The method of determining the bodyweight of a newborncalf comprises weighing a control group of first newborn calves having different body weights, measuring the circumference of a front hoof of each of the first newborn calves in the control group, and recording the respective body weights and hoof circumferences measured for each of the calves in the control group. Next, the circumference of a front hoof of a newborncalf of unknown bodyweight is measured and is compared to a substantially equal hoof circumference of one of the newborn calves in the control group. The weight of the newborncalf of unknown bodyweight is
In our study, amino acid and 10.00% and 20.00% dextrose groups showed 1.83, 1.55 and 1.46 times increase in the villus area in duodenum compared to the controls, respectively. Obtained results in the jejunum were 1.53, 1.36 and 1.19 times in amino acid and 10.00% and 20.00% dextrose groups more than those in control group, respectively. Increasing in the villus area in above- mentioned groups in the ileum was 1.65, 1.52 and 1.45 times more than that in controls, respectively. It is noticeable that our method was based on injection into the yolk sac. Our results are in agreement with some other studies. Based on results by Tako et al., at the day of hatch, villi length and width of IO feeding treatments (CHO, β- hydroxy- β-methyl butyrate (HMB) and CHO+HMB IO groups) were greater than those of the controls and on day three of post-hatch the surface area of an average villus was elevated by 33.00% for the CHO and CHO+HMB IO groups compared to that of the controls. 15
Institutional ethical committee’s approval was obtained; informed consent of the mothers participating was taken in the study was taken. It is a cross-sectional study done during period 2018 January to 2018 October done at Niloufer Hospital Hyderabad. One hundred and forty- seven term newborn babies with birth weight less than 2500 g and 55 term newborns with birth weight more than 2500 g by computerized random sampling method. Neonates with congenital anomalies especially limb anomalies and twin pregnancy were excluded. Measurement of weight, length, head circumference, mid-arm circumference, chest circumference, thigh circumference, and calf circumference were done in all the babies. Relevant maternal data like, parity, age of the mother, mother’s weight and height, nutrition was also collected.
Background: Immune protection in newborn calves relies on a combination of the timing, volume and quality of colostrum consumed by the calf after birth. Poor quality colostrum with inadequate immunoglobulin concentration contributes to failed transfer of passive immunity in calves, leading to higher calf morbidity and mortality. Therefore, estimating colostrum quality and ensuring the transfer of passive immunity on farm is of critical importance. Currently, there are no on-farm tools that directly measure immunoglobulin content in colostrum or serum. The aim of this study was to apply a novel molecular assay, split trehalase immunoglobulin G assay (STIGA), to directly estimate immunoglobulin content in dairy and beef colostrum and calf sera, and to examine its potential to be developed as on-farm test. The STIGA is based on a split version of trehalase TreA, an enzyme that converts trehalose into glucose, enabling the use of a common glucometer for signal detection. In a first study, 60 dairy and 64 beef colostrum and 83 dairy and 84 beef calf sera samples were tested with STIGA, and the resulting glucose production was measured and compared with radial immunodiffusion, the standard method for measuring immunoglobulin concentrations.
by significant reduction of nutrient and fluid intake combined with procedures that increase sweating, both passive (sauna) and active (exercise in special rubber suits). This process may not be accompanied by medi- cal complications in the short term, but they may occur over a longer period of time, especially if the athlete reduces his bodyweight often, inappropriately and extensively. Finding the most common ways of weight reduction is the first step to remedy inadequate proce- dures in bodyweight reduction. As rapid weight loss is not free of risk to health, rule changes should be imple- mented to prevent serious adverse occurrences. In par- allel, educational programs should aim at increasing athletes’, coaches’ and parents’ awareness about the risks of “aggressive” nutritional strategies as well as healthier ways to properly manage bodyweight.
In this study, we aimed to examine the role of chronic anxiety and depression on bodyweight, and the modera- ting and mediating roles of ghrelin in these relationships in newly diagnosed, otherwise healthy, non-diabetic migraine patients. It is possible that ghrelin mediates the effect of depression and anxiety on bodyweight in migrai- neurs. However, another possibility that has received little attention in the literature is that ghrelin moderates the effect of anxiety and depression on bodyweight in migrai- neurs. In other words, anxiety and depression may have a statistical interaction with ghrelin such that the effect of ghrelin on bodyweight is stronger for depressed (or anxious) migraine patients compared to non-depressed (or non-anxious) migraine patients, and depressed (or anxious) migraine patients who also have high levels of ghrelin may be more vulnerable to obesity.
It is important to recognize that massive weight loss patients have complex problems that span multiple parts of the body. Presurgical planning should be extensive. A comprehensive history and physical should be performed. The history should include, but not be limited to, comorbidities such as coro- nary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and history of smoking. A physical examination should be performed with special attention being paid to areas with the most skin redun- dancy and areas with the worst objective sequelae. The pres- ence of an incisional hernia should be noted and assessed for size. Some plastic and reconstructive surgeons will consult with a general surgeon preoperatively for patients requiring hernia repair, while others are comfortable performing the hernia repair themselves. Preoperative labs and medical or cardiac clearance should also be obtained. The proper timing of the surgery is after the patient’s weight loss has stabilized and after the patient’s body mass index is no longer in the obese range. A recent study found that BMI .30 at the time of surgery is correlated with a higher risk of complications. 10
Another point to consider is that even in altered metabolic states, circadian rhythms of hormones, recep- tors, transporters, etc are maintained. For example, in obese subjects, circadian rhythms of leptin and adipo- nectin are still present, albeit changed. In a 24-hour per- iod, obese individuals showed increased plasmatic leptin concentrations with higher peaks of secretion. On the other hand, adiponectin concentrations were lower where this was associated with smaller and shorter peaks of secretion . Ghrelin (hormone involved in bodyweight regulation) concentrations are decreased in the obese while no increase is seen in the evening in contrast to lean subjects .
measurements of retinal microvasculature using digital retinal imaging in infants born at term. These measurements could be used as a baseline for future studies that investigate the effects of birth weight on retinal microvasculature. Previous studies have shown a strong relationship between LBW and retinal vasculature size in older children, 15,19,22,23,31 adolescents 32 and adults. 9,12,13 However, no published studies utilized baseline measurements of infant retinal vasculature for comparison. For the first time, we were able to measure retinal arteriole and venule sizes in LBW infants during infancy. The data from this study show significantly higher retinal vessel diameters in LBW babies. By contrast, previously published studies of young children 15,22 have shown that children who were born as LBW infants had narrower retinal arteriolar calibers. Narrowing of these vessels has been linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases in adults. 7,14,33
No single sensory signal informs the brain about the weight of body parts. However, sophisticated organs in the inner ear, the vestibular receptors, provide a reference for gravitational processing. The vestibular system comprises the semi-circular canals (anterior, posterior, and horizontal) which detect angular rotations of the head around three cardinal axes (yaw, roll, pitch), and the otolith organs (utricle and saccule) which detect linear acceleration and gravity. On Earth, when the head moves with respect to gravitational acceleration, the otoliths shift with the direction of gravity, moving the hair cells receptors and signalling to the brain head position relative to gravity. Thus, when the vestibular system works efficiently, the pull of gravity generates a constant sensory flow from early fetal life until death. These vestibular-gravitational signals are integrated with sensory signals from vision, proprioception and viscera. Consistent with this view, vestibular inputs do not project to any primary uni- modal brain areas. Rather neuroimaging studies have identified a distributed network of brain regions including
Over the last decade the incidence of obesity has increased dramatically (Ogden and Carroll, 2010, von Ruesten et al., 2011), leading to greater concerns about the promotion of eﬃcient ways to invert this trend by means of dieting (Baradel et al., 2009, Bish et al., 2012) or physical activity (Mozaﬀarian et al., 2011). However, although attempts at losing weight may have increased, more than 50% of obese individuals still struggle to lose weight permanently (Kruger et al., 2004). Due to these unsuccessful attempts and in order to facilitate weight-loss eﬀorts, recent insights deriving from behavioral economics (Loewenstein et al., 2007) have been used to promote the reduction of excessive weight by motivating individuals to follow a type of behavior that they would not naturally follow thanks to monetary and non-monetary incentives 1 (Augurzky et al., 2012, Cawley and Price, 2013, John et al., 2011, Volpp et al., 2008). Unfortunately, despite promising short- run results and the fact that weight loss was indeed achieved during experiments, substantial weight regain was found after the incentive was removed (John et al., 2011, Volpp et al., 2008, Cawley and Price, 2013), proving that, despite being sustained by incentives, individuals were still failing to lose weight permanently. This poses the questions of why weight loss is so diﬃcult to achieve, what factors inﬂuence weight loss and how they even manage to negate the eﬀects of short-run incentives. Current literature relates diﬃculties in losing weight to several possible explanations such as: time-inconsistent preferences (Dodd, 2008, Ikeda et al., 2010); willpower depletion (Ozdenoren et al., 2006); the interaction between two conﬂicting systems driving human behavior (cognitive vs. aﬀective) (Loewenstein and O’Donoghue, 2004, Ruhm, 2012); or, more generally, to the failure of individuals to rationally balance current beneﬁts and future costs related to food consumption and bodyweight (O’Donoghue and Rabin, 1999).
Previous research examining responses to upper body exercise training have mainly investigated whether adaptations are muscle specific (Volianitis et al., 2004; Bhambhani et al., 1991; Stamford et al., 1978), whether training benefits can be transferred to lower body exercise performance (Loftin et al., 1988) and the use of upper body exercise for rehabilitation (Mostardi et al., 1981; Tew et al., 2009). The literature though appears to be in conflict with regards to the specific causes of the improvement in aerobic capacity with upper body exercise training. Some studies suggest that aerobic improvements are dependent on central adaptations such as cardiac output and stroke volume (Loftin et al., 1988) whereas other studies suggest peripheral circulatory changes such as arterial – venous oxygen difference are predominant (Volianitis et al., 2004). However, training is limb specific (Loftin et al., 1988) which implies that a s ubstantial proportion of the conditioning response to training is attributed to extracardiac or peripheral factors such as alterations in blood flow and cellular and enzymatic adaptations in the trained limb alone (Volianitis et al., 2004).
weight loss was found with milnacipran versus placebo regardless of responder status (3 and 6 months, P , 0.05). These preliminary results, along with the lack of correla- tion found between changes in weight and pain in patients receiving $3 years of open-label milnacipran treatment, suggest that weight loss with milnacipran was not completely dependent on improvements in pain or other fibromyalgia symptoms. However, weight loss was approximately 45%– 120% greater in treatment responders than in nonresponders. Additional correlations between weight, pain, and other potentially relevant factors, such as physical functioning, would be needed to characterize further the relationship between milnacipran efficacy and weight change.
It is believed that the dependency of FRE models on local conditions is a critical limitation to their accuracy, particu- larly when they are to be applied in different environments. Consequently, a new approach is proposed which calculates the fall rate of XBT devices for any local conditions. This method takes advantage of local temperature measured by the XBT itself to auto-correct for biases in the FRE. This new method requires very accurate determinations of the drag co- efficient and its variation with Reynolds number. The calcu- lation of the drag coefficient will be performed with greater fidelity than the earlier estimates of drag (Green, 1984; Hal- lock and Teague, 1992). While those earlier efforts were seminal and pioneering, the research was limited by the abil- ity to accurately determine the drag coefficient.
Table 14 showed that registration after first trimester was seen more in case group than control group (31.54%, 24.23% respectively).However, this difference was statistically not significant [χ2= 2.36, df =1, P= 0.12, OR= 1.44(0.90-2.29)]. These findings were similar to that of Biswas R. et al  (χ2=1.11, df=2 ,P>0.05) where most of the controls were registered at 12-16 wks(73.9% ) and most of the cases were registered at gestational age of > 16 wks (33%).A non significant association was found between time of registration of pregnancy and low birth weight. While, in studies done by Selina Khatun and Mahmudur Rahman  (χ2=219.054, P<0.001), Deshpande Jayant D.et al