Top PDF Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

These terms are both used to indicate a number of disorders characterised by severe impairment in social interaction, communication, and the presence of stereotyped behaviours, interests, and activities. ‘Pervasive developmental disorder’ (PDD) is used in the ICD classificatory system, but was replaced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) with ASD, the term used most in this report. The category as used here consists mostly of ICD-10 classifications of autism and Asperger’s syndrome, but also some cases of other pervasive developmental disorders. Symptoms include: language problems, difficulty relating to other people, unusual forms of play, difficulty with changes in routine, and repetitive movements or behaviour patterns.
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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

charities, academics, educators, the public and the media. Uses of the data include: informing and monitoring policy; monitoring the prevalence of health or illness and changes in health or health related behaviours in children and young people; informing the planning of services for this age group; and writing media articles. Universities, charities and the commercial sector use the data for health and social research. User needs have been gathered and considered at all points in the collection and publication of this information. This has been guided by a steering group consisting of representatives from NHS Digital, DHSC, PHE, DfE, NHS England, Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families, academic leads in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, and academic leads in Contemporary Psychoanalysis and
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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

methods to assess for a range of different types of disorder according to International Classification of Disease (ICD-10) diagnostic criteria (WHO, 1992). Comparable data is available for 5 to 15 year olds living in England in 1999, 2004, and 2017. In keeping with broadening definitions of adolescence (Sawyer et al., 2018), the 2017 sample was the first in the series to include 17 to 19 year olds, as well as 2 to 4 year olds. Behavioural (or conduct) disorders were one of the types of child mental health conditions assessed on the survey. Information on the prevalence of behavioural disorders in 2 to 4 year olds can be found in the Preschool Children topic report. This topic report examines the:
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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

The Mental Health of Children and Young People (MHCYP) survey was conducted with 5 to 15 year olds living in Britain in 1999 and 5 to 16 year olds living in Britain in 2004. The 1999 and 2004 surveys sampled from Child Benefit records. For the 2017 survey a stratified multistage random probability sample of 18,029 children was drawn from NHS Patient Register in October 2016. Children and young people were eligible to take part if they were aged 2 to 19, lived in England, and were registered with a GP. Children, young people and their parents were interviewed face-to-face at home using a combination of Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) and Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI), between January and October 2017. A short paper or online questionnaire was completed by a nominated teacher for children aged 5 to 16 years old. Data collection varied with the selected child’s age:
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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

The Mental Health of Children and Young People (MHCYP) survey was conducted with 5 to 15 year olds living in Britain in 1999 and 5 to 16 year olds living in Britain in 2004. The 1999 and 2004 surveys sampled from Child Benefit records. For the 2017 survey a stratified multistage random probability sample of 18,029 children was drawn from NHS Patient Register in October 2016. Children and young people were eligible to take part if they were aged 2 to 19, lived in England, and were registered with a GP. Children, young people and their parents were interviewed face-to-face at home using a combination of Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) and Computer
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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

This survey has found that one in twenty children and young people experienced two or more mental disorders. Classification systems such as ICD-10 (used in this report) consider mental disorders to be self-contained and distinct from each other. However, mental disorders are complex combinations of psychological problems which often have overlapping characteristics with individuals experiencing one mental disorder having substantially increased odds of having another mental disorder (Clark et al., 2017). Additionally, each disorder does not have its own clear-cut cause, instead mental health issues generally occur as a result of interactions between multiple biological, behavioural, psychosocial and cultural factors (Clark et al., 2017). The importance of considering the associations between co-occurring mental disorders can be seen in the finding that nearly three quarters of children with a hyperactivity disorder in this survey had two or more disorders. This compared to about half of children with emotional, behavioural or less common disorders having two or more disorders. Previous research into this area has also shown that children with a hyperactivity disorder 4 often have a comorbid mental disorder (Larson et al.,
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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

The Mental Health of Children and Young People (MHCYP) surveywas previously conducted with 5 to 15 year olds in 1999 and 5 to 16 year olds in 2004, who were living in Britain and sampled from Child Benefit records. For the 2017 survey, a stratified multistage random probability sample of children was drawn from the NHS Patient Register in October 2016. Children and young people were eligible to take part if they were aged 2 to 19, lived in England, and were registered with a GP.

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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

The Mental Health of Children and Young People (MHCYP) survey was conducted with 5 to 15 year olds living in Britain in 1999 and 5 to 16 year olds living in Britain in 2004. The 1999 and 2004 surveys sampled from Child Benefit records. For the 2017 survey a stratified multistage random probability sample of 18,029 children was drawn from NHS Patient Register in October 2016. Children and young people were eligible to take part if they were aged 2 to 19, lived in England, and were registered with a GP. Children, young people and their parents were interviewed face-to-face at home using a combination of Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) and Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI), between January and October 2017. A short paper or online questionnaire was completed by a nominated teacher for children aged 5 to 16 years old. Data collection varied with the selected child’s age:
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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

The Mental Health of Children and Young People (MHCYP) survey was conducted with 5 to 15 year olds living in Britain in 1999 and 5 to 16 year olds living in Britain in 2004. The 1999 and 2004 surveys sampled from child benefit records. For the 2017 survey a stratified multistage random probability sample of 18,029 children was drawn from NHS Patient Register in October 2016. Children and young people were eligible to take part if they were aged 2 to 19, lived in England, and were registered with a GP. Children, young people and their parents were interviewed face-to-face at home using a combination of Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) and Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI), between January and October 2017. A short paper or online questionnaire was completed by a nominated teacher for children aged 5 to 16 years old. Data collection varied with the selected child’s age:
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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

The Mental Health of Children and Young People (MHCYP) survey was conducted with 5 to 15 year olds living in Britain in 1999 and 5 to 16 year olds living in Britain in 2004. The 1999 and 2004 surveys sampled from Child Benefit records. For the 2017 survey a stratified multistage random probability sample of 18,029 children was drawn from NHS Patient Register in October 2016. Children and young people were eligible to take part if they were aged 2 to 19, lived in England, and were registered with a GP. Children, young people and their parents were interviewed face-to-face at home using a combination of Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) and Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI), between January and October 2017. A short paper or online questionnaire was completed by a nominated teacher for children aged 5 to 16 years old. Data collection varied with the selected child’s age:
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Inpatient provision for children and young people with mental health problems. July 2017

Inpatient provision for children and young people with mental health problems. July 2017

One aspect which has received less attention in recent years is inpatient care. Also known as ‘Tier Four’ services, these are facilities for children and young people with mental health problems who require hospital admission. These can be separate facilities or part of a larger facility that includes units for adults or outpatient services. The Education Policy Institute has analysed the literature and available data to establish what is currently known about the state of inpatient mental health services for children and young people. Information in this report is derived from national datasets including the NHS Digital monthly Mental Health statistics and the NHS England Five Year Forward View for Mental Health Dashboard. We have also included data provided by NHS England on request, and information from the existing literature.
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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Clinical raters undertook the enormous task of reviewing information on all the children and young people who took part. From the University of Exeter College of Medicine and Health these included Carmen Apostu, Pamela Bowman, Tamsin Newlove- Delgado, Oana Mitrofan and Eva Wooding. From Kings College London: Sophie Epstein, Andrew McWilliams, Helena Hamilton, Christine Kuhn. Thanks to Bruce Clark and the Body Dysmorphic Disorder team from South London and Maudsley Hospital for independently rating BDD diagnoses.

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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

This section of the interview is about the child’s level of activity and concentration over the last 6 months. Nearly all young people are overactive or lose concentration at times, but what we would like to know is how the child compares with other young people of their own age. We are interested in how they are usually - not on the occasional 'off day'.

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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

White British children were about three times more likely to be identified with ASD than Black or Asian children. Research on variation by ethnic group is mixed, and migration status may compound the relationship (Becerra et al., 2014). The higher rate of diagnosis in White British children has been thought to relate to greater treatment and service access. England’s survey of mental health in adults found White British people with a common mental disorder to have higher levels of treatment access than people of other ethnic groups (Lubian et al., 2016). Recent research has also found that members of minority ethnic groups may hold more self-stigmatising views of autism (Papadopulous, 2016). This could be a factor shaping higher levels of social desirability bias in reporting of symptoms in children with minority ethnic parents. Almost all the children in the sample identified on the spectrum were recognised as having special educational needs, and they make up a sizeable minority of the special educational needs group as a whole (one in seven). The survey data indicates the extent to which schools and education services may have autistic pupils in their communities.
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Children’s Voices : a review of evidence on the subjective wellbeing of children with mental health needs in England. October 2017

Children’s Voices : a review of evidence on the subjective wellbeing of children with mental health needs in England. October 2017

Fear of being seen accessing services and insecurity about the confidentiality of the service also emerged as important barriers to young people’s ability to address and overcome mental health needs. Young people see trust and confidentiality as essential elements of service provision; whilst young people’s relationships with professionals vary, troublingly, many young people lack trust in mental health professionals, and feel misunderstood and unheard. Services are most helpful to children where they are participatory and children are given agency in decisions about their care. Mental illness is perceived by young people as attracting significant stigma, which in turns impacts on feelings of self-worth and self-esteem amongst children diagnosed as having a mental health need. Children with mental health needs tend to see themselves as different from other children, feel guilt and shame in relation to this difference, and aspire to normality. Children’s ‘self-stigma’ is often reinforced by the way they are perceived and treated by the people around them.
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Mental Health Service Models for Young People

Mental Health Service Models for Young People

The New Care Models in Mental Health Services Programme aims to enable CYP with severe MH problems to access an inpatient bed close to their home; decreasing the length of inpatient stays, avoiding inappropriate admissions, and reducing stress for CYP and their families. The model supports local MH service providers to manage budgets for these services in their local areas, through joint- commissioning with NHS England. This model was first implemented in April 2017 in West London and North East and North Yorkshire. 45

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Improving children and young people’s mental health services

Improving children and young people’s mental health services

3.5 In 2015-16 NHS England undertook a one-off exercise to gain assurance that local transformation plans were in line with national Future in Mind priorities. Plans for 2015-16 had to be assessed as satisfactory before CCGs could receive any additional funding. NHS England told us that it did not withhold transformation funding from any area due to unsatisfactory transformation plans, although some areas had to resubmit plans before they were considered satisfactory. After the first year, NHS England’s regional teams carried out assurance of the local transformation plans as part of its business-as-usual oversight of CCGs, and funding was provided to CCGs as part of their established funding settlement (rather than as a separate payment). NHS England also told us that each year it conducts an exercise centrally to gain assurance that local transformation plans have been refreshed. The regional teams review plans for each local area, with the assurance processes varying within and between regions. There are ‘key lines of enquiry’ issued each year to set priorities for plans, but there are no national measurable objectives relating to the quality of plans or the extent to which they meet the key lines of enquiry. 3.6 Despite NHS England’s processes to quality assure local transformation plans, its monitoring of spending and performance for children and young people’s mental health services remains at a CCG and STP level, rather than a local transformation plan level (in line with its responsibilities for holding CCGs and STPs to account for NHS spending). However, NHS England required CCGs to engage with local partners outside the NHS in developing their local transformation plans, and also required that plans were agreed by local health and well-being boards (local boards that include both local authority and CCG representation). This means there is very limited national oversight of local transformation plans in transforming children and young people’s mental health services. As part of the Forward View reporting, CCGs assessed their own performance in transforming services, including whether they had refreshed their local transformation plan and whether they had met key milestones in service transformation. By quarter 4 of 2016-17, 42% of CCGs reported via their self-assessment that they were fully confident in their own transformation.
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Children and equality : equality evidence relating to children and young people in England

Children and equality : equality evidence relating to children and young people in England

It is reported that 25% of young people in the youth justice system have a learning disability and 30% have a physical disability. 14 15 Research also demonstrates consistently high levels of complex developmental issues and unmet emotional and other mental health needs among children and young people in the youth justice system. Speech and language difficulties are also common. Approximately 60% of children and young people in the youth justice system have significant speech, language and communication needs, sometimes undiagnosed and therefore untreated. 16 Between 46 and 67% of young people in the youth justice system, many of whom have these verbal communication difficulties, are also recognised as having poor or very poor literacy and numeracy skills. 17 Up to one third of children with untreated speech and language difficulties develop subsequent mental health problems. 18 Communication disability is strongly linked to deprivation and poverty in the early years. There is some evidence that children may be misdiagnosed as having a mental health problem or a conduct disorder when in fact they have an undiagnosed communication problem. 19
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Children and Young People’s Mental Health: time to deliver

Children and Young People’s Mental Health: time to deliver

The Education Policy Institute would also like to thank the following people and organisations who have helped with the research for this report: The Association of State Girls’ Schools; Peter Hindley, Royal College of Psychiatry; Max Davie, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health; Steve Mallen, MindED Trust; Helen Pye, South West Yorkshire NHS Partnership Foundation Trust; Paul Jenkins, Chief Executive, and Paul Burstow, Chair, Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust; Professor Jim McManus, Director of Public Health, Hertfordshire County Council; Revd Dr Brendan McCarthy, National Adviser: Medical Ethics and Health and Social Care Policy, The Archbishops’ Council, The Church of England; Dr Sam Royston, Director of Policy and Research, The Children’s Society; Fergus Crowe, Chief Executive, Winston’s Wish; Andy Bell and Lorraine Khan, Centre for Mental Health; Max Birchwood, Professor of Youth Mental Health, Warwick Medical School; Catherine Roche, Chief Executive, Place2Be; the Anna Freud Family School; Duncan Law, Anna Freud Centre; Zoe Mulliez, Healthwatch England; Liz Maudslay and Pirandeep Dhillon, Association of Colleges; Laurie Oliva, Young Minds; Professor Isobel Heyman, Great Ormond Street Hospital; Tony Childs, HSCIC; Alan Wardle, NSPCC; Sarah Woodhouse, Turning Point; Dr Ann York CQC; Nerys Anthony, Director, Young People Health and Wellbeing, Catch 22; Barbara Rayment, Youth Access; Neil Ralph, Health Education England; Jeff Halperin, Camden and Islington Foundation Trust; Emma Wilson, CRN Mental Health Young Person’s Advisory Group; Sinem Cakir, Chief Executive, MAC UK; Laura Abbott, Chilypep; Janet Johnson, Oxfordshire County Council; Brigid Reid and colleagues, Barnsley Clinical Commissioning Group; Barbara Herts and Claire Hardy and colleagues, Essex County Council; Becky Anderton, Elaine Kirwan, Dr Anupam Dharma, Chris Spence and colleagues from Forward Thinking Birmingham; Rob Willoughby, Children’s Society; Lajla Johansson and colleagues; Oxfordshire Clinical Commissioning Group; Lynn Smith, Oxfordshire County Council; Dr Mina Fazel, Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford; Mental Health in Society Training, especially Dr Elizabeth Artingstall, Consultant Forensic Psychiatrist, Dr Sile McDaid, Consultant Child & Adolescent Psychiatrist and Mrs Karen Burns, Chief Executive of Academy Trust and Executive Principal.
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Exploring the impact of social inequality and poverty on the mental health and wellbeing and attainment of children and young people in Scotland

Exploring the impact of social inequality and poverty on the mental health and wellbeing and attainment of children and young people in Scotland

key part in promoting positive mental health and wellbeing in children and young people (García-Moya, Brooks, Morgan, and Moreno, 2015, Lester and Cross, 2013, Prince, and Hadwin, 2013, and Riley, 2017) and the World Health Organisation argues that having strong social ties within the school environment leads to better attainment (World Health Organisation, 2016). Riley (2017) defines a ‘sense of belonging’ as ‘a sense of somewhere you can feel confident that you will fit in and feel safe in your identity’ (p. 4). For Riley, schools need to be places ‘of opportunity, environments where all young people can flourish’ (p. 6) and relationships lie at the heart of this, including positive relationships with teachers. Unfortunately, this is not the case for all children and young people and some find themselves disenfranchised ‘looking in from outside:’
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