Organization, “self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms.” 16 Self-medication is considered a constituent of self-care. 16 People have always been keen to accept more individual responsibility for their own health status and so, self-medication has been a characteristic of the healthcare system since many years. 16,17 Self- medication has many pros and cons and it’s depend on who and what one decided to take it. 18 The present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of self-medication and perception towards self-medicationamong the undergraduate medical and dentalstudents of Pacific Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.
However because of improper regulation and easy availability of prescription as well as non-prescription drugs, immoral self-medication has become a rampant practice in India. 5 Such inappropriate self-medication can result in wrong diagnosis which may lead to delayed treatment and failure of therapy, adverse drug reactions, dangerous drug interactions, incorrect manner and dose of administration, prolonged suffering, and risk of development of bacterial resistance and drug dependence. 6 Effective treatment of any ailment requires sound knowledge of disease as well as the drugs. Even though MBBS students have wealth of information at their helm to diagnose themselves and self-medicate, they lack in expertise. As future health care providers and prescribers, understanding practice of self-medication in these students is of paramount importance so that habits of ethical practice are inculcated in their budding years. Although many studies have been previously done on this subject, yet none have been done in Goa. Keeping this in mind, the current study was carried out in Goa Medical College to assess the perception and practice of self-medication amongst second year medicalstudents.
High prevalence of Self-medication practice among undergraduate have also been documented in past by numerous studies in India in agreement to our results. 11-14 Most studies have shown females outnumbering males unlike our results. But in some studies though females outnumbered males but the difference was not statistically significant. 15,16 However, some trials have recorded more males indulged in in selfmedication as observed by us. 17 Gender is observed as important factor in young people especially students indulging in selfmedication. 18-20 Most of these studies were done in final term medicalstudents, while we have carried out our study in second professional students.
specialist which is wrong on part of the community as they are not aware about the harmful effects of medica- tions at time. To create awareness about the drug reactions and its side effects due to self-medication, health educa- tion sessions should be conducted. Strict laws should also be planned by the concerned experts/authorities that without prescription of doctors no medicine and prescription should be given to anyone at the medical store or pharmacy.
Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in a tertiarycareteachinghospital from July 2015 to Oct 2015. Structured and validated questions were used to collect information about knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medicationamong undergraduate medicalstudents. The study included total of 328 participants. Data were collected from each participant and analyzed statistically by using SPSS version 20 for count and percentages.
Self-medication has its own benefits and drawbacks 1 . Self-
medication carries advantages only if used as a self-care component. Drawbacks include irrational drug use, increased drug resistance, adverse drug reactions, drug dependence etc. 1 Educational status, friends, family, society and drug advertisements etc., are influencing factors which affect the pattern of self-medication. 6 A study had described that educated people practiced self- medication more than illiterates. 7 Higher education and professional status has been mentioned as predictive factor. 8 It is equally practiced by doctors as well by medicalstudents. 9 Several studies had also mentioned that influences of pharmacology subject knowledge on increased prevalence amongmedicalstudents. 5,10 Not only medical knowledge of students but availability of drugs as free samples and influences of internet also plays a significant role. 11
Regarding source of information, the most common source of information was advice from the seniors followed by books, internet, old prescriptions and media. In Saudi population, pharmacists and doctors were the most common source of information as study done by Karami et al. 12 In ACGR Government Medical College, Nellore, old prescriptions and text books were the most common source of information. 14 Similar finding was observed among undergraduate students in a medical college in Kolkata. 19 Paracetamol was the most common drug used by third and fourth year students in RIMS, Ranchi whereas in Nellore the most common analgesics used by fifth semester students was Diclofenac Sodium whereas seventh semester students used Paracetamol. 14 Among Saudi female students, total 88.3% reported use of analgesics among which 49.2% used Paracetamol. 20 In Nepal also about 82.7% adults of age group 20 and above residing in Chapapani - 12, Pokhara were using Paracetamol as OTC Analgesics. 1 Among Saudi population 73.4% used Paracetamol and 13.1% used ibuprufen 12 whereas in present study diclofenac sodium was the second most commonly used analgesic. Paracetamol is one of the most commonly used non-narcotic analgesic-antipyretic agent used with negligible anti inflammatory action. Recent evidence suggests that Paracetamol may act by inhibiting cycloxygenase 3 (COX 3) in CNS. COX 3 is involved in pain perception and fever but not in inflammation.
Thus our study demonstrates that selfmedication practice in students of Medical College is on the rise, the reason might be the awareness of drugs due to easy accessibility of information through books, internet pharmacy and through media too. If no strict action is taken, the incidence of adverse drugs reactions or drug interactions may go on increase with time. So essential measure should be taken to reduce the practice of selfmedicationamongstudents by conducting seminars, promoting the correct usage of drugs, or by delivering innovative lectures about the drugs. These activities will sensitize the students regarding irrational use of drugs and ultimately community will be benefitted.
Different OTC antidiarrhoeal drugs are available in medicine shops. Majority of students used ORS as the selfmedication. Many patients with sudden onset of diarrhea have a benign and self limited illness requiring no treatment or evaluation. In severe cases, dehydration and electrolyte imbalances are the principle risks, particularly in infants, children and frail elderly patients. Oral rehydration therapy is therefore a cornerstone for patients with acute illness resulting in significant diarrhea. This is of particular importance in developing countries, where the use of ORS therapy saves many thousands of lives every year
Since majority of the above mentioned studies were conducted outside India so the exact pattern of SM practices in our country remained unidentified. With respect to this the present study was conducted to see the pattern of SM practices, to find out the common complains and common drugs used, reasons for SM along with establishing a relationship between the level of medical knowledge and the SM practices amongmedical undergraduates.
counter (O.T.C) drugs Yes No
No of students 16 154
Most of the students are practicing self-medication which indicates high incidence among medicos. There is a difference in gender among that practicing self- medication. Females were more may be due to their menstrual and hormonal problems. Mostly they are using medicines for simple ailments like cold, fever etc. which are non-serious. The high use of analgesics for self- medication confirms the findings that analgesics are the commonly used over-the-counter medicines. 13 These results were consistent with the study “Popularity of self- medicationamongmedicalstudents AIIMS” by Gupta YK. 14 Multivitamins were also used commonly as supplements for promoting health, for preventing the illness, for boosting the immune system, for prevention of stress and to top up the regular nutrition. 15 Self-medication with antibiotics is of public health concern because inappropriate use of antibiotics results in antibiotic resistance and in emergence of mutant forms of microbes which is a major problem worldwide especially in developing countries like India. 16
Ruchika Nandha*, Mahinder K. Chhabra
Headache is a very common health problem in today’s scenario among each age group with an increasing trend in young adults which negatively affects the quality of life of the affected person by causing impairment in routine activities. 1 Recurrent headache is a risk factor for future chronic headache and other pain syndromes. 2 Migraine is the main reason of headache worldwide. 3 A meta analysis of studies on prevalence of migraine has demonstrated global prevalence among adults of 10%. 4 Recent epidemiological surveys have demonstrated a significant number of Asian population, though less as compared to western countries, being afflicted with migraine, due to racial or geographical variations. 5
This was a cross sectional questionnaire-based study, conducted at Sri Venkateshwaraa Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Puducherry. Before initiation of the study, Institutional Ethics Committee approval obtained and the study was conducted for a period of 3 months. Duration of the study November 2018 - January 2019.The undergraduate students studying in second MBBS, of all ages and both the gender were included in the study. Written informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. A semi –closed, pre validated questionnaire model was used in this study (Questionnaire enclosed in Annexure 1). A brief description about the purpose of the study and the procedure to complete the questionnaire was explained in detail to all the students. The candidates were instructed and properly guided to complete their response within the stipulated time. The results were analyzed and expressed by descriptive statistics, such as counts and percentages.
pharmacist dispense such drugs even without prescription. Increasingly, people are managing a large proportion of their ailments without consulting either a doctor or pharmacist. Yet pharmacists can play a key role in helping people to make informed self-care choices. There are very few legal restraints in OTC drugs and the danger comes in the form of unethical pharmaceutical dispensing who would rather content their monetary desires than to think of the patients’ health. Undoubtedly, nursing students are among the health care personnel with the greatest access to medications. Like doctors, they possess an impressive knowledge of prescription drugs and their use in the treatment of various ailments because they have pharmacology as one of their subjects in their curriculum. In one study in India, self-medication was reported among 92% of the medicalstudents in contrast to 59% of the non-medicalstudents.. Easy access to drugs and knowledge of drugs use may have a significant contribution in the prevalence of selfmedication in health care personnel. There is always a risk of interaction between active ingredients of hidden preparations of OTC drugs and prescription medicines, as well as increased risk of worsening of existing disease pathology or the development of drug resistance. A number of studies have been conducted to study the self- medicationamongstudents but a very few on the nursing students. This study was undertaken with the objectives to find out the prevalence of selfmedication and to study the pattern of selfmedication practices among the B.Sc nursing students of the College of Nursing, Assam Medical College and Hospital.
Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of HIV/AIDS amongmedicalstudents in a tertiarycareteachinghospital in Eastern India.
Materials and Methods: Open level, cross sectional, observational and unicentric clinical trial was done amongmedicalstudents of College of Medicine & JNM Hospital, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, India. All the students (201) who were attending their scheduled lecture classes were given the questionnaire form, and all queries about the trial/questions were explained thoroughly. The form was filled up by each student separately, references like books, internet etc were not allowed . Forms submission box was placed in the table of lecture theatre. After 15 minutes, and students were asked to submit their forms in that box individually. Filled up forms were collected from the all attending students of all semester batch in the same day. Statiscal analysis was done in Department of Pharmacology.
The study was carried out using self-administered questionnaires in English, adapted from previous similar studies  . It was closed-ended containing 26 questions, under two sections. First section of the questionnaire contained information related to demographic details of the survey participants; Second section of the questionnaire contains information related to distance of the re- spondent’s houses from the nearest health care centre/clinic/medical store, last dental visit, common dental problems requiring self-medication, frequently used drugs for self-medication, triggering factors and sources of information about medications used and reasons for self-medication as well as source.
Background: Selfmedication is an important component of primary health care.
It involves treatment of common ailments on ones own initiative or on the advice of a pharmacist. With the easy accessibility to information regarding use of drugs, there is an alarming increase in the selfmedication practices. Medicalstudents, during their course of study gain considerable knowledge of drugs and it may have an influence on their selfmedication practices. The present study was designed to gather the knowledge, attitude and behavior of medicalstudents towards selfmedication and whether an increased knowledge of drugs further promoted selfmedication.
Despite the advances in modern sciences, nosocomial infections are a major threat in most of the hospitals and may be as high as 19% in the developing countries , especially in the ICUs and wards, where number of direct contacts between the hands of health care workers (HCW) and the patient occurs, which mandates the strict adherence to infection control practices and standards. The same standards are applicable for the equipment used, as many of the potential pathogens can survive for weeks in the inanimate surfaces. In the hospital, pa- tients are often exposed to multiple procedures, invasive devices etc., increasing their chances of contracting such potential pathogens. Most of the time, these potential pathogens exhibit multiple drug resistance. Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) organisms are microorganisms (predominately bacteria) resistant to more than one class of microbial agents. Even though MRSA (Methicillin Resis- tant Staphylococcus aureus) or VRE (Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus) are resistant to only one class of antimicrobial agents they are frequently associated with resistance to other classes. MRSA is worldwide a major cause for Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI). The prevalence of MRSA ranges from 20% - 80% in India . Similarly, among the gram negative bacteria, a major concern is the production of new beta-lactamases which are capable of degrading cephalospo- rins and carbapenems. Infections with such organisms increase the morbidity, mortality, hospital stay and cost of treatment. Patients are inevitably exposed to higher antibiotics and other drugs which may result in further complications. A reduced HAI rate and good compliance to infection control practices contributes to the reputation of the hospital. In view of the above factors, this study was un- dertaken to determine the rate of colonization of potential bacterial pathogens in the hands of final year MBBS undergraduate students who are regularly attend- ing the wards, ICUs, OTs, etc. as a part of their clinical teaching curriculum.
of pharmaceutical wastes flows through sewerage into the water bodies alarming the environmental scientist around the worldand are also getting absorbed into the land when they are disposed of as solid waste in landfills. Worldwide the use of pharmaceuticals is increasing with time 6 and newly identified pollutants may come as a threat to the environment in the future. 7 According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the majority of medication was inappropriately prescribedand sold, which leads to unnecessary storage and creates environmental threat during improper disposal. 1,2 It was established that tons of municipal solid waste are generated due to expired and unused drugs. 8 These are due to the improper disposal of unused medications through environmentally-unfriendly routes. 9 To overcome this problem the proper handling of the expired drugs is imperative. Moreover theimproper drug disposal causes various consequences like accidental consumption of expired drugs, resale or misuse during sorting. 10 The common preventive step to protect the environment from this kind of pharmaceutical waste is by creating the awareness about proper disposal method to avoid the pollution of environment and their impacts. Although the National Formulary of India, specifies guidelines for the proper disposal of medicines, yet most of the people are not aware of these guidelines and the importance to follow them. 11 As this is an emerging issue of concern, the present study was planned to carry out.Most of the healthcare professional was not aware of proper drug disposal and their impacts.
Medicines used for self medications are also known as
“over the counter drugs” medications which are available without prescriptions which are proved of efficacy and safety, where their side effects and interactions have serious complications. 11-13 A patient with fever, cold, cough, diarrhea, indigestion might receive an expert advice from friends or strangers in India. Urge of selfcare, lack of health services, poverty, ignorance, extensive and vast advertisement of drugs and more availability of drugs at an establishment other than pharmacies. All these factors govern tremendous growth of selfmedication over the decade. 14 Selfmedication patters vary among different populations and are influenced by many factors apart from which age, sex, income and medical knowledge also plays a pivotal role. 15,16 In particular selfmedication is more common in health care professionals (e.g. physicians, nurses and pharmacist) than general public. 17 Thus there is a need to provide adequate information to population so that they choose right medicine for particular illness to gain benefits from selfmedication. Hence this study was planned to find the pattern and prevalence of selfmedication in non health care professionals working in tertiarycarehospital in common illness viz; mouth and throat ulcers, common cold and cough, headache and fever, GI infections, eye/ear infections and skin and related infections.