This research was aimed to find out whether there is an effect of MetacognitiveReadingStrategyTraining (MRST) RQ WKH VWXGHQWV¶ UHDGLQJ FRPSUHKHQVLRQ. This research was carried out using a quantitative study with one group pre-test post- test design. The subjects numbering of 25 highschoolstudents were taken purposively. The instrument used was the reading comprehension test. This study used paired-sample t-test to analyze the effects of VWXGHQWV¶ UHDGLQJ comprehension. The result of the analyses indicated that there was a significant effect of VWXGHQWV¶ UHDGLQJ FRPSUHKHQVLRQ before and after metacognitivereadingstrategytraining, within t-ratio 13.498 which means that it was higher than t-table 2.056. This finding indicates that the MRST was effective in impoving the students¶ reading comprehension ability.
Although the study of Arabic text reading is growing in Arab and other countries, it is still not as commonplace in Malaysia. Thus, this study focused on the use of Arabic metacognitivestrategy (MCS) which was used by form 4 students at SMK Agama in Seremban. Apart from that, this article aimed to investigate the effects of MCS use of Arabic text in comprehension and Arabic vocabulary. Based on stratified sampling, 60 respondents were taken from SMKA in Seremban to undergo this study. This group was divided into two groups, with 30 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group. This study is a quantitative research and is a numerical- based research method that used the ANCOVA test. In this study, training was provided between pre-test and post-test. Eventually, after quasi-experimental studies were done, the finding showed that there is a significant difference in the Arabic comprehension and Arabic vocabulary post-test between the experimental group and control group. The experimental group indicated higher levels than the control group. This study contributes to the field of Arabic education from the perspective of the comprehension and vocabulary in MCS reading Arabic text.
This study conducted a path analysis on the relationship between self-efficacy, the use of metacognitive strategies and academic motivation. The results of this analysis indicated that self-efficacy and the use of metacognitive strategies predicted students' intrinsic motivation in a positive and significant way. A review of the relevant studies showed that the results were consistent with the relevant literature (Walker et al., 2006; McAuley, Wraith, Duncan, 1991; Lau & Chan, 2003; Tas, Brown, Esen-Danaci, Lysaker & Brüne, 2012; Vandergrift, 2005; Landine & Stewart, 1998). In addition, Lau and Chan (2003) suggested that intrinsic motivation had a stronger relationship with student ability and strategy use compared to the other variables of motivation. Ryan and Deci (2000b) said that efficacy belief could increase intrinsic motivation.
In relation to this, however, comprehending a reading text is not an easy activity. Patel and Jain (2008) argue that reading is perhaps the most difficult language skill to teach for each involves so many different elements such as mechanical eye movement, grammar, vocabulary, and intellectual comprehension. Similarly, Cornoldi and Oakhill (1996) also state that a typical characteristic of children is often difficulty in understanding a written text. They do not seem to grasp the most important elements, the connection between the different parts, or to be able to search out the pieces of information they are looking for. In reading activities, students not only “read” but also do other activities unconsciously, such as thinking, interacting, speaking, listening, and writing. Difficulties and obstacles faced in the process of teaching and learning reading cannot be considered as the only reason for students to not be able to master their reading skills.
This research is based on problems that occur in SMA Negeri 3 Gunungsitoli, that is mathematical problem solving ability of student is still low. Based on the results of observations by researchers, it is because the teaching materials used by students less attention to students, not equipped with tests of mathematical problem solving ability or still contains routine questions. This encourages researchers to develop teaching materials in the form of mathematics modules based on metacognitive strategies equipped with tests to measure mathematical problem solving ability of students. The development of this math module uses the Dick & Carey development model. The criteria of validity and effectiveness are used by the researcher to determine a good mathematics module. Module validation by three experts and two practitioners earned an average total validity score of 4.58 with valid criteria. Mathematics module based on metacognitivestrategy in improving students’ mathematical problem solving ability of SMA Negeri 3 Gunungsitoli developed is effective. In trial I obtained the results of the test of mathematical problem solving ability with an average value of 2.99 and on trial II obtained the test results of mathematical problem solving ability with an average value of 3.18. Based on the result of mathematical problem solving test in trial I and trial II it was found that there was an improvement of students' mathematical problem solving ability.
As for the participants’ actual use of online metacognitivereading strategies, students were observed to employ several strategies they reported on the OSORS with high means when they were undertaking actual online reading tasks for academic purposes. This finding may result from the strategy-based reading course they have attended during the whole semester. Even though they were not informed about the online reading strategies, they were provided with online texts as assignment on a regular basis which might have assisted them to improve their online reading strategies. As Coiro and Dobler (2007) argue, despite a number of similarities online and printed reading share, online reading is more complex than printed reading. Still, the students might have benefitted from the strategytraining given in the reading course and transferred some of the strategies such as; guessing the meaning of a word, using context clues to online reading. Nevertheless, there were some other essential strategies which the students needed to employ during online reading such as scrolling through the text, clicking on the links, using online reference materials. Specific to online reading, these strategies contributed to the effective reading comprehension in the online context.
Second, there was a change in the subjects’ behaviors of using strategies to facilitate their reading English texts in three groups. This finding was in accordance with the researcher’ assumption that there should be an increase of strategy use after the instruction. This might be because 14 weeks of experiment is enough to make students familiar in using strategies. The increase of strategy use suggests that students realize value and benefit of using strategies in EFL reading and consider metacognitive strategies useful; they learned to use them to deal with the reading text. In addition, the more they were trained, the more they were accustomed to using those strategies. They automatically make use of strategies whenever they read the text. The pleasant outcome is in accordance with the replies gained from the interview question no. 1, showing that 5 out of 6 students had positive opinions on strategy instruction. However, two types of learners exhibited different responses to the strategy instruction in terms of becoming skilled readers. The replies reflected that low proficient students might need more time for strategy practice; they might not catch up with others. So, when conducting the training, teachers should take this into consideration and find the best way to help them keep up with the instruction.
Riyanto (2015) states in reliance to the result of the study, the students’ attitude to language learning correlated to their reading comprehension. And Khandari (2015) states most of successful learners in learning reading comprehension applied cognitive and social learning strategies. Those statements imply that in reading succesful students posses positive attitude and use cognitive strategy. However, the implementaion of other strategies in reading is also important, especially the metacognitive strategies. Wen (2003) states that most of the comprehension activities of effective readers happened at the level of metacognition. From the previous and present researches, it is possible to predict that succesful student in reading will be the one who posseses positive attitude and implementing both cognitive and metacognitive strategies.
Abstract: This research investigated whether there was a significant difference on students’ achievement in reading comprehension taught using STAD and lecture method. The sample was the eighth-graders of SMPN 3 Banjarmasin. A quasi-experimental design was employed in this research. The experimental group was taught using STAD while control group was taught using lecture method. A reading comprehension test as the instrument of collecting data was administered for both groups. Based on the research result using t-test, it was found that the t value was higher than t-table (2.39315 > 2.00) which means that there is a significant difference of achievement between the experimental group and control group. From these findings it can be interpreted that the use of STAD is more effective than lecture method in teaching reading comprehension for junior highschoolstudents. It is suggested for English teachers in Junior HighSchool to use STAD in teaching reading since it is useful in improving students’ reading comprehension achievement.
Kibui and Athiemoolam (2012) carried out a study among form two Kenyan learners to examine their comprehension and vocabulary. The employed three reading comprehensions with multiple choice and interpretive questions 422 grade 10 leaners (of between 15-19 years of age) representing 16 schools from four provinces (Nairobi, Central, Coast, Eastern, North Eastern, Rift Valley, Nyanza and Western) of Kenya. Descriptive method was used in the study. The results revealed that 60% of the learners have a low level proficiency in comprehension. The finding also revealed that the learners were unable to recognize the purpose of the text. It was necessary to study how all metacognitive knowledge sub scales predict reading comprehension. The current study used descriptive as well as inferential statistics in analyzing data to give deeper interpretation of the data. The current study was also carried out among the form three students which is a grade high than the sample in (Kibui and Athiemoolam, 2012).
It is undeniable that if we involve or engage students with metacognitive activities every day they would become successful learners. We would also develop them to be critical readers and thinkers. This is what we want to happen in any reading class, teachers engage themselves with teaching students to use their metacognitive skills and strategies to help them understand better the text given to them. In a simpler explanation about metacognitive, it is also defined as “thinking about thinking” (Pierce, 2004). Meaning that we would encourage students to think beyond what they are thinking about the ideas in the text. They may come to a consensus that they may or may not agree with the writer but they must come out with valid and justified reason/s to their answers. If we could produce students to think like this, we are for sure could help them be better people when they leave school. Students who are taught these metacognitive skills and strategies would not afraid to challenge any text they read; therefore they could read between the lines and try to integrate what is read with other ideas not stated in the text. Here, students would try to ensure that they would achieve their goal in reading, for example trying to understand the whole text (to get the meaning), not just reading the words (sounding them) in the text. They would also become assertive readers rather than become submissive readers, thus this would make them be better critical readers. The question is whether teachers are teaching students these metacognitive skills and strategies or not?
strategy (‘I translated the reading text and tasks into Igbo to enhance my understanding.’), stood out in terms of their ratings from other questionnaire items. While the former was the most highly used strategy, the readers mostly never used the latter. Taking time to adequately understand the meaning of a question before answering it could be considered a strategy expected of every test-taker attempting to get high scores in a test. However, it is unusual for ESL readers to indicate that they never used the strategy of translating into their L1 to enhance RC in the L2, since translating from L2 to L1 has been reported in several previous studies with EFL readers as a strategy often used by L2 readers, which has a positive effect on RC performance (Kern, 1994; Li & Munby, 1996; Mushait, 2003; Yau, 2009). For example, Yau (2009) found mental translation to be a prominent strategy among Taiwanese EFL students in his study. He therefore claims that ‘mental translation can be a constructive means for promoting L2 text comprehension’ (Yau, 2009: 231). However, it is important to note that most studies that investigated L2 reading were conducted in EFL contexts, not in ESL contexts, where English is a lingua franca. EFL readers often have well developed L1 reading skills prior to reading in English, which could explain why they are more likely to resort to the L1 to aid reading comprehension in English. But for the ESL readers in the current study, this probably could not be the case because of poorly developed L1 reading ability. 59% of the participants indicated that they never used this strategy during the RC test. In addition to this number, 31% of participants indicated that they use it sometimes suggesting also that they do not use it frequently.
3. Dra. Hj. Rodhatul Jennah, M. Pd, as the Vice Dean I of Faculty of Teacher Training Education of the State Islamic Institute of Palangka Raya, for her agreement so that the writer can complete the requirements of writing this thesis.
Regardless of its complexity, reading is very important for students who are learning foreign language. Grabe and Stroller (2001) ranked reading as the number one skill that FL students’ wish to gain mastery. Through readingstudents are able to gain understanding from written materials that they could not discuss orally with equivalent accuracy or thoroughness (Desmiyati, Sukirian, and Sudirman, n/a). In addition, Spivey (1991) claimed that other than representing peoples’ literacy, reading could also “builds a representation of meaning in response to discourse goals, using previously acquired knowledge to operate on and to embellish, the minimal cues provided by the text.”
Reading is an activity that needs high concentration and it will increase conversational skill of the students. It will make brain active and work better. Reading is not easy to do because in reading process the students not only reads the words, sentences, paragraphs, and text but also should understand the contents of reading. Reading without understanding is useless. That is also stated by Klingner (2007), reading comprehension is the process of conducting meaning by coordinating a number of complex processes that include word reading, knowledge, and fluency.
A questionnaire was also adapted from MARSI to measure their metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. MARSI was developed by Mokhtari and Reichard (2002) to assess students' metacognitive awareness and perceived use of reading strategies while reading academic or school-related materials. Mokhtari and Reichard (2002: 251) stated that the major purpose of this inventory was "to assess the degree to which a student is aware or is not aware of the various processes involved in reading." It consists of 30 items accompanied by a 5-point Likert-type scale for each item. The 30 items listed in the MARSI belong to 3 categories, which are global (13 items), problem solving (8 items), and support reading strategies (9 items). In general, global readingstrategy represents a set of reading strategies oriented towards a global analysis of the text. Problem solving readingstrategy focuses on strategies for solving problems when the text becomes difficult to read. Support readingstrategy involves the use of outside reference materials. The items in these strategies are presented in the findings section.
proficiency. In essence, successful readers appear to use more strategies than less successful ones and also appear to use them more frequently. Better readers also have an enhanced metacognitive awareness of their own use of strategies and what they know, which in turn leads to greater reading ability and proficiency (Baker and Brown, 1984; Garner, 1987). After examining 38 research studies on native English speakers’ reading, Pressley and Afflerbach (1995) theorized that proficient readers are strategic and “constructively responsive” and take conscious steps to comprehend what they are reading. Such steps involve a careful orchestration of the cognitive resources to ensure maximum comprehension. Nebila Dhieb (2003), in an investigation on the effectiveness of metacognitivestrategytraining for reading research articles in an ESP context, concluded that the students who received training did indeed benefit from it and confirmed the usefulness of training advanced level ESP students in a variety of reading styles so as to equip them with the flexibility required to operate under different real–life constraints.
In conclusion, students’ reading achievement generally improved after the treatments, this finding supported the previous studies which were the use of reading strategies was one of the activities which can improve reading comprehension skills in foreign language learning (Bölükbas, 2013:2148). It could be inferred that the students who had employed certain strategies would report better language achievement. Then, Rraku (2013:1) had emphasized the effect of the use of reading strategies can have on the improvement of foreign language reading skills. He found that the study pointed to a noticeable improvement of students’ reading skills once they had used reading strategies to do their exercises. Besides, as Ismail and Tawalbeh (2015:80) stated that the use of a readingstrategy can help readers deal with the problems which arise while reading in a foreign language, and consequently, individuals’ reading comprehension can be improved. They suggested that EFL teachers should provide their students with readingstrategytraining which can lead to better
al. utilized prompting, time delay, adapted chapters from a book, read-alouds, questions, and graphic organizers to increase the reading comprehension skills of students with intellectual disabilities in grades six through eight. The results of Browder et al. study were the implementation of reading adapted books aloud, providing students with the correct unknown word (after 4 seconds), and reading the questions aloud to increase the reading comprehension of middle schoolstudents with intellectual disabilities. Fajardo et al. study implemented adapted easy-to-read text to increase the reading comprehension skills of students with intellectual disabilities from a vocational training program. Hudson et al. used read-aloud along with text adaptation, text augmentation, providing multiple text comprehension engagement- opportunities, prompting, and summarizing the text to provide grade level text access for students with intellectual disabilities. Root et al. explained that using adapted text can support the literacy learning needs of students with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities.
language proficiency level (Anderson, 1991; Block, 1992; Zhang, 2002). It has to be highlighted, however, that the issue of whether reading in an L2 is a reading problem or a language problem has always been a contentious one. Some argue that it is a language problem, whereas others argue that it is a reading problem, meaning that students perform poorly in reading in an L2 because they do not have good reading skills or strategies in their L1. Alderson (1984), for example, posited that reading in an L2 is both a language problem and a reading problem. Carrell’s (1991) findings further lent support to Alderson’s position. This implies that, in the long run, informed training in the use of global strategies for problem-solving in reading comprehension for unsuccessful readers can be useful in helping them improve their reading ability, with a potential of leading to improvement in their overall English proficiency. Alternatively, reading instruction focusing on developing FL students’ decoding skills can be conducted concurrently with strategy-based instruction so that provision of reading strategies is possible in the process of their learning to read.