These developments, combined with the challenges of people living and working longer, reinforce the importance of higher education’s role in talent maximisation and knowledge production and sharing. The discourse around the globe takes slightly different forms in different countries, but essentially questions are being asked everywhere about the degree of transparency and accountability around student learning outcomes, graduate attributes and life-sustaining skills, the societal relevance of research and benefit that institutions bring to their communities and regions. Towards a Socially Responsible University: Balancing the Global with the Local, from the UN-sponsored Global University Network for Innovation (GUNI), points out that universities can be both part of the problem of globalisation through competition in the global academic market place and part of the solution through contributions to sustainable development and inclusive growth (Grau et. al, 2017).
The OWWA’s work has clear implications for the development outcomes of migration – both for the individual migrants themselves and their potential contributions to their countries of origin. It is beyond the scope of this paper to address the question of whether or not the OWWA has succeeded in fulfilling its mandate, but it is at least possible to suggest some of the ways in which this kind of policy has the potential to maximise the development outcomes of migration. As noted by Agunias and Ruiz, ‘a welfare fund, if managed effectively, has the potential to financially support activities that can leverage migrant resources for development, such as business entrepreneurship and career development among returning migrants’ (Agunias and Ruiz 2007: 25). Assistance policies that support a migrant’s dependants may also contribute to development by creating education and training opportunities in the sending country that individuals might not otherwise have access to.
These findings substantiate a growing body of literature which contends that the diversity of higher education institution types is not sufficiently recognised by policymakers, and also that such diversity means that the regional role of universities is likely to vary on an institution-by-institution basis (Lawton Smith, 2007; Abreu et al., 2008; Kitson et al., 2009). In particular, the paradox revealed by this paper is that although some universities are relatively weak economic and innovation performers on a national scale, at a regional level they play a vital role as the providers of both wealth and innovation capacity. Although the analytical approach outlined in this paper has been rather binary in nature – competitive/uncompetitive region, old/new universities – in reality the picture is far more granulated (Abreu et al., 2008). Furthermore, the competition and hierarchy effects between different types of universities within a region add a further distinguishing layer of complexity (Boucher et al., 2003). The regional environment may also influence the actions of institutions. For instance, a relatively strong knowledge-generating university in a relatively weak region, characterised by insufficient private sector economic activity and a higher than average density of small firms perceiving little benefit to be gained from engaging with the higher education sector, may have a greater propensity to engage with firms in other regions. In the long-term, this may result in a leakage of knowledge from the home region serving only to exacerbate regional competitiveness differentials (Siegel et al. 2007).
In a paper presented on the deregulation of university education in Nigeria, its problems and prospects, Adeogun et al. (2009) were of the view that deregulation should come to terms with the problems of privatization. Kaplan (2002) stated that the deregulation of university education or of any other sector means the sector will become a private enterprise, controlled and managed by a corporate body or individual with the aim of maximizing profit as a return on its investment. Faniran (2012) expressed the view that the deregulation of Nigerian university education is linked with the privatization of the institutions, giving them the opportunity for self-regulation and control of their affairs. Tsai (2001) also added that deregulation will mean freedom from government-imposed decisions. Although deregulation is primarily linked with the economic development of the free market in the theories and study of Adam Smith, a text that has been widely cited in the study of deregulation was Encarta Encyclopedia (2003). The study asserted that deregulation is based on non-interference by the government, an approach which favors capitalist self-interest, innate consumer preferences, competition and freedom as the impetus for optimal prosperity. In addition, Faniran (2012) expressed the view that the deregulation of university education should mean such institution are no longer public goods. Faniran was of the opinion that the benefits an individual gets from the education system during the period of deregulation should be the result of their personal contribution.
It was confirmed that social networks offered the universities an opportunity for strategic communication so long as they took into consideration the need to have community managers to manage their official accounts, thus enabling those institutions to optimise their communications with their own communities and with their external contexts. This would allow them to extend their reach and take advantage of the coverage offered by existing followers of their accounts – of Twitter in this instance – in order to expand their the field of action and to disseminate the universities’ information to an expectant audience.
Unsurprisingly, given that the majority of interviewees were academics, the vast majority (around 90%) had been involved in publishing and teaching, and a high proportion had managed or coordinated projects and supervised graduate or PhD students. More than half had also taken part in activities that involved engaging with society, in particular participating in policy-relevant conferences and giving media interviews. Direct impacts on policy such as advising policymakers and NGOs, sitting on committees or boards and developing products were less common, although still not insignificant.
KC was regarded as enhancing those areas of activity, as well as being transformative; in the process it brought greater recognition to the University in terms of its overall identity. This has been prevalent in terms of creativity and culture, for example, art, design, fashion and sport. MMU was regarded as having a strong vocational base with a regional focus. The University possessed clear areas of research excellence (seven four-star departments and one five-star department in the latest Research Assessment Exercise), but was seen as having a focus on widening participation through outreach activities, through enterprise in local schools, through the large number of teachers who are trained in the institution, continuing professional development and via such initiatives as the Community Entrepreneurship Scheme. Problem solving and innovation with local businesses led in interviews to an emphasis upon practical engagement. For example, in terms of fashion, MMU deals with developments and ideas for clothes which retail rather than high fashion. Thinking about this emphasis in terms of seeking to welcome people into universities who would not otherwise come in, this person noted in respect to the Manchester Fashion Network that there was an opportunity to enhance recognition through KC. Overall, it was viewed as an important means of providing coordination and coherence to a wide variety of activities that saw the University seeking to reach out to people who would not normally engage with higher education.
This paper was designed to examine the impact of government policies relating to deregulation on universities in Nigeria. It was observed that the Nigerian government is often quick in making policies to govern different sectors of the State’s affairs, especially government-owned establishments or parastatals, from which higher education establishments are not exempted. The Nigerian government sees university education as an instrument to gear the economy to improvement, growth and development. As a result of the need to improve the Nigerian economy, different policies have been introduced, with different interpretations, over the last decade. This is an approach that has also been introduced to university education, with the hope of solving funding and mismanagement issues. This paper uses a standard literature review to study the government deregulation policies from their origin and to discuss the findings. The findings suggest that the deregulation policy was introduced to the university as strategy or approach that was assumed to be able to solve the long debated problem of access and funding in Nigerian universities. However, the policy was introduced in such a way that it solved the problem of access practically, but created other problems, such as management and funding issues.
The increased interest in universities as knowledge creators has been mirrored by an apparent increase in the amount of knowledge that universities create, as measured by the number of patents universities are generating (Hegde, 2005). In the US, academic patents quadrupled between 1988 and 2003, licenses and options increased by 40%, and income from licenses doubled from 1997-2003 (NSF, 2006). The growing number of patents, licenses and new firms generated from university-based research are indicators that HEIs are increasing their efforts to commercialise technology (Nelson, 2001; Thursby, et al., 2001; Hall and MacGarvie, 2006). The observed increases in patents and willingness to commercialise knowledge may merely reflect the increased propensity to patent or licence knowledge rather than an increase in knowledge (Thursby and Thursby, 2000). An increase in patenting activity does not necessarily indicate a rise in the quality of knowledge, i.e. more knowledge is not necessarily better knowledge. Also, an increase in the patenting activity does not necessarily mean a university is creating the type of knowledge local firms require. The mismatch between knowledge creation and regional diffusions is demonstrated by Johns Hopkins University, which despite being one of the highest federally funded research schools in the US has failed to transform Baltimore into a high technology centre (Feldman and Desrochers, 2004).
Abstract Development of entrepreneurship and stable institution environment are today understood as key elements of sustainable economic development. Many experts in the field of economics and politics anticipate a dynamic increase in entrepreneurship in the 21 century. Realizing that entrepreneurship is crucial for the companies who want to be competitive worldwide, the European Commission pays special attention to support entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurial skills have been included into key competencies in the field of education and training and should therefore be acquired continuously within all stages of education, starting from primary through secondary up to the university institutions, including lifelong learning. Only well trained teachers are able to support the important attributes such as responsibility, creativity, initiative, sense for team work and others. These attributes with knowledge and skills from the area of entrepreneurship are one of the main presumptions that students will be successful at the job market. This is one of the reasons for the change in education system. Teaching process should be focused on entrepreneurship skills. The paper mentions examples of good practice in the form of research results which dealt with development of students’ entrepreneurship skills at secondary schools and universities. Surveys were conducted at secondary schools and universities in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. Particular training of future teachers of specific subjects (economic and technical) seems to be very important.
the re-consideration of the public-private demarcation line. All these indicate that the parameters of civil society are constantly reshaped, allowing individuals to shift their identities between the public and the private realms and between civil and noncivil groups in various Western societies. Still, this scholarship of civil society and public spheres presumes that civil society and the state are two relatively distant, though not opposite, theoretical and physical constructs in the political continuum. In both liberal and civic republican traditions, the family is seen as an involuntary association and falls into the private domain on one end. Only through individuals' voluntary participation in associations and then in political affairs could civil society (of the contemporary definition) form as a buffer zone to prevent the state's violation of individual rights and self-interests. To which degree this Eurocentric understanding and definition of civil society could be found in Chinese society is the concern of most scholars in Chinese studies.
Following this a great deal of research has investigated four specific demographic ‘classes’: income, education, race or ethnicity and age. Demographic approaches are about who experiences vulnerability in consumption, which implies that some categories of people are inherently vulnerable (Ringold, 1995; Smith & Cooper-Martin, 1997). As Smith and Cooper- Martin (1997, p.6) explain, vulnerable consumers possess ‘a demographic characteristic generally perceived to limit the consumer’s ability to maximise utility and well-being in economic transactions’. Without exception the poor are considered more disadvantaged as consumers than the rich (Andreasen 1975, 1976, 1993; Barnhill, 1972; Morgan & Riordan, 1983). Those with less formal education are viewed as more vulnerable than the highly schooled and trained (Mitra, Hastak, Ford and Ringold, 1999; Ringold, 2005; Smith & Cooper-Martin, 1997). In a US context, African American and Hispanic consumers are seen as more disadvantaged (D’Rozario & Williams, 2005; Marlowe & Atilies, 2005; Penaloza, 1995) as are those with poor native language skills (Barnhill 1972; Marlowe and Atilies, 2005). And, interestingly for our paper, most age-related research on disadvantaged
Much of the literature on optimal monetary policy uses models in which the degree of nominal price flexibility is exogenous. There are, however, good reasons to suppose that the degree of price flexibility adjusts endogenously to changes in monetary conditions. This paper extends the standard New Keynesian model to incorporate an endogenous degree of price flexibility. The model shows that endogenising the degree of price flexibility tends to shift optimal monetary policy towards complete inflation stabilisation, even when shocks take the form of cost-push disturbances. This contrasts with the standard result obtained in models with exogenous price flexibility, which show that optimal monetary policy should allow some degree of inflation volatility in order to stabilise the welfare- relevant output gap.
Instead, our role in government is to enable universities to best meet our broader ambitions to improve productivity and social mobility. In my first HE speech last month, I outlined a vision for higher education by 2030 moving towards a unity of purpose. To make this vision a reality, it is important the relevant sector agencies also move towards a unity of purpose when it comes to supporting place-related developments. To this end, I welcome on-going cooperation and unity of purpose across Research England and the Office for Students (OfS). Between them, they can play a major role in improving our understanding of how students and teaching contribute to knowledge exchange activities and inform future strategies, including the Higher Education Innovation Funding (HEIF).
With this type of trend, partnerships assume an important position in reinvigorating research in Africa. It therefore becomes necessary that Africa’s internationalization policies and strategies should, therefore, aim at strengthening collaborations so as to improve the research agenda in the universities. For such policies to be formulated, there is need for strong structures and infrastructure to be developed to support and sustain knowledge production (Jowi, 2010). Besides low investment in research, another challenge that affects Africa’s development is the low ratio of researchers per million inhabitants in the world. However, with the advent of Information Communication and Technology (ICT) and its extensive penetration in the continent, universities can tap into this to transformation the situation. ICT has the capacity to share volumes of information that can be accessed through diverse ways. For instance, the massive shift to online resources, such as the African e-Journal Project, is providing new opportunities to disseminate African research in an economically sustainable way and with wider reach. University partnerships that
situation, solution steps are usually not known beforehand. The second characteristic is that production time (voyage time) varies considerably from one alternative production cycle to another. The production cycle is said to be time-sensitive because of this vari- ation in time. The variation is mainly caused by the alternative cargo mixes available for transport in competition with other ships, the alternative shipping routes the ship may follow towards the same cargo mix, and the alternative ship speeds at which the ship may sail. In comparison, the production cycle in liner shipping is not sensitive to time since production time is fixed where the ship sails per a predetermined itinerary (see El Noshokaty 2013). Likewise, crop harvesting in agriculture, car manufacturing and assembly lines in industry, and road paving in construction are all not time- sensitive. Time-sensitivity is known to the ship owner when he hires his ship as a time charter for a better hire per-day, main while he ignores it when he does not hire his ship as a voyage charter for a better gross profit per day (Time Charter Equivalent rate in voyage charter is not the gross profit per day as been defined in this paper). How- ever, the ship owner shows awareness of time sensitivity when he puts in the voyage charter party a clause specifying a minimum cargo loading and discharging rate. His intention is to minimise voyage time. This action influences few cost and revenue items plus cargo handling days, while a gross-profit-per-day objective influences all cost and revenue items plus all voyage days, including sailing and waiting days. The gross-profit- per-day objective is more described hereinafter. The third characteristic is that trans- portation unit calls at a variable number of stops and follows many calling sequences among these stops. In other words, a transportation unit does not operate on a pub- lished schedule but serves different stops in response to tenders of cargo. It runs like a taxi cab in private transport if compared to a bus in public transport. This mode of op- eration requires, in model terminology, many variables and constraints which in turn requires the use of mathematical models (Christiansen and Fagerholt 2014).
engagement will not be easy to establish for many troubled pupils, but the benefits for pupils of both social pedagogy and civic engagement are evident. Recent initiatives involving the work of social pedagogues working with pupils in a range of settings in England, including the employment of social pedagogues trained in mainland Europe (Cameron et al., 2010; Palomares, 2011) suggests that extending social pedagogic work into the school setting and providing opportunities for civic engagement could play a useful role in helping to sustain the engagement in schooling of troubled 14 year old pupils during the critical period leading up to their GCSEs.
Nevertheless, not all the country specific studies have shown a positive relationship. Ahmed (1992) examined the relationship between aid, domestic savings and growth in Bangladesh to discover that aid has a negative relationship with growth due to institutional constraints. This is consistent with the results of Quazi (2005) and Abu-Obaydullah (2007) who found that aid had a miniature impact on Bangladesh‟s development. Mbaku (1993) also found a negative but significant relationship for Cameroon However, when aid was broken down into categories such as (loan, grants and concessions) Islam (1992) established that loans had a positive impact on growth. The findings of Mbaku (1993) and Islam (1992) are a contribution to the literature but they failed to acknowledge the time-series nature of their data and establish if cointegration relationships existed. Feeny (2005) and Nidup (2015) used an Auto-regressive distributed lag model (ARDL) and found that aid did not have a positive impact on growth in Papua New Guinea and Bhutan respectively.
Civic responsibility is an important ideal of higher education that is rarely considered through a cultural and theoretical lens. Swidler’s (1986) framework linking ideology, culture and action provided a means of studying civic responsibility at two research universities, the University of Virginia (UVA) and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC). The purposes of the study were (a) to understand dominant institutional beliefs about civic responsibility at two research universities, and (b) to understand how their institutional cultures contribute to unique institutional approaches to civic responsibility, specifically for the areas of student involvement and development. This ethnographic study examined campus ideologies and cultural forms that addressed five dimensions of civic responsibility: (a) knowledge and support of democratic values, systems and processes, (b) desire to act beneficially in community and for its members, (c) use of knowledge and skills for societal benefit, (d) appreciation for and interest in those unlike self, and (e) personal accountability. Data collection involved interviews, field observations and document analysis at both
It has been empirically documented that for qual- ity basic research, a mix of increased funding, stronger autonomy and more vigorous competi- tion is required. Specifically, recent empirical evi- dence shows that increased university funding does lead to both higher levels of academic output (measured by publications or citations) and more patenting, and that these gains are stronger for universities that are more independent of public funding authorities, and which face a more com- petitive funding environment 4 . The complemen-