Shea butter is a solid fatty oil extracted from the nuts of shea (Karite) tree also known as Vitellaria paradoxa or V. nilotica. The tree grows naturally in the wild across sub-saharan savannah belt stretching across West and Eastern Africa covering about 20 countries. The tree has enormous socio-cultural and economic importance to peoples living in its geographic catchment area. Its leaves, stems, roots bark are used in various traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases and injuries including stomach ache, headaches, fever, jaundice among others. The butter extracted from the fruit is used locally as food and as a cosmetic product for the skin and hair. In recent times there has been an increasing commercial and industrial demand of shea products. This is attributed to the discovery of its importance in the cosmetic and confectionary industries. Shea butter is used in cosmetic products and in the food industry where it is used as a cocoa butter substitute in the chocolate industry. In Africa where shea butter is produced it is also used as cooking oil. Shea butter is solid at room temperature but quickly melts at around body temperature. The chemical composition of shea butter includes a saponifiable fraction composed primarily of stearic and oleic acids with lesser amounts of palmitic, linoleic and arachidic acids. It also contains a substantial unsaponifiable fraction composed of bioactive substances that are responsible for Shea butter’s medicinal properties. It has sun screening properties and acts as an emollient and skin moisturizer. Shea butter has is also reported to demonstra anti-aging and anti-inflammatory properties. Consumption of Shea butter has hypocholesterolemic effect and reduces serum and organ protein concentrations.
The role of fermented milk in human nutrition is well documented and the virtues of these products were known to man even during the ancient days of civiliza- tion. These products have long been an important com- ponent of nutritional diet. The medicinal and nutritional properties of various fermented foods have been experi- enced by several generations. However, the scientific community gave impetus to these beliefs in 1910, when Eli Metchnikoff suggested that man should consume milk fermented with lactobacilli to prolong his life. He postulated the desirable bacteria in the bulgarian milk that could help in suppressing the undesirable and dis- ease causing bacteria in the intestine of human beings. The observation proved the way for exploring the poten- tials of lactic cultures and cultured products in the alle- viation of human and animal disorders. Recently impor- tance has been given to produce fermented milk with improved health attributes particularly the therapeutic properties of these products. A fermented milk product has been defined by the International Dairy Federation as the milk product prepared from skimmed milk or not with specific cultures. The microflora is kept alive until sale to the consumers and may not contain any patho- genic germs. The fermented milk products used in dif- ferent countries may be broadly classified into three
treat diseases like diabetes, cancer, inflammation, etc. (Saklani and Samuel, 2008). Although, there are numbers of allopathic drugs which have been developed every day since, the permanent recovery from the diseases and the secondary complications aroused during the medication remains a matter of debate (Edzard Ernst, 1998). Sometimes it would cause drastic effects like liver failure, kidney failure, raised blood pressure, and several other complications (Pirkle and Freedman, 2013). We have vast diverse flora with unexplored medicinal values (Hooper and Aedin, 2006). Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) is an important fruit of American origin and it belongs to the family of Fabaceae, a native of tropical America, and is cultivated throughout India and Andaman (Rao et al., 2011). P. dulce is one among the category, which is an evergreen medium-sized, spiny tree. It is locally called “Jungal jalebi,” “black bead tree” in English, “Vilayati Babul” in Hindi, and “Kodukkapuli” in Tamil (Orwa et al., 2009). This review discusses the overall bioactive constituents and their pharmaceutical properties of the P. dulce.
Skoog 1962) mineral salts plus 555µM myo-inosi- tol, 4.06µM nicotinic acid, 2.43µM pyridoxine-HCl, 0.296µM thiamine-HCl supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins, i.e. 6-benzylaminopu- rine (BA: 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/l), kinetin (Kn: 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/l), adenine sulfate (Ads: 25, 50 and 100 mg/l) and auxins like indole-3-acetic acid (IAA: 0.0, 0.10, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/l), 1-naphtha- leneacetic acid (NAA: 0.0, 0.10, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/l) for shoot multiplication. The pH of the medium was adjusted to 5.8 prior to autoclaving. Each treatment was represented by 20 cultures and the experi- ment was repeated three times. The cultures were incubated under a 16-h photoperiod having a light intensity of 55 µE/m 2 /s from cool, white fluorescent
The present study revealed that the local people of Marathwada region were using 50 species of medicinally important plants belonging to 30 families. These medicinally important plants were categorized in to tree species. These are commonly occurring medicinally important plants used to treat various diseases like cold, fever, cough, diarrhea, dysentery, skin diseases, toothache, indigestion, leprosy, and as an antidote for poisons and in wound healing. This is constant with the other general observation which has been reported earlier in relation to medicinal plant studies by the Indian Traditional System of Medicine like Siddha and Ayurvedha (Kirtikar and Basu, 2001; Gogte, 2000; Anonymous, 1992; Asolkar et al., 1992). Different types of preparation made from medicinally important plants included decoction, juice, powder, paste, oil and plant part extract. Some plants were even used in more than one form of preparations. The leaves and roots are the two major plant parts which are frequently used for the treatment of diseases by traditional healers. Preparations frommedicinal plants are applied externally to cure the disease like, skin disease, wound, rheumatism and poisons bites oral consumption was recommended against the disease like fever, cold, cough, diarrhea, indigestion etc. Drugs are prescribed either as a single or in a combination of more than one plant / parts of same or different plants to the people suffering from various diseases. Combination of various plants / parts are preferred than the single plants / part, as the combination are more effective to cure the disease and to enhance the immunity of patient suffering from various disorders. Medicinal plants play an important role in providing knowledge to the researchers in the field of ethno botany and ethno pharmacology. The observation of present study shows that traditional medicine plays a significant role in the life of local people.
sex matched and recruited from ages 40 to 75 years. Subjects taking NSAIDs underwent a 2-week washout period before the b aseline visit. Physical activity was not restricted and the subjects were not given any advice pertaining to diet. Safety was measured by the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) and laboratory abnormalities. Symp- tomatic AEs were few, mild, and comparable in treated and placebo groups. No mean values for plasma biochemistry of either group fell outside of the clinically acceptable ranges.
Tree bark is one of the most important non-timber forest products. In less developed countries, it is used for multiple purposes, particularly in traditional medicine. This paper addresses the ques- tion of bark exploitation, uses, and impacts in Madjadjane village, southern Mozambique. For that, we have conducted an ethnobotanical survey and analysed the level of damage of the ten most ex- ploited tree species. Bark was mainly used for medical purposes, spanning 13 different applica- tions. Most of the species had more than one medical application constituting potential sources of valuable biocompounds. In general the level of damage caused by debarking was not critical, but should be seen with caution. An upgrade and update of the results will be of utmost importance to estimate with more accuracy the current conservation status as well as to predict future impacts and define better conservation strategies. We suggest the expansion of ethnobotanical surveys as well as their integration in broad programs aimed at the preservation and valorization of local heritage. This will encourage equitable access and benefit sharing of biodiversity as well as the promotion of bio-based economy.
The present study is aimed at evaluating the in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, ethanol and water extracts of medicinal plant, Pyrus pashia were tested against (different gram positive and gram negative) ten bacterial strains and three fungal strains using by disc diffusion method. The different fractions of bark, fruit and leaf of Pyrus pashia, the ethanolic bark extracts of Pyrus pashia showed significant activity 17±1mm, 15±1mm and 14±1mm against Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. The medicinal plant fruit contain ash value, (total ash 1.10 ± 0.05%), moisture 60.36±0.25%, crude fat 1.62±0.20% and crude fiber 5.26±0.05%, extractive values were studied fresh part weight. The preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of carbohydrates (28.38±0.12%) and glycosides, alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, unsaturated triterpenoids and sterol, resin.
produce mainly isothiocyanates, compared with standard broccoli cultivars that also produce nitriles . Chro- mosome segments from a wild ancestor, Brassica villosa, have been introgressed to enhance glucosinolate levels. B. villosa alleles determine whether hydrolysis generates indole-3-carbinol or sulphoraphane. Hence, highglucosi- nolate broccoli might be suitable for increasing the amount of sulphoraphane in the diet. The extent to which vegeta- ble brassicas protect against cancer probably depends on the genotype of the consumer, in particular the allele pre- sent at the GSTM1 locus. This gene codes for the enzyme glutathione transferase, which catalyses the conjugation of glutathione with isothiocyanates. Approximately 50% of humans carry a deletion of the GSTM1 gene , which reduces their ability to conjugate, process and excrete isothiocyanates. Individuals with two null alleles for GSTM1 might gain less protection from these cultivars of vegetable. The most commonly consumed Brassica vege- table in Asia is Brassica rapa. B. rapa contains different isothiocyanates to B. oleracea and recent evidence sug- gests that individuals who are null for GSTM1 can gain a protective benefit from B. rapa . This example illus- trates another aspect of complexity in breeding for health functionality in vegetable crops: human genetic variabil- ity has not generally been considered in the context of plant breeding programmes, but it might have important im- plications. Thus, when establishing vegetable breeding targets, it is important to explore the extent to which hu- man variability affects the bioavailability and processing of health-functional compounds and influences health outcomes for a particular commodity.
Apunyu, A. 1997. Viability and germination potential of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea butter tree) seeds under nursery condition (unpublished).
Hartmann, H.T., Kester, D.E., Davies, F.T. and Geneve, R.L. 1997. Plant Propagation: Principles and practices. Prentice Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. 770pp. ICRAF, 2002. Vegetative tree propagation in agroforestry.
Estimates of benefits and costs are initial approximations as some benefits and costs are intangible or difficult to quantify (e.g., impacts on psychological health, crime, and violence). Limited knowledge about the physical processes at work and their interactions make esti- mates imprecise (e.g., fate of air pollutants trapped by trees and then washed to the ground by rainfall). Tree growth and mortality rates are highly variable throughout the region. Benefits and costs also vary, depending on differences in climate, air-pollutant concentrations, tree-maintenance practices, and other factors. Given the Midwest region’s large geographical area, with many different climates, soils, and types of community forestry programs, this approach provides first-order approximations. It is a general accounting that can be easily adapted and adjusted for local planting projects. It provides a basis for decisions that set priorities and influence management direc- tion (Maco and McPherson 2003).
Freshly de-pulped shea nut were collected from Lemuta, Somajigi and Ekota villages in Doko district of Lavun, local government area of Niger State, Nigeria. The nuts from these locations were mixed and sprouted ones were sorted out manually and discarded. From the remaining nuts, 500 Kg was weighed using Diamond weighing balance and subsequently divided into five groups of 100 Kg each. Each group was boiled in water for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes respectively using aluminum pot. Each of the boiled nuts was sun dried on a wire mesh bed. The shell of the dried nuts was then removed to obtain fresh kernel. The fresh kernels were exposed to sunlight to further reduce the moisture content to between 7-8 %. 5 kg of each of the dried kernels was respectively cooked at 30 0 C (room temperature, no cooking) and 100 0 C boiling point of water. The cooked kernels were severally milled using 15 KW atlas milling machine to obtain a fine homogeneous paste. The paste obtained was then kneaded with occasional addition of cold water as kneading progresses to facilitate the separation of the curd with the sludge. The curd which floats on the water was carefully collected and boiled at between 85 0 C and 90 0 C over water for 50 minutes. The oil collected was again washed with water, kept for about 6hrs to separate and the clean oil was collected and allowed to congeal, packaged, refrigerated and then analyzed in Central Laboratory, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI) Badeggi, Nigeria.
The seven observational studies dealing with IS con- sumption and the incidence of T2D showed diverging results. Four cohort studies of good quality (three under- taken in North American populations and one in a European population), over periods of nine to 24 years, did not show any relationship between the consumption of artificially sweetened beverages and the risk of devel- oping T2D after adjustment for BMI and energy intake of subjects [61–63, 26]. Three other cohort studies sug- gested a positive association between the consumption of artificially sweetened beverages and the incidence of T2D [64–66]. Among them a French study, , showed that the incidence of T2D was significantly higher (HR (95 % CI) 2.21 [1.56-3.14]) in the group of women con- suming the largest amounts of artificially sweetened bev- erages (over 600 mL per week) who were monitored for 14 years, with a linear and dose-dependent relationship. The second study, undertaken in the United States for seven years, reported an increase in the incidence of T2D in subjects consuming more than one artificially sweetened beverage per day in a model with adjustment for the primary confounding factors (HR (95 % CI) 1.67 [1.27–2.20]. The third study, which reported an in- creased incidence of T2D in subjects consuming more than one artificially sweetened beverage per week (HR (95 % CI) 1.70 [1.13–2.55], focused on a limited-sized Japanese population not representative of the general population, monitored for seven years. It is important to underline the heterogeneity of these data, particularly in terms of the characteristics of the populations and the monitoring periods (from seven to 24 years). Further- more, in these studies, the consumption of artificially sweetened beverages was recorded when the subjects were first included, often through self-administered fre- quency questionnaires, with no updating of dietary data over time.
For Cheyohi & Kpachi (2007) and Gbimsi (2008), I was able to find two undergraduate students in their final year at the University for Development Studies (UDS) who were willing to work as interpreters for me, and assist me in the tree census in these communities. Mr Adam Iddrisu, a native of Tamale and a final year undergraduate in Forestry and Agriculture at UDS-Nyankpala was an ideal assistant for Cheyohi & Kpachi. Mr Iddrisu himself came from a Dagomba family and understood the culture and language of these Dagomba communities well. Moreover, living in Nyankpala at a walking distance from the community, he was able to maximise his and my time with the community during the period of fieldwork. Mr Iddrisu interpreted for me during all the interviews and focus group discussions in Cheyohi & Kpachi, in addition to assisting me in carrying out the census of shea and locust bean trees on the farmlands in these communities. Mr Tahiru Mohammad Salifu, a native of Naliregu in Mamprussi traditional area, and a final year undergraduate at UDS-Wa, interpreted for me in Gbimsi. He also assisted in the tree census in the community. Again, being a native of the area, and a Mampruli speaker, Mr Salifu was well suited to his role, and performed an excellent task. Working with three different interpreters/assistants in three study sites was both challenging and rewarding. They were all excellent learners and hard workers, but also brought their unique perspective in terms of working with the community, and facilitating my communication to my interviewees. Before the start of the interviews, I briefed them on the issues to be discussed and gave them a copy of the interview guide to familiarise them with the general structure of the interview in advance. However, being semi-structured interviews with mostly open-ended questions, they had to be
due to chelation by organic molecules and Ca content of the manures. After five years of cultivation of elephant foot yam and yams, the SOM increased by 19 % and 11% respectively in organic plots over conventional plots as evident from Tables 4 and 5. Higher soil organic matter status of organic plots might be attributed to the large addition of organic manures particularly green manure, cowpea. In both the crops, available N and P were higher and in yams, there was significant improvement of available K under organic management (Table 5). These may be due to the direct result of inputs and constituents of various manures. Exchangeable Mg and available Cu, Mn and Fe contents were also significantly higher in organic plots than in conventional plots in elephant foot yam (Table 4).
From the time we start eating solid foods, many of us have been told to eat more fruits and vegetables. “Eat your vegetables” is the mantra of all parents trying to get children to eat more nutritious foods. Public service announcements remind us to have at least six servings of fruits and vegetables per day, but more than 70 percent of adults and 90 percent of adolescents are not meeting the dietary guidelines (1). So doctors hound their patients to eat less meat and more plants. But rarely are we given an explanation as to why we should hop on the bandwagon. What are the reasons we should concentrate on eating more salads and fruit cups; is there any real science to the urgings of nutritionists to eat more fruits and vegetables?
Millets have good grain qualities suitable for processing. Processing of the grain for many end uses involves primary (wetting, dehulling and milling) and secondary (fermentation, malting, extrusion, glaking, popping and roasting) operations. Being a staple and consumed at household levels, processing must be considered at both traditional and industrial levels, involving small, medium and large-scale entrepreneurs (Obilana and Manyasa, 2002; Hamad, 2012). Dehulling is not favorable to millets due to their small grains sizes. In addition, dehulling causes nutrients loss. All the Millets can be milled by hand grinding (household level) or machine milling (cottage, small-to-medium scale service and large scale industrial). Millet and sorghum malt production is a traditional practice in Africa, where malt is used in lactic acid- and alcoholic-fermented beverages and infant food production (Adekunle, 2012). Traditional malting processes in many developing countries involve three main operations: soaking, germination, and drying. The duration and conditions of each operation are highly variable, resulting in highly variable malt and derived product quality (Vidya et al., 2012). Burukutu and Pito are traditional African beers differ from Western beer types in several ways: they are often sour less carbonated and have no hops; these beer are products of both at traditional and industrial level (Anukam and Reid, 2009; Amadou et al., 2011a). The emerging principal uses of millets as an industrial raw material include production of biscuits and confectionery, beverages, weaning foods and beer (Laminu et al., 2011; Anukam and Reid, 2009). Grits, flour, and meals from cereals such as millet, sorghum, and corn are now common items in the market. Soft biscuits and cookies are being made using sorghum, maize and wheat composites, while cakes and non-wheat breads have become a subject of increasing scientific and technological enquiry, showing encouraging results (Akeredolu et al., 2005; Hama et al., 2011; Laminu et al., 2011; Vidya et al., 2012).
Abstract: “Okra” (Abelmoschus esculentus) is an economically important vegetable crop grown in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. This paper was aimed to review nutritional quality and potential health benefits of edible parts of “Okra”. “Okra” is a multipurpose crop due to its various uses of the fresh leaves, buds, flowers, pods, stems and seeds. “Okra” immature fruits, which are consumed as vegetables, can be used in salads, soups and stews, fresh or dried, fried or boiled. It offers mucilaginous consistency after cooking. Often the extract obtained from the fruit is added to different recipes like stews and sauces to increase the consistency. “Okra” mucilage has medicinal applications when used as a plasma replacement or blood volume expander. The mucilage of “Okra” binds cholesterol and bile acid carrying toxins dumped into it by the liver. “Okra” seeds are a potential source of oil, with concentrations varying from 20% to 40%, which consists of linoleic acid up to 47.4%. “Okra” seed oil is also a rich source of linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid essential for human nutrition. “Okra” has been called “a perfect villager’s vegetable” because of its robust nature, dietary fiber, and distinct seed protein balance of both lysine and tryptophan amino acids. The amino acid composition of “Okra” seed protein is comparable to that of soybean and the protein efficiency ratio is higher than that of soybean and the amino acid pattern of the protein renders it an adequate supplement to legume or cereal based diets. “Okra” seed is known to be rich in high quality protein especially with regards to its content of essential amino acids relative to other plant protein sources. “Okra” is a powerhouse of valuable nutrients, nearly half of which is soluble fibre in the form of gums and pectins which help to lower serum cholesterol, reducing the risk of heart diseases. The other fraction of “Okra” is insoluble fibre, which helps to keep the intestinal tract healthy. “Okra” is also abundant with several carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins, which play a vital role in human diet and health. “Okra” is rich in phenolic compounds with important biological properties like quartering and flavonol derivatives, catechin oligomers and hydroxycinnamic derivatives. “Okra” is also known for being high in antioxidants activity. “Okra” has several potential health beneficial effects on some of the important human diseases like cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, digestive diseases and some cancers. Overall, “Okra” is an important vegetable crop with a diverse array of nutritional quality and potential health benefits.
Heart Disease :- Recent researches in the West have established onion as an effective preventive food item against heart attack. Dr. N.N. Gupta of the K.G. Medical College, Lucknow, in 1966, and a panel of doctors in England in 1968 have stated that onion has been found helpful and beneficial in diseases of the heart. According to .them these benefits are due to the presence of essential oil, aliypropyl disulphide, catechol, protocatechnic acid, thiopropiono atdehyde, thiocyanate, calcium, iron, phosphorus and vitamins in onion.Dr. N. Radhakrishnan, Principal of the Trivandrum Medical College and Dr. K. Madhavan Kutty have established, after seven years of research, that to get rid of coronary heart or blood pressure disorders and one should take 100 gms. of onion per day. The onion are very valuable in heart diseases as they correct thrombosis and also reduce blood cholesterol.
F INANCE C OMMITTEE
By Zoe Ann Dudley, Finance Chair
"I remember being amazed that death could so easi- ly rise up from the nothing of a boyish afternoon, billow up like fog. I knew that West Baltimore, where I lived; that the north side of Philadelphia, where my cousins lived; that the South Side of Chicago, where friends of my father lived, comprised a world apart. Somewhere out there beyond the firmament, past the asteroid belt, there were other worlds where chil- dren did not regularly fear for their bodies. I knew this because there was a large television resting in my living room. In the evenings I would sit before this television bearing witness to the dispatches from this other world. There were little white boys with complete collections of football cards, and their only want was a popular girlfriend and their only worry was poison oak. That other world was suburban and endless, organized around pot roasts, blueberry pies, fireworks, ice cream sundaes, immaculate