Top PDF Metacognitive awareness and use of reading strategies by the students of forms 11 and 12 in Parksepa Secondary School

Metacognitive awareness and use of reading strategies by the students of forms 11 and 12 in Parksepa Secondary School

Metacognitive awareness and use of reading strategies by the students of forms 11 and 12 in Parksepa Secondary School

The results revealed that the metacognitive awareness and use of reading strategies by the students participating in the study was relatively low, compared to the results of several other similar studies (Hokkanen, 2015; Maasum and Maarof, 2012; Yüksel and Yüksel, 2011). The average scores of the whole sample, as well as of the boys and girls separately showed medium use of reading strategies. However, the numbers clearly indicate that the examined students do not perceive and report of using reading strategies as much as the examined young adults in other countries. Partly, it can be caused by the age difference (as the majority of the mentioned studies focused on university undergraduates). Further, a highly probable reason for that is the lack of common instruction of metacognition in relation to reading strategies in Estonia. Evidently, it depends greatly on every language teacher´s individual methods and content of instruction, but as regards our National Curriculum, this topic has not been clearly included. The participants of the current study have also not been trained to recognize or use metacognitive reading strategies as such, and therefore, the moderate average scores of use should not be overly surprising.
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Investigating metacognitive reading strategies with mediating effects of students' reading engagement

Investigating metacognitive reading strategies with mediating effects of students' reading engagement

instrument was later adopted and adapted by other researchers. In the following studies, MARSI (Mokhtari and Reichard, 2002) was used to observe the frequent use of metacognitive reading strategies in order to assess cognitive reading engagement (Park & Kim, 2016; McElhone, 2012). Based on MARSI, Mokhtari and Sheorey (2002) developed an instrument called “Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS)” to “measure adolescences and adult EFL studentsmetacognitive awareness and perceived use of reading strategies while reading academic materials such as text books” (p. 2). Both tools consisted of the same 30 items: global reading strategies (13 items), problem solving strategies (8 items) and supporting reading strategies (9 items) (Mokhtari & Reichard, 2002; Mokhtari & Sheorey, 2002). However, in this study, only 12 items were chosen among the 30 items (four from each of categories). A Likert Scale (5-point scale) was used, from 1 to 5: strongly disagree (1) and strongly agree (5) (see Appendix A). This instrument basically intended to observe the discrete use of metacognitive reading strategies among KDIS students while they are assigned to read English assignment for their study.
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The Relationship Between Metacognitive Awareness Of Reading Strategies Use And 10Th Grade Students\u27 College And Career Readiness Achievement In English Language Arts

The Relationship Between Metacognitive Awareness Of Reading Strategies Use And 10Th Grade Students\u27 College And Career Readiness Achievement In English Language Arts

Public opinion, policy, and practice in the realm of public education has shifted in recent years to a fundamental focus on ensuring that all students are prepared for college and careers after having matriculated through the grade levels, K-12 (Edwards, 2014). Today, there is ever more increasing attention being given to the outcomes of high stakes tests that are designed to measure the college and career readiness (CCR) standards born out of the Common Core State Standards, but which are now particularly repackaged and implemented per the goals and priorities of individual states in the United States. (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010; McNeil & Gewertz, 2013; Wallender, 2014). With the measurement of these standards comes an almost momentous opportunity for English education practitioners (i.e., English teachers) and other pertinent
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Metacognitive Awareness of Strategy Use in EFL Reading Comprehension in Bangladesh

Metacognitive Awareness of Strategy Use in EFL Reading Comprehension in Bangladesh

With the emergence of Bangladesh in 1971(the seed of which was sown in 1952 when the Bangladeshis laid their lives for their mother tongue, Bangla, also called Bengali), Bangla was declared as a sole language to be used in every sphere of life in the country and thus Bangla became the functional language in all the significant domains of the society including government, education, law, administration, everyday communication, the media, as well as entertainment (Imam, 2005). This inevitably affected and limited the use of English in the socio-cultural domain and the linguistic reality impacted on the important socio-psychological factors of the learners in this country, and ultimately shaped their perceptions about learning ‘English’ (Rahman, 2005). In the minds of most people, national identity and learning English were positioned as antagonistic, not complementary (Imam, 2005). As such, for a long time English was being neglected to be taught to preserve national sentiment of the country. However, in the 21 st century, a utilitarian value of English is realised and English is deemed important for higher education (Sultana, 2014). Now, English is taught as a compulsory subject from grade 1 to grade 12 i.e., up to Higher Secondary Level (HSC) in Bangladesh, although Bangla is the medium of instruction in the primary (Grade 1-5), secondary (Grade 6- 10) and higher secondary (Grade 11-12) education of the Bangla-medium schools (Sultana, 2014). Starting from earlier grade possible, reading is being taught along with writing; among the 4 basic language skills, teaching and learning of reading has an important place in Bangladesh (Haque, 2006). However, even after introduction of communicative language teaching (CLT), which focuses on communicative use of all four language skills including reading, HSC level leaners’ EFL reading comprehension is not deemed satisfactory as Khatun & Begum (2000) revealed that the HSC level students scored only 40% in reading comprehension.
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Revising the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI) and testing for factorial invariance

Revising the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI) and testing for factorial invariance

The participants in this study included 1,164 students in grades 6 through the first year of college. Students in grades 6-12 were enrolled in three large school districts and one community college located in a large metropolitan city in the Midwestern United States. The students ranged in age from 11 to 18 years old and the mean age of the group was 13.38 years (SD = 1.99). The sample included males (51%) and females (49 %), representing a fairly diverse group with Cauca- sian (N = 628 or 54.0%), Hispanic (N = 205 or 17.6%), African-American (N = 131 or 11.2%), and Other (N = 200 or 17.2%) student groups. School demographics indicated that students were quite diverse with respect to linguistic, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds. For instance, Hispanic students had varied English language proficiency levels ranging from intermediate to advanced, as indicated by enrollment in either ESL and/or developmental reading classes. There were also discrepancies in socio-economic levels between minority stu- dent groups (i.e., Hispanics and African-American) and Caucasian students.
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The Predictive Power of Vocabulary Knowledge, Syntactic Awareness and Metacognitive Awareness Reading Strategies in Reading Comprehension of EFL Learners (Jiga 11th Grade Students in Focus)

The Predictive Power of Vocabulary Knowledge, Syntactic Awareness and Metacognitive Awareness Reading Strategies in Reading Comprehension of EFL Learners (Jiga 11th Grade Students in Focus)

reading strategies were implicitly and explicitly stated on the learners’ textbook, in the process of reading comprehension and could not differentiate which metacognitive awareness reading strategies are necessary according to their reading purpose. This may happen because teachers give less attention to help their learners in using different metacognitive awareness reading strategies during reading comprehension. This might lead to say the lack of using metacognitive awareness reading strategies in reading comprehension, as some scholars say, might be attributed to other factors such as parents’ educational background, lack of the use of extensive reading programme, or the adequate provision of materials in the school. Concerning the relevance of the reading comprehension text in fostering EFL in using metacognitive awareness reading strategies highly depends on the teachers’ perspective. In a countries like Ethiopia, which English is used as an EFL, everything is relies on the classroom teacher to show how, what, where their learners’ employee the metacognitive awareness reading strategies in the reading processes because learners could not know what strategies they use while they are reading the text for different purposes. If students are aware of the array of strategies that they can use, they can learn to select the appropriate strategies that can help them in obtaining meaning from the text they are reading. One way to create awareness in using metacognitive awareness reading strategy is group work. It comprising of mixed ability students can also be organized so that poor readers may learn to use some of their existing strategies more efficiently and learn to employ new strategies from the good readers. Likewise, grade 11 EFL learners are highly expected to use top-down (higher level thinking) reading strategies than bottom-up reading comprehension processes though they are equally needed. To bring this concept driven knowledge to their reading comprehension process, EFL learners face difficulties and to alleviate these problems EFL teachers should be committed to take risk for their learners’ problems. Moreover, the amount of reading comprehension texts and activities inviting learners to use their own metacognitive awareness reading strategies in the textbook are designed to practice for limited reading comprehension strategies.
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METACOGNITIVE AWARENESS OF READING STRATEGIES AMONG ESP STUDENTS REGARDING THEIR PRIOR EDUCATION

METACOGNITIVE AWARENESS OF READING STRATEGIES AMONG ESP STUDENTS REGARDING THEIR PRIOR EDUCATION

The research was conducted at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb. In order to enroll at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, students have to pass English with at least the minimum of a credit pass at The State Matura A2 level (the National Secondary School Leaving Exam in Croatia). Having that in mind, teachers are faced with classes of students with different prior education and different language levels. One of the most important goals at the Department of Technical English is to enable students to use applicable reading strategies in order to find and understand relevant technical information with the special attention to precision. This could be extremely difficult if teachers are faced with such a difference in language levels among students. That is the reason why the study explores the use and the awareness of metacognitive strategies among second year ESP students at the Faculty. Furthermore, it gives an insight into the most frequent metacognitive strategies among second year students and compares them to students‟ prior education and the results of the ESP reading comprehension tests taken at the third semester and the duration of learning English. The purpose of the study is to raise the importance of the metacognitive awareness, and accordingly, implement it in ESP classes. The overall score awareness will indicate how often students believe they use strategies while reading academic materials. The obtained information about the score on each subscale will indicate whether some strategies are used more than others and students might want to learn about them more and implement them in their reading.
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Metacognitive Reading Strategy Training For High School Students

Metacognitive Reading Strategy Training For High School Students

The result of this research was in the contrary to Moonsamy¶s findings (2012) that WKHUH ZDV QR VLJQLILFDQW GLIIHUHQFH LQ WKH VWXGHQWV¶ UHDGLQJ FRPSUHKHQVLRQ ZKLFK was conducted in school, grade 6. As mentioned in chapter one that students from different faculties, different genders or different age will have different levels of metacognitive awareness, older people will have higher metacognitive awareness compared to younger people. The difference in the result could be caused by the different age of the subject of the research. In this research, senior high school students grade 11 whose age were range between 16 to 17 years old assumed that they had already better awareness of the strategies compare to the students of elementary school grade 6 whose age were range between 11 to 12 years old. It is supported by Pressley, et al in Waters and Schneider (2010: 3) who said that only as children mature that they broaden their strategy use across different materials and develop their strategy, changes in metacognition, with an increasing awareness of strategy use and its impact on performance.
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Exploring the metacognitive skills of secondary school students' use during problem posing

Exploring the metacognitive skills of secondary school students' use during problem posing

Againts this background, the purpose of this research is to answer the research question: “What kinds of metacognitive skills occur during problem posing activities among secondary school students?” More specifically, this research has an objective: To investigate studentsmetacognitive skills while posing mathematical problems. To investigate this question, we adopted Schraw et al. (2006)’ model of metacognition because it aligns well with the problem solving process. Therefore, by using This qualitative research and data sources that include a think aloud protocols, semi structure interview, and students written works, we endeavored to capture a rich picture of students’ thinking while problem posing. In addition, this research is delimited to problem reformulation. The finding of this research has potential to enrich our understanding of how students apply metacognitive skills during mathematical problem posing activities and are expected to assist teachers in developing a creative lesson plan by proposing high level problems to students and increasing teacher’s awareness of the need for collaboration with metacognitive skills during teaching and learning mathematics. The rest of article is structured as follows: first, a decription of the research methods and procedures used in the study, the findings of our enquiry are then discussed. Next, the paper concludes with a conclusion and discussion. Finally, directions for future research are offered.
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METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY: How the Students Perceive the Use of Metacognitive Strategy on Their Reading Performance

METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY: How the Students Perceive the Use of Metacognitive Strategy on Their Reading Performance

Considering the importance of this strategy, which is supported by some findings of the previous researchers, there is a need to put a lot of emphasize on teaching learning strategy to students. Besides, there is also a need to examined students’ perception on metacognitive strategy, how the students perceive this strategy. A better understanding of students’ perception will lead to the possibility of more effective teaching learning strategy. Oxford (1990) suggests that students need to write a note about their learning strategy used and to describe their language learning strategies freely. The profit of allowing students clarifying their feeling on the course content are that the students can openly tell what they want, the difficulties they find, and a lot of things generated. The teachers, therefore, can give them feedback or can help students reducing the difficulties found. Interested in applying learning strategies, then it will lead to the employment of learning strategies in their whole learning activities. In this case, however, the previous studies tend to focus on how the strategy can promote studentsreading performance and also how this strategy correlate to studentsreading performance. Since it is also important to examine students’ perception, therefore, this study is conducted to investigate how the students perceive the use of metacognitive strategy.
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REFLECTIVE THINKING STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING EFL LITERARY READING SKILLS AND METACOGNITIVE READING AWARENESS

REFLECTIVE THINKING STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING EFL LITERARY READING SKILLS AND METACOGNITIVE READING AWARENESS

The present study made use of two primary tools. They are the pre-post literary reading skills test to measure students' literary reading skills and the pre-post metacognitive reading awareness scale to measure studentsmetacognitive reading awareness through reading literary texts. The two instruments were designed by the researcher. The test was pre and post used to measure the effectiveness of the strategies on developing the experimental group students' literary reading skills. The experiment consisted of twenty-four questions on a one-act play "The Never- Never Nest" by Cedric Mount. Two questions were formulated to measure each skill. To test the validity of the literary reading test, two forms of validity were used; face validity and self validity. To check the face validity, the test was given to (10) TEFL members to evaluate each question in terms of content and level of the measured literary reading skills. Moreover, they were asked to assess the test as a whole in terms of correctness, the number of questions, scoring suitability for the students' level, the test suitability for students' age, and the suitability for its time limits. To test the self validity, the following formula was used:
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Reading Comprehension Ability and Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies among High, Mid and Low Ambiguity Tolerance EAP Students

Reading Comprehension Ability and Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies among High, Mid and Low Ambiguity Tolerance EAP Students

A total of 218 students answered the proficiency test in one session and the reading comprehension test in a subsequent session. All students were tested together with a time constraint of twenty minutes on the reading comprehension test. Then, two questionnaires were completed at the third session. For scoring the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory, the procedure proposed by Mokhtari and Reichard (2002) was used. A score was assigned to each answer which ranged from 1 to 5. The range of scores for this scale was between 30 and 150 (mean of 1 to 5). The interpretation of the information derived from the instrument was based on the interpretation schemes used in published studies (e.g., Henk and Melnick, 1995; Oxford, 1990). In examining the reading strategy usage of individual and groups of students on the MARSI, which ranges from 1 to 5, three levels of usage were identified, as suggested by Oxford for language learning strategy usage: high (mean of 3.5 or higher), medium (mean of 2.5 to 3.4), and low (2.4 or lower). These usage levels provide a helpful standard that can be used for interpreting the score averages obtained by individual or groups of students. The scores obtained should be interpreted using the high, moderate, and low usage designations shown on the scoring rubric that accompanies the scale. These usage designations are based on the average performance of the students (the norm group) that was used to validate the MARSI.
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METACOGNITIVE ONLINE READING STRATEGIES APPLIED BY EFL STUDENTS

METACOGNITIVE ONLINE READING STRATEGIES APPLIED BY EFL STUDENTS

During the think-aloud session, he scrolled through the online text and looked at the pictures to see what it is about. He fostered the use of strategies no.6 and 18 which are problem-solving strategies. He explained that “If I know what I am going to read, I feel more secure (think-aloud 1).” And immediately after scrolling through the text, he wanted to see the comprehension questions, which was the application of strategy no. 14. He stated the reason as; “Knowing the purpose of reading helps me to decide what to focus on and what to ignore during reading the text (think-aloud 1)”. As soon as having looked at the questions, he stated that “The first question is asking the meaning of ‘jittery’. I don’t want to waste time by searching it. I will press Ctrl-F and find the place of the word in the text.(Think-aloud 1)” This was a great demonstration of his computer competency. After finding the place of the word, he read the previous and the following sentences to explain the word (strategy no.31), however, he could not understand and explained; “It can be something like alert because it happens after drinking caffeine. But I am not sure exactly. I will open an online dictionary and look up the word (think-aloud 1)”. He fostered the use of strategy no.15 by using an online dictionary.
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The Implementation of Metacognitive Strategies in EFL University Students’ Reading Comprehension

The Implementation of Metacognitive Strategies in EFL University Students’ Reading Comprehension

In this technique, the researcher joined a critical reading class and she would observe metacognitive strategies phenomenon happened during the class. Then, they were asked to read a text and use metacognitive strategies. Thereafter, the subjects completed the learning log given by the researcher in order to know the information toward students metacognitive in their reading. It consists of the difficulties of the subject when reading, way to overcome it and evaluation toward their reading processes. Furthermore, the researcher would interview the subjects to confirm whether they used metacognitive strategies or not, and to clarify what happened when the subjects were in the planning, monitoring, and evaluating stage. Ary et al., (2010) stated that written files could be used by qualitative research as a tool to comprehend the study or phenomenon. The strategy used by the researcher analyzed the data called document analysis. The types of document analysis could be differentiated into two types, that were text-based which includes questionnaire, novels, journals, and textbooks. While non-written records, includes: photograph, audio tapes, and YouTube videos. The analysis could be conducted using current document, which was the result of the field notes, the result of learning log, and the result of the interview about the subject's personal experience when they implemented metacognitive strategies. Then the researcher used the audio tapes taken from the recording during the subjects were interviewed.
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Perceived Use of Metacognitive Strategies by EFL Undergraduates  in Academic Reading

Perceived Use of Metacognitive Strategies by EFL Undergraduates in Academic Reading

(2018) whose research investigates the relationship between metacognitive strategy awareness and L1 and L2 reading ability. She revealed that metacognitive strategy awareness notably promotes L1 and L2 reading ability. Similar study by Sheikh, Soomro, and Hussain (2019) also unveiled that awareness on metacognitive strategies in reading considerably predict academic achievement as well as suggest the need for workshop or training on MARSI promotion. In contrast, Dardjito (2019) found out, by administering a questionnaire and academic reading test on reading strategies on 373 participants, that there was no significant correlation between metacognitive awareness in reading strategies and their academic reading attainment. These inconsistent results are likely to be resulted from the respondents’ perception as Mokhtari (2017) arguably states that the measures of metacognitive awareness they developed do not address the real use of the strategies but the perceived use of the strategies instead. Therefore, both MARSI (Mokthari and Reichard, 2002) and SORS (Mokhtari and Sheorey, 2002) standing for Survey of Reading Strategies, should be used in caution and the results may vary according to the students’ perception and their understanding on the questions or statements in the measure instrument. In this research I aim to explore metacognitive strategies use as perceived by EFL undergraduates when coming across academic texts such as textbook or journal articles.
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Exploring The Relationship Among Metacognitive Awareness, Concept Representation And Achievement Of Senior Secondary School Students' In Physics

Exploring The Relationship Among Metacognitive Awareness, Concept Representation And Achievement Of Senior Secondary School Students' In Physics

Metacognition in learning is of great importance because it is related to the learner‟s awareness of thinking and learning. It makes learners work independently and flexibly (Fazacur, Nasi, Muhammad, Muhammad & Saeed ul Hasan, 2011). Gardner (1991); Karmilofi-Smith (1992); Lee and Teo (2011); Mayer, 2009; Kuhn and Dean (2005); Magno (2010); Veenman, Kok and Blote (2005) found that metacognition is related to intellectual skills and problem solving ability. In order for students to learn about the process to solve problems, they need to take charge of their own learning through their ability to plan, monitor and evaluate their learning. Students without approaches are essentially learners without direction and ability to review their progress, accomplishments and future learning directions (Balcikauli, 2011). It is important to state that Metacognitive awareness is an important element in learning and crucial to the development of effective learning (Wenden, 1991, 1999; Wilkins-Canter, 1996). Metacognitive awareness was simply described by Flavell (1976) as being aware of one‟s own knowledge, processes, cognitive and affective states as well as of regulation of those states. Flavell further identified three parts of Metacognitive awareness: thinking of what one knows, thinking of what one is currently doing and thinking of what one‟s current cognition is. Good learners are found to be metacognitively adapted and poor ones metacognitively deficient in how they tackle learning tasks in most subjects (Baird, 1986, 1992, 1998; Shuell, 1998; Wang & Peverly, 1986). Conner (2006) reported that the degree of awareness of Metacognitive processing influences the extent to which individuals preferentially use learning strategies. Metacognitive awareness is also essential for generating effective mental representations and guiding processing for effective problem solving (Resnick, 1985). Baird (1998); Hacker (1998) revealed that learning can be enhanced if students use Metacognitive processes and are effectively engaged in teaching methods that are effective, activity-driven. This attest to the fact that students whose Metacognitive awareness processes is enhanced will possess higher order thinking which may stimulate their reasoning power and subsequently enhancing the development of their problem solving ability and capacity to represent concepts in Physics. Students‟ ability to represent physical processes in multiple ways is one of the difficulties they often experience, though, their ability to convert from one representation to another in any direction is also a challenge face by students (Meltzer, 2004).
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The Strategies of Fostering Students’ Cross Cultural Awareness in Secondary School English Teaching

The Strategies of Fostering Students’ Cross Cultural Awareness in Secondary School English Teaching

In reading and writing interactive classroom, teacher should use text and task to facilitate interaction between students and teacher, students and materials, students and their fellow students. According to Carrell (1988: 98), in interactive classroom, the teacher can divide their reading techniques into pre-reading, during-reading, and after-reading [5]. For teaching JE and NEC, the task-based organization for the reading in each unit is called “Reading-Centered Activities”, which is in accordance with Carrell’s ideas. And “Reading-Centered Activities” are divided into “In-Class Reading” and “After-Class Reading” and altogether are consisted of three authentic texts. Before students read, teachers should spend some time introducing a topic, encouraging skimming, scan- ning, and activating schemata. Students can bring the best of knowledge and skills to a text. Pre-reading activi- ties should be selected according to the experience and interest of students. Students should be introduced to the situations of a pictorial collage which generates expectations that will be useful in anticipating and predicting the content of the passage that will be read. Teacher may ask students questions associated with the title of the reading passage or the collage of pictures. Students will read the text with schemata in mind and the self-raised questions which they would like to find question. In while-reading phase, in order to further enhance interaction with the text and among students, teachers should stimulate work in pairs and offer them opportunity to work together and learn from each other. After finishing assigned reading, teacher may check students’ comprehen- sion for the text. The teacher can ask students to identify main and subordinate ideas, to summarize or retell parts of the text, to discuss viewpoints represented by persons and cultural significance in the text, to develop a different conclusion, and to conduct group discussion on the participates’ awareness of the action and why the author chose to develop the content as he or she did (Rivers, 1997: 79) [4]. Teachers may select some of the ac- tivities to increase students’ interaction with the text. For instance, students may look for specific information, such as selecting a meal from a menu or identifying times of arrival and departure in airline or railway schedules etc. Students read a story with the ending deleted, and then they try to make up an ending consistent with the story. Students read a specially constructed passage and correct sentences that contain wrong information. In a word, integrated-skills approaches to language teaching emphasize the interrelationship of skills. Reading ability will definitely best be developed in association with writing, listening, and speaking activity.
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Developing Students\u27 Reading Culture for Academic Reading Level Through Metacognitive Strategies

Developing Students\u27 Reading Culture for Academic Reading Level Through Metacognitive Strategies

By looking at the reality, Indonesian people must dare to seek a breakthrough to build a literacy culture. Indonesian people will continue to lack behind from the other nations without it. The first thing to do can be done by building a reading culture for the students who want to become teachers in the primary and secondary education. The students who choose the department of education should be familiarized with the culture of reading. This breakthrough needs to be done because they who are going to be teachers need to have good reading culture. While they are still students, the habits of reading culture are needed to be formed optimally, such as the habit of discussing the contents of the book, the habit of summarizing the contents of the book, the habit of reviewing the content of the book, and the habit of participating in a book-reading contest to challenge oneself. If such breakthroughs are not made immediately, the reading habit is not going to have developed because after they are being employed, they are going to be busy with the administrative tasks. For examples, they need to organize the school activities, preparing the lesson materials, and teaching many classes.
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Effectiveness of Metacognitive Strategies on Reading Skills of Students with Hearing Disorders

Effectiveness of Metacognitive Strategies on Reading Skills of Students with Hearing Disorders

Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran Abstract Historical research has documented the fact that the average student with a hearing disorders graduates from high school with reading comprehension skills at about fourth grade Level. Metacognitive strategies are one of the methods that have significant applications in educational issues, especially in reading. The main purpose of this research was identifying the effectiveness of metacognitive strategies for improvement of reading skills of students with hearing disorders. Research design was pretest- posttest randomized group. The sample was formed from 10 students with hearing disorders, 9-10 years old whom were matched and assigned randomly to experimental and control groups. For assessing reading skills, kiyadarbandsari (2007) reading test was administered. Students of experimental group participated in an intervention program for 8 sessions (each session 45 minutes). The T - student test was used to analyze data. Results indicate metacognitive strategies training were useful for improving reading skills of students with hearing disorders.
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Developing Metacognitive Skills in Secondary School Students

Developing Metacognitive Skills in Secondary School Students

The students chosen for this study were given a full briefing about the nature and the purpose of the study and they were not chosen on the basis of gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, cultural identity, faith, disability, or any other significant differences (BERA, 2011; Research council of Zimbabwe, 2014). Students participated in the study on the basis of voluntary informed consent and parental consent was sought. It was pointed out to the students that they might acquire skills during the study which benefitted their problem-solving skills in stoichiometry. A preview of the activities that the chosen participating students engaged in during the study was given to all students in order to help them understand what the study would involve. This outline was also designed to inform students who may have been prejudiced against research activities holding the belief that all individuals who take part in such activities are ‘guinea pigs’. Students were made aware that the study may involve the use of audio recordings to capture their contribution during interviews. They were advised that only the researcher would make use of that information solely for the purpose of the research.
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