International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) ISSN: 2278-3075, Volume-9 Issue-2, December 2019
Abstract: Fibrereinforced composites have been an essential concern in various fields, especially in the field of aerospace owing to its high strength to weight ratio, toughness, corrosion resistant and low cost. Naturalfibrereinforced composites have produced better results in mechanical properties like impact, toughness and fatigue strengths when compared to synthetic fibrereinforced composites. Recently researches have been conducted on different varieties of natural fibres for use in plastics such as jute straw, wood, rice husk, wheat, barley etc. Natural fibres have also attracted the attention of researchers due to its availability, renewability, degradability and most importantly ecofriendly. In this work an attempt is made to improve the mechanical properties of the composite and also to enhance the compatibility of the fibres with the matrix. The composite is prepared by reinforcing banana fibres into unsaturated epoxy matrix using hand layup method. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength and hardness strengths are carried out on the specimens made by reinforcing with 5%, 10 % and 15 %concentration of bananafibre by weight. The results showed that the composite with 15% concentration of bananafibre produced higher tensile strength of 21.43 MPa, flexural strength of 0.895 kPa and Shroud hardness of 59.3.
P Associate Professor, Warangal Institute of Technology & Science, Warangal-506342,
The present work attends to make an improvement in the current existing sheet manufacturing methodology and materials used to have better mechanical properties as well as to enhance the compatibility between fiber and the matrix the bio composites are prepared with the unsaturated polyester matrix and fiber and comparative study has been made from eco friendly sisal fibrecomposite and jute, banana and glass fiber using hand layup method with appropriate proportion to result in sheet structure. The fabricated composites are planned to evaluate its mechanical properties such as tensile, impact, hardness and flexural strength and the results are compared in Ansys Software.
Chapter 1: Introduction
This thesis reports a research study on naturalfibre (NF) reinforced polymer (NFRP) thermoset matrix composite materials. The low wettability and poor fibre-matrix adhesion lead to the mechanical performance of the NF/thermoset composites being lower than expected from consideration of each component characteristic. The research project sought to improve the flow and fibre/matrix interfacial properties by adding silane to the NFRP system in order to obtain the maximum, or most balanced, performance from each component, with the ultimate aim of producing a commercially competitive product that can be utilised for eco-surfboard and eco-surfboard fin production. It was therefore most important to discover how the NF/epoxy/silane composite would respond under rigorous experimental testing. In previous studies, referenced in the literature, NF surfaces have been treated directly with silanes without modifying the epoxy matrix. It is suspected that direct NF treatment leads to fibre swelling thus decreasing the NFRP performance. The present study aims to show that when silane is added directly to the matrix an enhanced NFRP is obtained. This result is a positive contribution to knowledge.
A naturalfibrereinforced polymer is a composite material consists of a polymer matrix with naturalfibre reinforcement. Due to its low cost, eco-friendly, light weight and high strength characteristics, naturalfibre can replace the synthetic fibre. Traditionally, mengkuang leaves are used for making ropes and woven hand-crafts. Mengkuang leaves which are abundant in Malaysia have not been process as reinforcement for composite. The study of mechanical properties of mengkuang leaves reinforcedcomposite is almost non-existence. Hence, the objective of this project was to evaluate the mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP)/mengkuang leave composite which include tensile, flexural and impact properties. PP was used as matrix while mengkuang leave was used as naturalfibre reinforcement. To fabricate the specimens, extrusion and injection moulding techniques were employed. Tensile, flexural and impact tests were done according to their respective ASTM standards. Compositions of 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40 wt.% (PP/mengkuang fibre) were compared with neat PP. Mengkuang leave was cut into an average dimension of 7.5 mm X 1 mm before processing. Both tensile and flexural properties showed some improvements in the composite compared to neat PP.
Keywords: Flexural properties, Natural fibers, Banana &Bio-fibres, Hybrid composites.etc.
Banana is one of the rhizomatous plants and currently grown in 129 countries around the world. India is the largest producer of banana in the world with an estimated annual output of 13.5 million tons, of which 80% is generated from six states, namely, Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. Annually about 1.5 million tons of dry banana fibres could be produced from the outer sheath of pseudo-stem. Different parts of banana trees serve different needs, including fruits as food sources, leaves as food wrapping, and stems for fiber and paper pulp. The abundant availability of naturalfibre in India, has been investigated for their use in plastics, including bananafibre , sisal, coir, paper-mulberry, raphia, flax, hemp, jute, kenaf, ramie, papyrus, straw, wood fiber, oil palm, empty fruit bunch, rice husks, wheat, barley, cane (sugar and bamboo), grass reeds, water pennywort, kapok , pineapple leaf fiber and oats and those could be alternately used to reduce the cost of the composites and weight.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
In construction world currently, the main binder used is Ordinary Portland Cement which mostly known as OPC. Due to the awareness of conservation of the environment, scientists are trying their best to develop a new material binders to which can replace OPC as it is harmful to the environment and costly. Thus, the geopolymer technology was initially applied in the industry around 1934, when kaolinite reaction with alkali initiated in the ceramic industry. Later on in 1970, it was reinvented by a Russian team Berg and et al., yet without any successful implementation in industry. A year before that, Besson and et al. from French Museum of Natural History, Paris conducted the synthesis of hydrosodalite from various phyllosilicates heated at 100 o C in concentrated NaOH solution. Due to prospectus future of geopolymer technology, Joseph Davidovits founded a private research company in 1972 prominently known as Cordi-Géopolymère .
The developments in the field of composite materials are growing tremendously day by day. One such development is the use of natural fibres as reinforcement in the composite material. This is attributed to the fact that natural fibres are environmental friendly, economical, easily available and non-abrasive. The main objective of this experimental study is to fabricate the flax-kenaf fibres reinforced hybrid composites and to evaluate the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength. The Composites are fabricated by hand lay-up method by using flax and kenaf fibres as reinforcing material with Cashew Nut shell liquid and Polyester resin. The specimen is prepared according to ASTM standards and the experiment has been carried out by using universal testing machine (UTM). From the experimental results, it has been observed that the flax and kenaf fibres reinforced hybrid Polyester composites exhibited superior properties, when compared to the CNSL composites.
There are few tropical natural fibres which available in Malaysia such as bananafibre, coconut fibre, Kenaf fibre, oil palm fibre, sugar palm fibre, pineapple leaf fibre and sugarcane fibre. These fibres are easily can get from any place and it commonly transform to useful material or to be used as composite. Naturalfibre now are growing interest as alternative material to replace commonly used fibre to reinforce such as glass and carbon fibre due to its environment friendly and fully biodegradable. Compare to glass fibre, low density and high specific density of naturalfibre is highly possible to replace glass fibre as reinforcement fibre in thermoplastic polymer composite such as PLA (Salit, 2014).
Gupta MK American Journal of Polymer Science & Engineering 2016, 4:1-7 Page 2 of 7
Fibrereinforced polymer composite is consist of either synthetic or naturalfibre as reinforcement and polymer as matrix. Synthetic fibre like glass, carbon and aramid has been frequently used in aerospace and automobile industries due to low density, high stiffness and strength. In spite of these properties of synthetic fibre, they have serious drawbacks like biodegradability, recyclability, initial processing cost and health hazards etc. Natural fibres like jute, banana, sisal, hemp etc. have potential to replace these synthetic fibres for environmental concern due to its properties such as lightweight, low cost, environmental friendly, high flexibility, renewability, biodegradability, high specific strength, high toughness, and easy processing [1-8].
Mechanical Behaviour of NaturalFibreReinforced Epoxy Composites
Rasala Sreenivasulu Yadav 1 , Dr. H. Raghavendra Rao 2 , B. Madhusudhan Reddy 3 P.G. Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, GPR Engineering College, Kurnool, A.P, India 1 Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, GPR Engineering College, Kurnool, A.P, India 2 Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, GPR Engineering College, Kurnool, A.P, India 3 ABSTRACT:Composite materials placed a predominant role in many of the conventional materials. Fibrereinforced plastics have gained recognition as structural material. Reinforcement with naturalfibre in composites has recently gained attention due to low cost, easy availability, low density, easy of separation, biodegradability, and recyclable in nature. Fibrereinforced plastics can replace steel in chemical, marine and transport industries. The present work describes the development and characterization of mechanical properties of naturalfibre based polymer composites consists of Cordia Dichotoma as reinforcement and Epoxy resin as matrix. Experiments carried out to develop the composites and different weight fraction naturalfibre. The fabrication is done by Hand lay-up technique with the extracts of the naturalfibre and the matrix material. The laminates was done by using different Fibre-Epoxy weight ratio.
KEYWORDS:Natural Fibre, Composite Material, Mechanical Properties, Epoxy.
I. I NTRODUCTION
A Composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemicalproperties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components. The interest in NaturalFibrereinforced polymer Composite materials is rapidly growing. They are renewable, cheap, completely or partially and biodegradable.
abundantly-renewable resource so as the cost is comparatively low. According to their inherent properties, natural fibres are flexible on processing, cause less resulting wear of the processing machinery and have minimal health hazards during the manufacturing process. Moreover, natural fibres have a desirable fibre aspect ratio, low density and relatively high tensile and flexural modulus . Silkworm silk fibre has been used commercially in the biomedical applications for centuries. It is an inhomogeneous material formed by silk protein and other associated molecules such as glycoproteins and lipids. The silkworm silk fibre is composed of two cores of triangular fibroin because of their gland is a paired organ which surrounded by a cementing layer of sericin in a structure known as bave. The core fibres are encased in a sericin coat, a family of glue-like proteins that hold two fibroin fibres together to form the composite fibres of the cocoon case and ensure the structural integrity of the cocoon. The fibroin fibre itself is a bundle of several fibrils with a diameter of 1μm. A fibril contains 15nm wide microfibrils. Microfibrils are packed together to form the fibril bundle and several fibril bundles produce a single strand [3-6]. In this study, silkworm silk fibrereinforced PLA composite was made, and its mechanical properties were investigated.
existing materials with a higher strength, low cost alternative that is environmentally friendly.. The substitution of the traditionally used composite of natural fibres such as sisal, banana and roselle can lead to a reduction of the component's weight and furthermore to a significant improvement of specific properties like impact strength, crash behavior. One of the major fields of application for such materials can be found in structural components manufacturing of helmets. The mechanical properties in terms of the elastic modulus and ductility of these bio composites increased substantially compared to the neat polymers. The mechanical properties of most of plant-based fibre composites increased with increasing the amount of fibre into polymer matrix. However, the ultimate strength decreased as expected. From those experimental results, incorporation of the fibres gave rise to a considerable increase of the storage modulus (stiffness) and to a decrease of the tan delta values. Also it is clear that, naturalfibrereinforcedcomposite material of sisal jute and banana hybrid material has a sustainable strength for the application of industrial safety helmets. Natural fibres used with are sisal and coir fibres which are mixed with isophthalic polyester in volume fraction basis of 0.4 & 0.5. This composite is manufactured using hand layup process.. The tensile strength of sisal-glass composite is found to be better than the coir- glass composite. The flexural strength and impact strength of sisal-coir-glass hybrid composite is better.
Keywords: Dynamic mechanical analysis, Jute fibre, Mechanical properties, Thermal properties, Water absorption properties
Nowadays natural fibres are used in place of glass and other synthetic fibres due to many advantages such as low cost, low density, abundance, environmental friendly, non-toxicity, high flexibility, renewability, biodegradability, relative non-abrasiveness, high specific strength and ease of processing. Natural fibres also have some limitations such as lower impact strength and higher moisture absorption 1-5 .
R ESULTS AND D ISCUSSION
CHARACTERIZATION OF BPR RESIN
The physical properties of biophenolic resin were shown in Table 1. The results showed that the amount of formaldehyde used in the reaction greatly influenced the viscosity of the biophenolic resin. It was known that resin viscosity was influenced by F/LEFB ratio, temperature and non-volatile chemicals (Haupt & Sellers 1994). Higher formaldehyde content resulted in the increase of viscosity of the BPR resin produced because higher formaldehyde content tends to speed up the polymerization process.
Characterization of the integral materials of the hybrid composite beam such as 3 mm and 5 mm thick biaxial (0 o /90 o ) GFRP plates and modified phenolic core was done by Manalo (2011) and is summarized in Table 1. The nominal width (B) and total height (D) of the beam are 60 mm and 100 mm, respectively. The specimens were provided by the industry partner and cut according to required dimensions for each each test. Figure 2 shows the schematic diagram of the beam with its dimensions. Three specimens were prepared for each test and were labeled as HB-F, HB-S, HB-LC, and HB-TC. HB stands for hybrid beams while F, S, LC and TC correspond to three-point static bending test, asymmetrical beam shear test, longitudinal compression test, and transverse compression test, respectively. Tables 2 and 3 summarized the dimensions of specimens and its constituent materials, respectively.
The characterization of natural fibres is currently used in the field of science and engineering of materials with the purpose of developing new bio-composites friendly to the environment. The goal of this research is to manufacture and characterize a bio-compositereinforced with Moriche palm fibre (Mauritia flexuosa) and to determine the thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of the fibre. Subsequently, the tensile and flexion properties of the composite was evaluated, as well as its morphology. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the fibre has hydrophilic characteristics and good stability at temperatures close to 200 °C. In the tensile test under static axial forces, its modulus of elasticity, stress and maximum deformation was determined. Its morphology, composed of the small lumen and wide cell wall with size variations, was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the same way, the maximum tensile stress of the composite leads to the conclusion that it is viable to use this material for applications in non-structural elements, which are below 25 MPa. The results of maximum flexural strength (253.7 MPa) allow more extensive applications in doubly supported or overhanging parts subjected to concentrated or distributed loads. The microstructure obtained with SEM showed a poor adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcement.
2.3.2 Surface treatment of PALF
The development of the naturalfibre is not progress as fast as their synthetic competitor due poor moisture resistance and low mechanical properties. PALF, as any other naturalfibre is hydrophilic materials, while most polymeric matrix is hydrophobic. Thus it pose a challenge in their unison during the fabrication. In order to overcome this issue, proper modification on their surface must be carried out. Surface treatment of the crude normal fibre can be carried out using acetylation, blanching, joining, mercerization, oxidation, plasma treatment and scouring method (Sheikh Md Fadzullah and Mustafa, 2016).