching for a set of request. In this paper our objective is to approach a new scheduling algorithm which helps to give better performance compare to existing algorithms such as Round Robin (RR), First-Come-First-Served (FCFS), etc.
Show more

7 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...