Top PDF Metacognitive Strategies Training In Reading Class

Metacognitive Strategies Training In Reading Class

Metacognitive Strategies Training In Reading Class

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION Considering all data gathered after finishing the research, this study has drawn up some conclusions. First, Metacognitive strategies training effective to students in order to improve student’s reading achievement. It can be one of activities that facilitated students to improve their reading skill and achievement especially understanding main idea, detail information, reference, inference and vocabulary. Therefore, it could be considered to promote metacognitive strategies training in reading class. Second, Metacognitive strategies training gave effect to the use of metacognitive strategies. This could help students to be a good learner, be purposeful reader and comprehended reading text better. Then, metacognitive strategies training gave the students knowledge about strategies that are effective to facilitate students in learning reading. The training of metacognitive strategies can be one of activities to give the students knowledge about metacognitive strategies and improve student’s reading achievement. Teacher can train the students metacognitive strategies to facilitate students understanding the aspects of reading. Then, the training of metacognitive strategies can be developed to improve student’s achievement on other skill such as listening, speaking and writing. In addition, the researcher also suggests more time to investigate the overall process of transferring declarative knowledge of metacognitive strategies use into procedural one in reading. Then, the future researcher also could transfer the training to different genre of texts. At the end, the researcher suggests this research to be a reference for further research related to metacognitive strategies training especially in reading class. Thus, the importance of explicit strategies training
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Metacognitive Strategy Training to Improve Students’ Reading Achievement.

Metacognitive Strategy Training to Improve Students’ Reading Achievement.

The findings of this study revealed that metacognitive strategies training is able to improve students’ reading comprehension. Besides, every aspect of reading and metacognitive strategy were also found improved after the training. This finding was in line with the previous study which was done by Aghaie and Zhang (2012). Their research was to enable students to make a critical and personal comment on the text, decide specific aspect of information to look for and look for the main ideas and details. Besides, the result revealed that metacognitive strategies instruction could improve the students’ reading achievement. Similar to their study, in this study the researcher also trained the students to use metacognitive strategies to find out main idea, references, inferences, supporting details, and understanding vocabularies in the text. Then, the finding of this research revealed that those aspects of reading were improved significantly after the training. Not only finding main idea and detail information were found improved after metacognitive strategy training but also finding reference, inference, and vocabulary were also improved. Thus, the result suggested to promote metacognitive strategies training in reading class to facilitate students comprehend reading and especially the five aspects of reading.
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Effective Metacognitive Strategies to Boost English as a Foreign Language Reading Comprehension

Effective Metacognitive Strategies to Boost English as a Foreign Language Reading Comprehension

Several other studies have also demonstrated positive relationships between the use of metacognitive strategies and reading achievement (Bean et al, 1986; Cross & Paris, 1988; Palincsar & Ransom, 1988; Nist, Simpson & Hogrebe, 1985; Palmer & Goetz, 1985; Weinstein & Underwood, 1985). Gambrell & Heathington (1981), and Long & Long (1987) have observed that good readers characteristically monitor their comprehension and retention of material. On the other hand, poor readers have been described as not using metacognitive strategies effectively (Campione, 1987; Cohen, 1988). Skilled reading also requires the ongoing monitoring of comprehension, and regulation according to the goals of reading accomplished by the use of reading strategies (Alexander & Jetton, 2000; Cain, Oakhill, & Bryant, 2004). Paris and Winograd (1990) maintained that metacognition can promote academic learning and motivation. Metacognitive control during which the reader directs his reasoning process, is vitally important. Successful readers monitor their reading and the state of their learning; they plan strategies, adjust effort appropriately, and evaluate the success of their ongoing efforts to understand (Brown, Armbruster, & Baker, 1986). Training in metacognitive language learning strategies help learners develop their reading skills and raise their language proficiency levels (Palincsar, 1986; Green & Oxford, 1995; Carrell, Gajdusek & Wise; 1998).
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Knowledge Extraction from Metacognitive Reading Strategies Data Using Induction Trees

Knowledge Extraction from Metacognitive Reading Strategies Data Using Induction Trees

Looking at the MARSI datasets, it can be seen from Table 2 that there are far more classifications of „High‟ than „Medium‟, and even fewer „Low‟ classifications. This relationship is most likely due to the effect of the students participating in the instrument inflating their own self- assessments. It has been found that people often overstate their abilities and see themselves as above average when they actually score low in areas where they rate themselves [22]. This effect can also alter the results if the student is unskilled in the area they are evaluating themselves on. This can possibly explain how the data for the MARSI datasets are slightly skewed, having few rules generated for the „Low‟ classes. Rules selected for the „Low‟ classes often contained far fewer samples than the other classes, but since they had the highest sample size in their class, they were selected and used in the system. Even with the inflation of self-assessment effect providing some inaccuracy in the data, the MARSI datasets were still able to produce accurate rules, with some datasets having higher accuracy than others.
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METACOGNITIVE ONLINE READING STRATEGIES APPLIED BY EFL STUDENTS

METACOGNITIVE ONLINE READING STRATEGIES APPLIED BY EFL STUDENTS

Mert was a 19 year old EFL student. With regard to his Internet use behavior, he stated that he had high skills in using the Internet and search engines to locate and access information on a wide range of topics. Every day, he spent about one hour reading online local and international news in English for class assignments. He also used e-mail and messenger as major means of communication with friends and family on a regular basis. During the think-aloud session, Mert first of all scrolled through the whole text to get the gist of it and looked at the length and organization, then proceeded to read the comprehension questions. These strategies demonstrated the application of strategies no 6 and 10. After reading the comprehension questions he stated that; “I will leave the word meaning questions to end, I need to understand the general idea firstly. I will read the whole text without stopping. I will not look-up the words, I just want to get the gist (think-aloud 1)”. He fosters strategies no 14 and 33. While reading to answer the questions, he sometimes stopped to look at the pictures (strategy no 18) and clicked on the annotations. He explained the reason, “If there is an annotation or a picture, that website can help me understand better and I can reach new information (think-aloud 2) (strategy no 17)”. He adds that “ If there were not comprehension questions asking the meaning of some words, I will ignore those words because it is clear that they are related to medicine and do not hinder my comprehension” by which he fostered strategy no 31. When he was answering word meaning questions he directly opened an online dictionary, which he stated he used mostly, and looked at the Turkish meaning of that word. He was employing strategies no 37 and 15.
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Revising the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI) and testing for factorial invariance

Revising the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI) and testing for factorial invariance

We collected the data during a three-week period of time during the spring se- mester of the school year. We administered the MARSI-R in the English language to the subjects at the beginning of each class period, with the help of the class- room instructor, who was familiar with the tool and aware of the purpose of the study. After a brief overview of the objective of the study, a description of the instrument, and an explanation of the steps involved in completing it, the stu- dents were instructed to read each statement in the inventory and circle the num- ber that best describes their responses to the statements. We advised students to work at their own pace, and reminded them to keep in mind reading academic or school-related materials while responding to the strategy statements. Finally, we let them know that there were no right or wrong responses to the statements, and that they could take as much time as they needed to complete the inventory. On average, the students completed the instrument in about 15-20 minutes.
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Perceived Use of Metacognitive Strategies by EFL Undergraduates  in Academic Reading

Perceived Use of Metacognitive Strategies by EFL Undergraduates in Academic Reading

(2018) whose research investigates the relationship between metacognitive strategy awareness and L1 and L2 reading ability. She revealed that metacognitive strategy awareness notably promotes L1 and L2 reading ability. Similar study by Sheikh, Soomro, and Hussain (2019) also unveiled that awareness on metacognitive strategies in reading considerably predict academic achievement as well as suggest the need for workshop or training on MARSI promotion. In contrast, Dardjito (2019) found out, by administering a questionnaire and academic reading test on reading strategies on 373 participants, that there was no significant correlation between metacognitive awareness in reading strategies and their academic reading attainment. These inconsistent results are likely to be resulted from the respondents’ perception as Mokhtari (2017) arguably states that the measures of metacognitive awareness they developed do not address the real use of the strategies but the perceived use of the strategies instead. Therefore, both MARSI (Mokthari and Reichard, 2002) and SORS (Mokhtari and Sheorey, 2002) standing for Survey of Reading Strategies, should be used in caution and the results may vary according to the students’ perception and their understanding on the questions or statements in the measure instrument. In this research I aim to explore metacognitive strategies use as perceived by EFL undergraduates when coming across academic texts such as textbook or journal articles.
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Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies of Iranian EFL learners / Reza Aghaei

Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies of Iranian EFL learners / Reza Aghaei

Strategy training is initiated actively learners‟ strategies that they have used them (Chamot et al, 1999; Cohen, 1998). In order to activate learners‟ consciousness of strategies, two questions were asked: (1) which strategies did you know about reading strategies? (2) what did you know about strategies?. All of the participants were asked to discuss strategies which are presented in Appendix H., then the researcher explained strategies for the participants to familiarize them with strategies using CALLA model. By elapsing of time, the teacher helped the participants to employ strategies independently.
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Using Metacognitive Strategies to Improve Reading Comprehension and Solve a Word Problem

Using Metacognitive Strategies to Improve Reading Comprehension and Solve a Word Problem

Journal of Education, Teaching and Learning Volume 2 Number 1 March 2017. Page 124-129 p-ISSN: 2477-5924 e-ISSN: 2477-4878 129 metacognitive strategies in any content areas play a powerful role in the learning processes in order to assist students to be independent and strategic learners. Teachers should model and train explicitly their students of these metacognitive strategies during classroom periods. Students should be guided gradually to comprehend the new situation they faced, to make connection new information to former knowledge, to select thinking strategies, and also to monitor and evaluate the thinking processes. In addition, the teacher might create a various class or school experiences for the students that may increase the growth of metacognitive skills, including reading, writing, and problem-solving situations. A number of strategies can be used by the teachers that enhance students’ metacognitive skills while problem-solving situations, such as think-aloud procedure, think-paired technique, and reciprocal teaching. Hence, if we all agreed that the essential goal of education is also to enhance the quality of students’ thinking, we should move outside of traditional instruction that simply overemphasizes on the acquisition of subjects matter.
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CAN ESL TEACHERS TEACH READING METACOGNITIVE STRATEGIES?

CAN ESL TEACHERS TEACH READING METACOGNITIVE STRATEGIES?

In addition to question type, sample size and research design are two other variables to consider in reading data and making speculations. The current results of the students’ metacognitive knowledge and comprehension might have been different had the present study included a larger sample and a design with a control group. The size of the sample is a highly probable reason for yielding a statistically not significant difference in the students’ comprehension true/false and word reference scores. When it comes to training or testing (e.g., experimenting reading strategies as in the present study), a small size usually has negative effects and may therefore easily contaminate the evaluation of the experiment (Raudys & Jain, 1991). For example, unlike the present study sample size, which is very small (N=8), Carrell et al.’s (1989) sample size was relatively larger
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The Implementation of Metacognitive Strategies in EFL University Students’ Reading Comprehension

The Implementation of Metacognitive Strategies in EFL University Students’ Reading Comprehension

In this section, the researcher describes the finding after she conducted research in a critical reading class. The result of this study is gathered from observation, field notes, learning log and interview. All of the data presented in this section aims to answer the research question, which is how are metacognitive strategies implemented on the EFL university reading comprehension. The researcher attended the class for six meetings. During the research, the researcher took a seat in the back of the class while observed the implementation of metacognitive strategy done by the lecturer. After the researcher conducted the observation toward the class, the students were asked to read a text and use metacognitive strategies. There were several questions in the learning log. It is used as a personal record of what they have done in their learning. Then, the researcher elaborate students learning log with an interview. The researcher used a semi-structured interview, there were three parts in this interview, which are pre-reading, whilst reading, and post-reading.
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Evaluating the Effect of Metacognitive Strategy Training on Reading Comprehension of Female Students at KAU

Evaluating the Effect of Metacognitive Strategy Training on Reading Comprehension of Female Students at KAU

training data, the mean score of the overall MARSI survey indicates a moderate level of awareness and use of metacognitive reading strategies among the participants. The mean scores of the subscale strategies also indicate moderate awareness and use of the strategies under each category except for the second subscale PROB, which indicated a high level of awareness and use of these strategies. It seems that the students already have a considerable level of metacognitive reading strategy awareness, even before they received the metacognitive strategy training. Despite this fact, the results of the first reading comprehension test indicate the participants’ proficiency level at the time they answered the first MARSI survey, which is considerably lower than initially presumed. Figure 4.1 reports that none of the 14 participants obtained an A grade, only one participant obtained a B grade, three obtained D grades, and two obtained F grades, while the rest obtained C grades. This indicates that the students’ responses to the first MARSI survey do not correspond with their grades in the first reading comprehension test. This lack of correspondence between the responses of the first survey and the results of the first comprehension test can be explained by the following possible interpretation. According to Brown (1987), adult readers find it difficult to report the strategies they actually employ while reading as some of these strategies occur automatically and covertly making the reader unaware of their existence. In other words, the participants may have used certain strategies that they did not report because they were unaware of them. This is understandable at this stage since the participants were unfamiliar with the concept of metacognition and were introduced to it, formally, for the first time during the introductory session at the beginning of the module
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Metacognitive Reading Strategy Training For High School Students

Metacognitive Reading Strategy Training For High School Students

The result of this research was in the contrary to Moonsamy¶s findings (2012) that WKHUH ZDV QR VLJQLILFDQW GLIIHUHQFH LQ WKH VWXGHQWV¶ UHDGLQJ FRPSUHKHQVLRQ ZKLFK was conducted in school, grade 6. As mentioned in chapter one that students from different faculties, different genders or different age will have different levels of metacognitive awareness, older people will have higher metacognitive awareness compared to younger people. The difference in the result could be caused by the different age of the subject of the research. In this research, senior high school students grade 11 whose age were range between 16 to 17 years old assumed that they had already better awareness of the strategies compare to the students of elementary school grade 6 whose age were range between 11 to 12 years old. It is supported by Pressley, et al in Waters and Schneider (2010: 3) who said that only as children mature that they broaden their strategy use across different materials and develop their strategy, changes in metacognition, with an increasing awareness of strategy use and its impact on performance.
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The Comparative Effect of Teaching Metacognitive Strategies and Collaborative Strategic Reading on EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

The Comparative Effect of Teaching Metacognitive Strategies and Collaborative Strategic Reading on EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

It has been stated that in addition to linguistic knowledge, topic familiarity, and general experience, the cognitive skills readers possess and use significantly correlate with their RC in general, especially in ELT contexts and when dealing with numerous intensive reading tasks (Anastasiou & Griva, 2009). These cognitive skills are believed to develop through training readers in using different strategies (McNamara, 2007). Furthermore, numerous studies have reported that once language learners’ awareness of reading strategies improves, their reading performance also improves (Fuchs, & Fuchs, 2005; McNamara, 2007; Ozgungor & Guthrie, 2004). Based on this premise, ELT programs are now encouraging the use of strategies in mastering language skills, including RC (Oxford, 1990), and ELT textbooks now include strategy use for developing RC (Lehr, Osborn, & Hiebert, 2005). Similarly, researchers are now paying more attention to teaching RC strategies (Murphy, Wilkinson, Soler, Hennessey, & Alexander, 2009).
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METACOGNITIVE AWARENESS OF READING STRATEGIES AMONG ESP STUDENTS REGARDING THEIR PRIOR EDUCATION

METACOGNITIVE AWARENESS OF READING STRATEGIES AMONG ESP STUDENTS REGARDING THEIR PRIOR EDUCATION

The study indicated that Croatian ESP students are moderately aware of the use of metacognitive strategies while reading. Furthermore, in regards to each subscale it indicated that ESP students moderately use GLOB and SUP strategies, while PROB strategies are at high usage level for both groups of students. The order of preference states that the preferred strategy is PROB followed by GLOB and then SUP strategies. According to the overall means of the SORS subscale, these results are consistent with the findings of Shoerey and Mokhart‟s (2001) and Mokhart and Reichard (2004) study that non-native readers use PROB strategies most frequently, since these strategies are critical for comprehension. An interesting fact was that each subscale had a higher score among vocational students than gymnasium students although statistically not significant. The higher use of PROB strategies among vocational school students could be related to the fact those strategies are critical for comprehension, they are localized, focused, problem-solving or repair strategies used when problems develop in understanding textual information, thus students tend to use them more in order to understand the text. GLOB strategies are the second most favored category. Accordingly, students have the ability to plan and manage their reading comprehension process. But this awareness should be more implemented in the class. Furthermore, SUP strategies refer to support mechanisms required to clarify certain doubts and information (for example: the use of dictionaries, going back and forth, translation into mother tongue etc.). These strategies were indicated as the least favored and least frequently used strategies among the three given strategies. Maybe the reason for this lowest use lies in the fact that those strategies could be time consuming and thus students reluctantly use them.
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An Action Research on Metacognitive Reading Strategies Instruction to Improve Reading Comprehension

An Action Research on Metacognitive Reading Strategies Instruction to Improve Reading Comprehension

One of the most important skills that students need to master is reading, yet the dismal results of Malaysian students on international reading assessments suggest that they still lack the necessary skills for reading. An action research was conducted to investigate the effects of instruction in metacognitive reading strategies to aid students‟ reading comprehension. Chosen based on convenience sampling, 25 participants in this study were 13-year-olds from a secondary school in Kuala Lumpur. The Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies – Revised (MARSI-R) was the main instrument used to identify the needs of the students and to keep track of their progress. The mean for the overall items and three subscales was calculated to compare the results before and after the interventions. Like previous studies carried out on reading strategies instruction, there was an increase in participants‟ awareness of metacognitive reading strategies following the training. While the results were limited to this particular school and could not be generalised to all secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur, English language teachers in secondary schools could consider integrating metacognitive reading instruction into their reading classrooms. Future studies could investigate the metacognitive reading strategies that good and poor readers use. Researchers could also look into developing a handbook of materials for training in such strategies.
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The Use of Metacognitive Learning Strategy Training Toward Reading Comprehension

The Use of Metacognitive Learning Strategy Training Toward Reading Comprehension

This study was aimed to find out the effect the training on the use of metacognitive learning strategy on the learners¶ UHDGLQJ comprehension. This study was a quantitative research which used one group pretest and posttest design. The data were obtained by using reading performance checklist and reading test. The result showed that the training gives a significant effect on using of metacognitive and learners reading comprehension, and also both variabels were directly corelated to each other. 7KH PHDQ RI WKH OHDUQHUV¶ UHDGLQJ FRPSUHKHQVLRQ ZDV significantly increase from 56.67 to 71.63 (14.96 point), and t-value was higher than t-table (12.923 >2.046). It can be concluded that the result was significant (p<0.05). The implication of this study is the teachers can help learners use metacognitive learning strategies to facilitate their reading comprehension and also it can be used by the learners to accomplish other tasks.
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Metacognitive Online Reading Strategies of Adult ESL Learners Using a Learning Management System

Metacognitive Online Reading Strategies of Adult ESL Learners Using a Learning Management System

A number of researchers have investigated the distance online learning programme at UiTM. Recent researches on these adult distance learners of UiTM online learning programmes indicated that the learners expressed preference to the traditional face-to-face classes (Alias & Jamaludin, 2005; Hashim, Ahmad, & Abdullah, 2009). A survey revealed that these learners were anxious and unfamiliar with the customized features in i-Class. Thus, using the LMS proved to be an intimidating task in spite of the high level of computer literacy among the students (Hashim, Ahmad, & Abdullah, 2009). This contradictory finding suggests that more investigation should be done on the learners as well as the LMS itself. Moreover, the dependency on instructors reveals the fact that the learners were not equipped with learning strategies that required them to be autonomous. Merriam (2004) advocate that for adult learners to be successful in their learning they need to be self-directed and have the capability to monitor their own learning. However, Alias and Jamaludin (2005) found from a study of three local universities, including UiTM, that offered distance online learning to adults, these learners lacked the metacognitive skills that were essential for self-monitoring and regulating their learning. As O‟Malley and Chamot (1990) mention that this self-monitoring and evaluating skills or metacognitive strategies ensures the learners stays on right path of learning.
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The Impact of Training Metacognitive Strategies on Reading Comprehension among ESL Learner’s

The Impact of Training Metacognitive Strategies on Reading Comprehension among ESL Learner’s

Based on the findings in this study the author observed two important points, namely, the effectiveness of teaching metacognitive strategies, and increasing use of these strategies after twelve training sessions. The findings revealed that due to the students score in reading comprehension tests, a conclusion can be made that the subjects’ comprehension abilities can be enhanced by receiving explicit instruction of these strategies. The results of statistical analysis indicated that the experimental group that received the explicit instruction, outperformed the control group, and employed monitoring and assessment strategies more frequently after training sessions. Having metacognitive knowledge for selecting and using relevant strategies means that learners are not only thinking but are also consciously deciding about the process of learning. Therefore, the explicit instruction of metacognitive strategies seems to have contributed to the students’ ability in reading comprehension. As pointed by Lovett (2008), in order to improve the student’s ability in learning, we can introduce to them new skills through teaching metacognitive strategies, and require them to apply and practice these skills effectively.
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The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Metacognitive Reading Strategies on ESP Reading Comprehension in Academic Settings

The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Metacognitive Reading Strategies on ESP Reading Comprehension in Academic Settings

There have been two main approaches about strategy in- struction in the context of language methodologies: Styles and Strategies-Based Instruction (SSBI) and the Cognitive Academic Language Leaning Approach (CALLA). SSBI is an approach to language teaching that places styles and strat- egy instruction in the center of its learner-based approach. Learning styles are general approaches learners take towards learning, the way they prefer to organize and retain infor- mation. For example, learners may be visually oriented and learn better when they are exposed to visual stimuli (visual) or they may be auditory oriented learners who remember information better when they listen to the information they receive (auditory). Some learners prefer to have active par- ticipation in the process of learning and learn by experienc- ing by themselves (kinesthetic) and still some other learners prefer to experience hands-on training in field-trips and laboratory settings to learn information (tactile). Strategies are actions that are taken to learn things. Strategies are of- ten linked to preferred learning styles (Rossi-Le, 1995). For example, an auditory learner may use read aloud strategies when reading a text or a kinesthetic learner may walk around when learning a new set of words.
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