Banana is one of the rhizomatous plants and currently grown in 129 countries around the world. India is the largest producer of banana in the world with an estimated annual output of 13.5 million tons, of which 80% is generated from six states, namely, Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. Annually about 1.5 million tons of dry banana fibres could be produced from the outer sheath of pseudo-stem. Different parts of banana trees serve different needs, including fruits as food sources, leaves as food wrapping, and stems for fiber and paper pulp. The abundant availability of natural fibre in India, has been investigated for their use in plastics, including bananafibre , sisal, coir, paper-mulberry, raphia, flax, hemp, jute, kenaf, ramie, papyrus, straw, wood fiber, oil palm, empty fruit bunch, rice husks, wheat, barley, cane (sugar and bamboo), grass reeds, water pennywort, kapok , pineapple leaf fiber and oats and those could be alternately used to reduce the cost of the composites and weight.
Fiber Metal Laminates (FMLs) are hybrid composite consisting of alternative thin layer of meal plies and fibrereinforced epoxy. The fiber/metal composite technology combines the advantages of metallic materials and fibrereinforced matrix systems. The most widely used metal in fiber metal laminates is aluminium. Aluminium foils and meshes have extremely light in weight, have low density, high strength, excellent corrosion resistance and also cheap. Fiber metal laminates take advantages of metal and fiber- reinforcedcomposites, providing superior mechanicalproperties to the conventional one. A relatively newer range of composites even employ natural fibers as reinforcements. The interest in natural fiber-reinforcedpolymer composite materials is rapidly growing both in terms of their industrial applications and fundamental research. They are renewable, cheap, completely or partially recyclable, and biodegradable. Their availability, renewability, low density, and price as well as satisfactory mechanicalproperties make them an attractive ecological alternative as man-made fibers used for the manufacturing of composites.
Hand lay-up technique is the simplest method of composite processing. First, a release gel is sprayed on the mould surface to avoid the sticking of polymer to the surface. Reinforcement in the form of woven mats or chopped strand mats are cut as per the mould size and placed at the surface of mould. The polymer is uniformly spread with the help of brush. Second layer of mat is then placed on the polymer surface and a roller is moved with a mild pressure on the mat- polymer layer to remove any air trapped as well as the excess polymer present. After curing either at room temperature or at some specific temperature, mould is opened and the developed composite part is taken out and further processed.
Composites consist of two different materials, one is base matrix material and another one is reinforcement material. Composites give unique properties than individual matrix material. Composites are gaining the demands in various applications because of its distinct properties such as higher tensile strength, higher fatigue strength, better impact strength, good flexural strength and better strength to weight ratio. In present paper a review is carried out on identifying the effect on mechanicalproperties of hybridfibrereinforcedpolymer matrix composites. Present study focus on the combination of the natural/synthetic fibre mixed with each other. Hybridpolymer matrix composites show better mechanicalproperties than single fibrereinforcedpolymer matrix composites. Due to its good properties and cost effective nature hybridpolymer matrix composite are used in automotive industry, biomedical industry, air craft and aerospace industry, house hold applications etc.
Fibre-ReinforcedPolymer (FRP) is a composite material that consists of natural or synthetic fibres embedded in polymer matrices. Nowadays, engineering fields such as automotive and aerospace use FRP in the applications of drive shaft, windmill blades and support beams. The characteristics of FRP which are high stiffness and strength, lightweight, high durability and easy to be shaped made it widely used in the engineering fields. (Senguttuvan & Lillymercy, 2015).
ABSTRACT:Composite materials placed a predominant role in many of the conventional materials. Fibrereinforced plastics have gained recognition as structural material. Reinforcement with natural fibre in composites has recently gained attention due to low cost, easy availability, low density, easy of separation, biodegradability, and recyclable in nature. Fibrereinforced plastics can replace steel in chemical, marine and transport industries. The present work describes the development and characterization of mechanicalproperties of natural fibre based polymercomposites consists of Cordia Dichotoma as reinforcement and Epoxy resin as matrix. Experiments carried out to develop the composites and different weight fraction natural fibre. The fabrication is done by Hand lay-up technique with the extracts of the natural fibre and the matrix material. The laminates was done by using different Fibre-Epoxy weight ratio.
Evolving of the polymercomposites with natural fibres as a sustainable surrogate material for some engineering applications, distinctly in aerospace applications and automobile application are being probed. Natural fibre composite such as sisal, betelnut polymer composite appear more attractive due to their higher specific strength ,lightweight and low cost. In this study, sisal and betel nut fibrereinforcedpolymer composite are prepared and their mechanicalproperties such as tensile strength ,compressive strength are evaluated . This composite is prepared by using compression moulding method with 10,15 wt % of sisal and betelnut fibre in to polymer matrix. Morphological analysis was carried out in tensile and compressive sample composite using SEM to analyse the fracture mechanism.
Today, plastic and ceramics have the dominant for a new material for composite materials. Composite materials have grown rapidly by volume and number of applications to break through and capture new markets. These composite materials include a variety of natural ingredients such as dried fruit, rice husk, wheat husk, straw and hemp fibres can be used to provide gentle-reinforcedpolymercomposites for commercial use for agricultural wastes. Bio-based products have a great opportunity to thrive in the world market. This is because, natural fibres have a basic interest amongst them the advantages of weight and fibre matrix adhesion,. There are various types of natural fibres in the world, consisting of sisal, hibiscus cannabinus, eucalyptus grandis pulp, malva, ramie bast, pineapple leaves, kenaf leaves, coconut, sansevieria leaves, hemp leaves, vakka, banana, jute, hemp, ramie , cotton and sugarcane fibres (Ali et al., 2012). In this project, composite materials made from polyester matrix strengthened with coconut fibre will be carried out.
were removed from the surface. So the bonding between the matrix and fibre was improved. Because of increase in the adhesion the mechanicalproperties can be increased. The SEM images shows that the with the surface treatment the surface of fibre becomes smooth and the bonding between fibres and matrix increased. Venkata Ramana and Ramprasad studied the impact, tensile strength and flexural strength of carbon/jute hybrid composite. Hand layup technique was used to prepare the composites. Carbon epoxy, jute epoxy and jute-carbon epoxy are the three specimens. The results show that the carbon epoxy having higher tensile strength of 370 Mpa and flexural strength of 11.41 GA. Jute carbon epoxy shows properties 16 times greater than the jute epoxy composite. And jute epoxy shows the higher impact strength of 2 Joules. So by incorporating carbon fibre in the jute epoxy composites the properties are increased. Muktha and Keerthi Gowda  investigated fire resistance and water absorption behaviour of polyeater compositesreinforced with untreated banana. The results show that with increase in the fibre volume fraction reduces the burning rate and increases the thermal stability. And the water absorption was increases with the fibre volume fraction due to presence of cellulose. By the results natural fibre can be used at where there is less contact with the water and fire. Hari om maurya et.al. studied the mechanicalproperties of short sisal reinforced epoxy composite 5,10,15 and 20 mm fibres were used. Results show that with increase in the length of fibre impact strength increases found a maximum value of 27.62 kJ/m2 at 20 mm fibrereinforcedcomposites. But there is no change in the tensile strength. 10 mm sisal fibrecomposites shows
Glass Fiber ReinforcedPolymer (GFRP) is a fiber reinforcedpolymer made of a plastic matrix reinforced by fine fibers of glass. Fiber glass is a lightweight, strong, and robust material used in different industries due to their excellent properties. Although strength properties are somewhat lower than carbon fiber and it is less stiff, the material is typically far less brittle, and the raw materials are much less expensive. Its bulk strength and weight properties are very favourable when compared to metals, and it can be easily formed using moulding processes. Nowadays, natural fibers such as sisal and jute fiber composite materials are replacing the glass and carbon fibers owing to their easy availability and cost. The use of natural fibers is improved remarkably due to the fact that the field of application is improved day by day especially in automotive industries. Nowadays, nat- ural fiber composites have gained increasing interest due to their eco-friendly properties. A lot of work has been done by researchers based on these natural fibers. Natural fibers such as jute, sisal, silk and coir are inexpensive, abundant and renewable, lightweight, with low density, high toughness, and biodegradable. Natural fibres such as jute have the potential to be used as a replacement for traditional reinforcement materials in composites for applications which require high strength to weight ratio and further weight reduction.
The present work attends to make an improvement in the current existing sheet manufacturing methodology and materials used to have better mechanicalproperties as well as to enhance the compatibility between fiber and the matrix the biocomposites are prepared with the unsaturated polyester matrix and fiber and comparative study has been made from eco friendly sisal fibre composite and jute, banana and glass fiber using hand layup method with appropriate proportion to result in sheet structure. The fabricated composites are planned to evaluate its mechanicalproperties such as tensile, impact, hardness and flexural strength and the results are compared in Ansys Software.
In recent years, polymeric based composites materials are being used in many application such as automotive, sporting goods, marine, electrical, industrial, construction, household appliances, etc. Polymeric compositess have high strength and stiffness, light weight, and high corrosion resisitance. Natural fibres are available in abundance in nature and can be used to reinforce polymers to obtain light and strong materials. The information on the usage of bananafibre in reinforcing polymers is limited in the literature. In dynamic mechanical analysis, have investigated bananafibrereinforced polyester composites and found that the optimum content of bananafibre is 40%. The analysis of tensile, flextural, and impact properties of these composites revealed that composites with good strength could be successfully developed using banan fibre as the reinforcing agent. The source of bananafibre is the waste banana trunk or stems which are abundant in many places in the world ( Sapuan, 2005).
compositions (50ºC and 52ºC for V f of 8% and 12% respectively). It is suggested that the incorporation of lower fraction of glass fibre may only give notching effect to the composite. They may introduce a microvoid in the composites and instead of reinforcing the matrix, it weakens the composites. There is no change in T g of composite at V f of 8% and only a negligible increase of 2ºC at V f of 12%. On the other hand, the presence of the glass fibre reduces the magnitude of tan δ max values dramatically. Higher reduction for composites with higher fibre loadings is believed due to the strengthening effect by the fibres. Tan δ max of reinforcedcomposites shows a maximum decrease of about 44% compared to the pure matrix (0.0868 to 0.0488). In this instance, the incorporation of fibres acts as barriers to the mobility of polymer chain, leading to lower degree of molecular motion and hence lower damping characteristics . Another possible reason is that there is less matrix by volume to dissipate the vibration energy.
vii Wang, H., Kabir, M.M., Lau, K.T. (2012). ‗The effect of fibre chemical treatments on hemp reinforcedcomposites‘. ICCM18: The 18th International Conference on Composite Materials, 21-26 August, Jeju International Convention Center, Jeju Island, South Korea.
Michael Ikpi Ofem et al.  described the mechanicalproperties of a hybridbio composite made of periwinkle shell, rice husk and cashew nut shell liquid. The results obtained show that for a 10 to 20% increase in filler content, the tensile strength increased by an average of 32%. It was concluded that the optimum properties can be achieved at 30% filler content. Meona et al.  studied the effect of alkali treatment of natural fibre. The fibre is soaked with 3%, 6% and 9% of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for a day and then dried at atmospheric temperature for 24 hours. It was reported that the tensile properties of the treated kenaf fibres have improved significantly as compared to untreated kenaf fibres especially at the optimum level of 6% NaOH.
disposed of, microorganisms are able to consume the natural macromolecules within the plastic matrix. This leaves a weakened material, with rough, open edges. Further degradation may then occur. The final class of polymer materials is currently attracting a great deal of attention from researchers and industry. These plastics are designed to be completely biodegradable. In this graph is clearly shows that the composite plate or sample Plate A easily decomposed. It is indicated that the less amount of cmc level is easily decomposed in soil.
The mould used for composite fibres is made from rectangular plywood 150 mm in length and 60 mm in width and second mould box is 200mm in length, 60mm in width it is coated with plastic by using glue. For the upper side of the mould is also made in a rectangular form using plywood of 150 mm in length, and 60mm in width and second is 200mm length, 60mm width and it has to be coated with plastic. The functions of this upper side of plywood are to cover the fibre after the epoxy is supplied and also to avoid the debris from entering into the composite parts during the curing time. To hold the fibres in the same orientation while curing process the hole are drilled at equal spacing in all sides of mould box as shown in figure. The fibres are passed through the holes and tied with some tension.
Majority of the studies were conducted with a combination of metallic fibre with non-metallic fibres. From tables 4-6, it is evident that hybrid combination of metallic and non-metallic fibres have significant effect on the compressive, tensile and flexural strength. Strength parameters are found to increase with respect to increase in percentage volume fraction of steel fibres in both geopolymer and geopolymer fibre concrete. The combination of steel and polypropylene fibre has better performance than combination of steel with glass fibresbecause of the high elastic modulus of steel fibre and the low elastic modulus of polypropylene fibre. Improved tensile strength can be achieved by increasing the percentage of steel fibres. The higher number of fibres bridging the diametric ‘splitting’ crack, the higher would be the spilt tensile strength. The easy availability of PP fibres, combined with the high stiffness of steel fibres, resulted in the enhancement of the split tensile strength (6). Heat cured hybridfibrereinforced geopolymer concrete had high strength parameters than ambient cured hybridfibrereinforced geopolymer concrete.
Strengthening of structures via external bonding of advanced fibrereinforcedpolymer (FRP) composite is much less dense and therefore lighter than the equivalent volume of steel which provides a more economical and technically superior alternative to the traditional techniques in many situations as it offers high strength, low weight, corrosion resistance, high fatigue resistance, easy and rapid installation and minimal change in structural geometry. The manufacturing process for glass fibers sheets suitable for reinforcement uses large furnaces to gradually melt the silica sand, limestone, kaolin clay, fluorspar, colemanite, dolomite and other minerals to liquid form. Although many in-situ RC beams are continuous in construction, there has been very limited research work in the area of FRP strengthening of continuous beams.