In the extract quoted above, Mallarmé recognises that the language of the poet is characterised by a necessity which sets it apart from the real (‘par nécessité constitutive d’un art consacré aux fictions’). The struggle between necessity and contingency is a central concern of the modern novel and this is perhaps why Blanchot will later use Mallarmé as a reference point when reading Melville, Joyce and Lautréamont. This struggle is famously played out in Un Coup de dés, an extraordinary work that resists scrutiny and interpretation. Here Mallarmé includes the image of a shipwreck hanging over an abyss and the motif of metaphysical gaming as he paints a picture of contingency and risk which the mind tries to control by finding pattern and purpose in this experience. Malcolm Bowie describes this as ‘a splendidly organised and overspilling portrait of contingency’. He continues: ‘The “impossible” chance-abolishing thought is present as a permanent temptation to which minds are subject and, in the final, culminating pages, as the only hope worth retaining amid chaos and dissolution.’ 17 This poem reveals that thought necessitates chance and so the divide in
Assessment (PTA) has tried to resolve the distinction between nature and culture, science and art . It more explicitly acknowledges the normative aspects of techno- logy, and is more in tune with what has been called the empirical turn in the philosophy of science and recent trends in Science and Technology Studies (STS): science is very much like other social phenomena, and does not differ significantly from them , . The questions of how technology is, and how we ought to implement and use it, are closely related. (Although PTA has influenced HTA, HTA has not embraced all the social aspects of PTA.) As HTA to some extent is based on both these cultures, one could argue that HTA is both art and science in the same way as medicine is both art and science. Art is the humanistic leg of HTA, which HTA needs to be stable and in balance.
practitioner to adapt their home environment, not only to meet Brianna’s medical and therapy needs, but also to support her participation in the daily activities of a typical young girl. This includes having appropriate space to socialize with her siblings, friends, and dogs; to be a part of the flow of the family routine in the kitchen and living room; and to participate in her valued leisure activities, including games, art, and socializing on her computer using assistive technology.
The original question posed about the relationship between Art and Technology contains a further presumption, namely, it assumes that there is an issue here, a problem which needs a solution. It presumes, to put it another way, that there is currently a separation between these two domains and that this is something to regret. Hence, the idea that ways should be found in overcoming the distance between them to their mutual benefit. However, as discussed previously, it was the eighteenth century, in Europe at least, which saw, on the one hand, a growth in the consumption of the arts and a consequent elevation in the status of the artist and, on the other hand, a developing sense of the arts as a distinct sphere of cultural activity. As we pointed out, it took some decades for these processes to work themselves out to their fullest extent, but our major focus here is with the sense of the arts as a distinct field of activity divided from other activities, especially science and technology.
As indicated in Section 1.1.3, the history of media art, whilst largely contained within the last fifty years, has roots that stretch back to the end of the nineteenth century. Today, media artists still apply film and photography technologies to create art, although now generally in a digital format, but whilst these art forms were not necessarily accepted within the mainstream art canons of the early twentieth century, they did form part of the avant-garde at this time. 250 It was during the interwar period that the main shift in art attitudes took place, and by the 1960s, as technology began to infiltrate more elements of society, the Fluxus network emerged which, whilst remaining relatively undefined throughout its own history, introduced many of the practices that now exist within media art. Fluxus was a loosely defined group of international artists who saw the network as one of many means of presenting their work, and its relative longevity has been attributed by some writers to its experimental origins, although it was “little more than a name and a public face” for a practice that had long since existed. 251 Along with other more mainstream art practices, these artists continued the move started by the Dadaists in the early twentieth century which pushed the boundaries of art away from production for commercial sale and, arguably, redefined what was meant by the concept of art. Dadaism introduced new techniques to art production, and made an overt statement that rejected the attitudes of the traditional art world, having been “born of a need for independence, of a distrust toward unity.” 252
There is a strong link between art, technology and human caring. Entrenched in this link is the interrelationship between the expected objectification of technologies, and the subjectivities envisaged in human caring as revealed through art. It is critical to nursing and health care that the world of human caring is studied through a variety of lenses including disciplinary and ―extra-disciplinary‖ viewpoints. Today, contemporary and futurist views of nursing and health care are immersed in colossal technological developments often blurring illuminations of the value of knowing persons as caring within the human health care world. Art is an essential component of human life. Self-expression through language, music, and imagery is an essential part of being human (Thistle, 2012). In understanding and appreciating art, Aristotle posits the fourfold causes to objectify. These are causa materialis, causa formalis, causa finalis, and causa efficiens. When these causes are exploited to the fullest, these bring forth the essence of its construction to be known. Therefore, a thing (i.e. art), according to Aristotle is best understood by looking at its end, purpose, or goal (Burton, 2017). In his book, The Question Concerning Technology, the German philosopher Martin Heidegger (1977) accentuated technology as the means to an end, in which technology is realized as not instrumental and having no time. Any form of technology connotes its quintessential form from the moment it is designed. In nursing, technology becomes aggressive and provocative in its functions in order to illuminate thereby alleviating human conditions.
normative outputs discussed above, it seems especially important for some artists to be technologically and scientiﬁcally knowledgeable and to ﬁnd ways of intervening in outputs which undermine the limitations of software interfaces designed to repeat, reproduce and emulate the old-world products and outputs. Despite having done some coding and programming in the past, this has not enabled me to work at a specially deep level to visualise or manipulate data in new and creative ways. Technical and mechanical insight also needs to be part of the brew which feeds the conceptual thinking to allow really interesting and innovative art to emerge from the technological toolkits of of software, virtual reality, mechanical engineering, LED display technology, artiﬁcial intelligence and numerical data itself. Interventions by artists such as Robert Rauschenberg and Gustav Metzler have been characteristic of experimental art going back to the 1960s. I remember as a 5 year-old visiting the seminal Cybernetic Serendipity exhibition in London in the late 60s and shaking hands with a primitive Robot. We can see further innovations with
ing System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides users with a highly accurate, 3D position (x, y, z) and rapid and timely information. While a GPS receiver calculates its position on earth based on the information it receives from four or more located satellites, with about 3–15 m accuracy, the differential techniques provide centi- meter location accuracy, thanks to a network of fixed, ground- based reference stations to correct the positions indicated by the satellite systems with known fixed positions. This type of GPS technology is useful in performing tasks requiring high precision, such as crop mapping, automatically driven farm vehicles, soil sampling, and distribution of fertilizers and pesticides at variable rates.
The field of new media has contributed to the changes in traditional art institutions which were compelled to reconfigure around the new practices in order to accommodate the demands of new media production. Those new formats and models of working intersect with many postulates of new museology and institutional critique including closer collaborations between different depart- ments, more varied presentation, distribution and interpretation platforms, and a flexible approach to programming, producing a variety of projects with the flexible timeframes required by research and experimentation. The field of new media has also developed its own institutional formats; many organisations, purposefully designed to support and present new media are, by necessity, flexible and hybrid structures, often combining different presentation platforms including galleries, festivals and labs. Focused on the process and experimentation, these institutions are concerned with fa- cilitating cross-sector, multidisciplinary collaborations between artists, researchers, scientists, tech- nicians, designers as well as traditional art partners (galleries, curators etc.). They also use hybrid presentation and distribution formats – workshops, festivals, events, exhibitions, conferences, pub- lishing (online), broadcast – and run a variety of projects through different time frames including residencies and long term research projects.
first nanotechnology ever discovered and applied was that of black ink based on carbon black and bone black, containing fullerenes and a wide variety of aromatic small molecules. Today, printing technology has expanded its horizon toward the realization of electron devices on any substrate, according to two main approaches: 1) analog printing, involving the use of linear/rotary machines that are able to realize multiple copies of the same pattern at a rather high speed (serigraphy, gravure, offset, flexography), involving generally microstructured inks; and 2) digital printing, where raster machines realize at rather slow speed a single copy of a pattern that could be changed simply working at the software level (inkjet printing, 3-D print- ing), involving nanostructured inks. In Figure 1, an example of a complex circuit realized on an unconventional substrate
There has being difficulties with the launch of WAP, especially in Europe, due to the slow speed and high charges when using WAP on GSM technology. The increase use of GPRS will see an increase popularity of WAP usage. WAP has been very popular in Asia, except in Japan where I-mode is dominate in this market. WAP is an open standard in contrast to I-mode, which is a proprietary standard. Also, there are difficulties with the configuration of a WAP phone for new WAP services. 20 or so different parameters are needed to be entered to gain access to the WAP service, which may discourage users.
Commercial production of c-Si modules began in 1963 when Sharp Corporation of Japan started producing commercial PV modules and installed a 242 Watt (W) PV module on a lighthouse, the world’s largest commercial PV installation at the time (M.A. Green 2001). Total PV cells/modules production by region 2007–2011 (data: Navigant consulting graph: PSE AG 2012) is shown in Figure 1. It has been observed that Japan attributed to increase their PV cells/modules production capacity from 1997 to 2004 and then drastically reduced their production capacity after 2004. Same trend was observed in PV cells/module production in Europe also but up to year 2008, and then they reduced their production capacity. On the other hand in year 1997, PV cells/module production capacity of US was the highest, and after then they reduced their production capacity every year. Whereas PV cells/modules production scenario of China were just the reverse compared to US. Given the vast potential of photovoltaic technology, worldwide production of terrestrial solar cell modules has been rapid over last several years, with China recently taking the lead in total production volume as shown in Figure 1. Another interesting picture related to the global cumulative PV installation until 2011 was noticed as shown Figure 2. It was observed that still Germany including other European country contributed to major role towards the global cumulative PV installation until 2011, that is, 70% of global PV installation. So PV installation market in Europe is too much promising till now compared to other countries.
Travel to a face-to-face meeting required the time to adjust schedules for three people, plus the time and cost of a trip to meet the other team. Facetime, Skype, and Google were generally preferred over using the phone, but they also illustrated the difficulties of using technology. Sometimes it fails. Sometimes it is intermittent. Sometimes the quality of the experience is far less than acceptable. Students learned to think on the fly, which is another valuable lesson. Finally, the students who decided to use the phone were both surprised with what they learned from this medium and disappointed with what they missed by using solely a phone for such critical negotiations.
This is an astonishing paragraph. Astonishing for its wild utopianism and its total indifference to mainstream academic opinion and especially to Anglo-American philosophical orthodoxies. It is also a profoundly attractive set of propositions for those seeking a radical civilizational alternative to the existing society. But attractive does not necessarily mean convincing. Marcuse could count on a sympathetic audience for such ideas in 1970 when he wrote this text and others like it. We are reading this passage 38 years too late, long after the excitement of the New Left has died. Today, speculations such as these resonate with our nostalgia rather than our theories. But Habermas warns us not to be smug, situated as we are in the always superior future. He asks us to “do justice to the truth content of Marcuse’s analyses” (Marcuse, Towards 237). He is referring to Marcuse’s critique of advanced industrial society, but I believe that the same approach to the positive idea of a redeemed science and technology is also worth attempting.
technology, but I believe that museums should strive to incorporate similar virtual experiences for these audiences that allow them to interact and connect with the collection and their community. Museums should also include accessible options within technology they already employ within their galleries and in the digital realm. Technology, in its broadest definition, includes the most basic tools that museums use to make their collections comprehensible, such as wall labels and hand held gallery maps. By simply integrating accessible features on-site in the galleries and into digital content on museum websites, museums automatically serve a broader public and make it easier for visitors with varying abilities and learning styles to explore art collections.
validated by a qualified institution (The Rochester Institute of Technology). Institutionalized art lives in a social system; it is successful only if it is identified and accepted as art by others. If my thesis committee doesn't understand my work, it fails. Maybe the best example is that classic, enduring fixture of art school: the art critique. Traditionally, students present work to their professor and peers and receive constructive feedback. In this context, interpersonal communication skills are valued as much, if not more than native artistic talent. It can be argued that the entire art establishment pivots on a similar set of values through social validation.
Abstract: In Session 7 (26 February 2003) of The Beast and the Sovereign, Volume II, Jacques Derrida engages again with MauriceBlanchot, two days after the latter’s cremation. This intervention also appears as a post-face to Derrida’s 2003 edition of Parages, his collection of essays devoted to the work of Blanchot. In this article, I examine Derrida’s affinity to the work of Blanchot, as the one whose work ‘stood watch over and around what matters to me, for a long time behind me and forever still before me’ [The Beast and the Sovereign, Volume II, p. 176]. In doing so I look at the manner in which Derrida engaged with Blanchot in his work and how in examining this engagement another reading of sovereignty emerges, one which is not tethered to liberal models of sovereign will but one which eludes biopolitical ordering and may be seen as a form of disappearance. Through a reading of Derrida’s readings of Blanchot’s The Madness of the Day I emphasize the link of this alternative sovereignty to both writing and literature in order to demonstrate how a more radical thinking of sovereignty can be discovered in Derrida’s thought.