Top PDF Method of feeding ketoisocaproate to cattle and sheep

Method of feeding ketoisocaproate to cattle and sheep

Method of feeding ketoisocaproate to cattle and sheep

The method of feeding domestic animals to increase the rate of weight gain for animals being fed for meat production or to increase the amount of wool for sheep being raised for wool pro[r]

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Johne s disease in sheep: is it different from cattle?

Johne s disease in sheep: is it different from cattle?

Faecal culture is regarded as the gold standard method for detection of infected animals as well as potentially identifying those shedding the highest doses of MAP (Bastida and Juste 2011). It is, however, very expensive, with prolonged turn round time and potentially false positive due to passive shedding of MAP, especially evident in highly contaminated farm or where super-shedders are present. Sheep strains are also more difficult and even slower to grow than cattle strains (de Juan and others 2006), which further reduces the use of this test in sheep. An alternative is faecal PCR. This has better sensitivity than ELISA in sub-clinical cases (30-60%), but higher cost and it is more rapid and sensitive than faecal culture (Bauman and others 2016). In this case too, there could be potential false positives due to few environmental mycobacteria yielding positive results (Cousins and others 1999). Due to the economic constrains in sheep farming, it might be worth considering the
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Surveys on Coxiella burnetii infections in Swedish cattle, sheep, goats and moose

Surveys on Coxiella burnetii infections in Swedish cattle, sheep, goats and moose

Since the cattle bulk milk survey on the Isle of Öland showed a high prevalence, we expected to find some sero- positive moose in the area. This was not the case, although moose sometimes browse in the vicinity of livestock pas- ture. However, this mostly concerns beef cattle and not dairy cattle that generally graze closer to the farms where moose rarely are abundant. The status regarding C. burne- tii exposure in Swedish beef cattle is still unknown. Fur- thermore, the density of the moose population on Isle of Öland is lower than on the mainland, i.e. two to three moose per 1,000 hectares (Magnus Johansson, personal communication) (250 – 300 moose on the whole island). On the mainland of Sweden, population density some- times exceeds 12-14 moose per 1,000 hectares [29]. It would have been interesting to investigate the prevalence among wild ruminants on the Isle of Gotland since that was the county with the highest prevalence among dairy cattle herds; however, moose are not present there. The diagnostic method used in this study, CFT, is not validated for cervids in general and moose in particular and there is a risk of false negative results. In general, the CFT is con- sidered to be less sensitive when compared to currently available commercial ELISAs [30], at least in the species for which it is validated. However, based on our results, we do not consider moose to be a potential reservoir or source of C. burnetii infection for domestic animals or humans in Sweden. Serological investigations of other cer- vids (including grazers) with a higher local and regional abundance, such as roe deer (with densities exceeding 100 animals per 1,000 hectares), and the development of a vali- dated analysis could revise this conclusion.
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Identification and Prevalence of Ectoparasites in Cattle and Sheep in and Around Bishoftu Town, Central Ethiopia

Identification and Prevalence of Ectoparasites in Cattle and Sheep in and Around Bishoftu Town, Central Ethiopia

Animals presented to the School of Veterinary Medicine clinic for any disease were subjected to detail examination for the presence of ectoparasites. Animals those admitted to the clinic were selected using a simple random sampling method, and the sample size required was obtained using the formula given by Thrusfield [23]. The age of the animals was estimated using the definition described by Aiello and Mays [24]. Animals were divided into two groups, namely young (≤ 1 year old) and adult animals (>1 year old). Body condition score was made by the scoring system described by Nicholson and Butterworth [25] and Gatenby [26] in cattle and sheep, respectively. As previous study has not been conducted on ectoparasites in the study area, the expected prevalence was assumed to be 50%. Therefore, the sample size calculated at 50% prevalence rate with a desired precision of 5% and 95% confidence interval.
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A review on Schmallenberg virus infection: a newly emerging disease of cattle, sheep and goats

A review on Schmallenberg virus infection: a newly emerging disease of cattle, sheep and goats

SBV in the brain of infected animals (Varela et al. 2013). Interestingly, most of the mutations in the M segment were localised to the Gc protein which acts as an antigenic determinant in the outer viral surface (principal target of neutralising antibod- ies). Such mutations generated in Gc in an immu- nologically unconstrained environment could be associated with an increased cell receptor affinity. In a study aimed at establishing an in situ hy- bridization method (ISH) to detect SBV mRNA, to evaluate the usefulness of ISH as a complementary diagnostic tool and to further analyse SBV patho- genesis, Hahn et al. (2013) investigated SBV mRNA distribution in the CNS of 82 naturally infected ru- minants (46 lambs, two goat kids, and 34 calves), all of which were positive for SBV by qRT-PCR. They employed ISH on various tissues from four lambs, one goat kid, and five calves, including placenta, muscle, eye, heart, aorta, lung, trachea, liver, kid- ney, spleen, small and large intestine, mesenteric and pulmonary lymph nodes, thymus, adrenal gland, testis, and uterus. SBV mRNA was found in varying amounts, predominantly in neurons of the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, medulla oblon- gata, and spinal cord of seven lambs, one goat kid, and two calves. Randomly distributed clusters of SBV-positive neurons were frequently found in small ruminants, whereas only single positive cells were found in both calves. SBV mRNA was not found in any peripheral organ. They concluded that neurons are the predominant target in SBV-infected neonates and that the in situ detection of SBV mRNA rep- resents a suitable way to study SBV pathogenesis, especially in the active phase of infection, and might enable identification of SBV as the causative agent in cases of CNS inflammation of unknown etiology.
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Comparative Study on Milk Compositions of Cattle, Sheep and Goats in Nigeria

Comparative Study on Milk Compositions of Cattle, Sheep and Goats in Nigeria

The study utilized milk from Bunaji cattle, Yankasa sheep and Red Sokoto goats (35 each) that were in their first lactation at the Dairy and Small Ruminant Research Programmes of the National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI) Shik a, Zaria. The milk samples were collected from animals grazing on natural pasture in the same Institute, during the same season, within the same year and stage of lactation. The newborn calves, lambs and kids were allowed to suckle their dams for about one week to ensure that they got all the colostrum. Thereafter, the milk samples were collected. Ehoche and Buvanendran (1983) and Malau-Aduli et al. (1996a, 1996b) have described animal management practices in NAPRI. In the laboratory, standard procedures ad opted by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC, 1993) were followed in the determination of total solids (TS), solids -not-fat (SNF), fat (Gerber’s method) and protein (Kjeldahl’s method) percentages. Lactose percentage was calculated as TS – (Protein + Fat + Ash). One way analysis of variance was utilized in which species was fitted as a fixed effect in the model using the general linear model procedures (PROC GLM) of SAS (1986) to compute least squares means. Correlation coefficients betwee n milk components were calculated using PROC CORR (SAS, 1986) and Bonferroni probabilities for tests of significance computed. PROC REG (SAS, 1986) was used in running simple linear regressions to predict protein and fat percentages.
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A gene expression estimator of intramuscular fat percentage for use in both cattle and sheep

A gene expression estimator of intramuscular fat percentage for use in both cattle and sheep

the IMF% of individuals. There was no significant differ- ence in average IMF% (NIRS measured) between the WA HGP-treated and WA control subgroups for which gene expression data was available (Table 4). As dis- cussed previously [4], a reduction in IMF% caused by HGP-treatment would not be expected to be detectable in such small groups of animals. For the whole set of 141 WA animals (IMF% data was not available for 32 animals), HGP-treated and control animals could be sig- nificantly differentiated by directly measured IMF% (P- value = 0.001). But ultrasound estimated IMF% did not discriminate between the two groups, even when data from 173 animals was used (Table 4). Consistent with this IMF% estimated by ultrasound was not correlated with NIRS measured IMF%, R 2 is 0.086 (Figure 4). These results were not unexpected as ultrasound is not recommended as a method for estimating IMF% in cat- tle with less than 2% IMF% [13]. Half of the Brahman steers from WA had NIRS measured IMF% of less than 2%. More typical use of ultrasound in Australia to esti- mate IMF% is in the range 2-8% where proficient scan- ners achieve correlation of ultrasound estimated IMF% with measured IMF% well in excess of 0.75 [13].
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Possible cross-infection of Dichelobacter nodosus between co-grazing sheep and cattle

Possible cross-infection of Dichelobacter nodosus between co-grazing sheep and cattle

The fimA PCR was performed directly on DNA from swab samples. This PCR method has mainly been tested on template DNA from pure D. nodosus isolates and only on a small number of swab samples from the inter- digital cleft of sheep [7]. Since serogrouping/-typing can not be used to predict virulence in D. nodosus [8], it would have been an advantage to cultivate and virulence test D. nodosus isolates. But these methods were not established in Norway at the time of the study, and data regarding clinical manifestations in sheep were used as an indication of bacterial virulence. Preliminary results from a cultivation study show that several different D. nodosus serotypes are rarely found in sheep flocks and cattle herds in Norway. We can not exclude non-specific reactions in the PCR-method (Hannah Joan Jørgensen, personal communication).
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The first molecular survey of theileriosis in Malaysian cattle, sheep and goats

The first molecular survey of theileriosis in Malaysian cattle, sheep and goats

Using PCR-based method, we detected a higher rate of Theileria parasites in cattle, as compared to a previous Malaysian study (Zainalabidin et al., 2015). Apart from difference in cattle population, it is believed that the insensitivity of the microscopic examination method may contribute to the lower detection rate (20%) as determined in the previous study. The conventional classification of members in the T. orientalis complex which is largely based on phenotypic features is challenging due to the similarities in the morphology, serology, life cycle and vector transmission (Uilenberg et al., 1985). Identification of Theileria parasites can become even more complicated with the occurrence of mixed or co- infections of Theileria spp. in the farm animals. Mixed infection of Theileria spp. is suspected in this study as the sequence data generated for a majority of Theileria-amplified fragments was unsatisfactory for further analysis. In fact, mixed populations of different Theileria types have been reported in Japan (Kubota et al., 1995), Korea (Baek et al., 2002) and Thailand (Sarataphan et al., 2003). For verification of the current finding, cloning of amplified fragments or use of allele-specific PCR assay should be attempted for differentiation of Theileria spp. in these samples.
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Method of feeding ketoisocaproate to lactating domestic mammals

Method of feeding ketoisocaproate to lactating domestic mammals

Lactating domestic mammals are fed ketoisocaproate (KIC) with a diet containing limited leucine to improve the quantity and quality of the milk produced. This feeding method is particularly applicable to dairy cattle but also can advantageously be used with nursing domestic animals including cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and swine.

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Feeding behaviour of Culicoides spp  (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on cattle and sheep in northeast Germany

Feeding behaviour of Culicoides spp (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on cattle and sheep in northeast Germany

From the checklist of the 76 Culicoides spp. reported to occur in Germany [32], we collected and identified 11 spe- cies. Two other species (C. subfagineus and C. griseidorsum) are reported here for the first time in Germany. Time of day, trapping method, geographical region, meteorological conditions, seasonality and the proximity of other animals may influence the species composition of Culicoides col- lected [24]. Several methods of catching flying insects have been described [14,33-36]. Different trapping methods may suggest different activity patterns [37]. Certain collection methods such as light traps could impose a bias on the populations of Culicoides present in the area [13], we used a drop trap in combination with mechanical aspiration by a modified backpack aspirator. This method had been shown to catch more midges compared to other collecting methods [14]. In study B, we performed direct aspiration of midges without using a drop trap to examine the pref- erential landing and feeding sites on cattle and sheep. The number of collected engorged midges was comparatively lower in study B where direct aspiration from the animals was performed as opposed to studies A and C where the drop trap was used. One plausible explanation could be that some midges were collected by direct aspiration
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ELABORATION AND EXPERIMENT OF THE TECHNOLOGY OF STIMULATING FEEDING OF FEMALE SHEEP YOUTH FOR EARLY COUPLING

ELABORATION AND EXPERIMENT OF THE TECHNOLOGY OF STIMULATING FEEDING OF FEMALE SHEEP YOUTH FOR EARLY COUPLING

The level of foddering and respectively the body weight at the date of accepting the female young sheep for coupling significantly influences the proportion of female young sheep in the heating period. The proportion of females which were supposed to be pregnant, reported to the females in the heating period is not influenced by the foddering level, the differences between lots being small and not significant.

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Infection of the Ovine herpesvirus 2 in the reservoir host, sheep, and the susceptible host, cattle

Infection of the Ovine herpesvirus 2 in the reservoir host, sheep, and the susceptible host, cattle

A total of 28 sheep were tested for the presence and amount of OvHV-2 DNA in a range of samples, including a variety of organs (in the majority at least lung, mediastinal lymph nodes and spleen), peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and/or nasopharyngeal swabs (Table 3-1; for detailed information of each individual animal, see Appendix, Table 1a and 1b). Of the 17 sheep of which organs were tested, 15 (88 %) tested positive for OvHV-2 DNA. All five 8-month-old sheep (100 %), of which only the PBL were tested, were found to be viraemic, i.e. PCR-positive, with viral loads of 2-9 copies per 100 ng genomic DNA in the PBL. Of the six sheep, for which only nasopharyngeal swabs were examined, three (50 %) were positive, with 6, 14 and 297 virus copies, respectively. In tissues, viral DNA loads were highly variable, not only between the different tissues within an animal, but also between individual animals and between animals at similar ages, and in general viral loads were relatively low (generally <300). Young lambs (neonates to less than five weeks old) were negative. By the age of seven months, animals were positive, but with very low virus titres (usually below 10 copies in organs), overall ranging between 1 - 215 copies in positive organs. Among those tested at eight months of age and over, only one sheep had high copy numbers (case no. 13L-2592C, eight-month-old), with 4200, 3200, 3300 virus copies in lung, mediastinal lymph node and spleen, respectively. In animals aged over ten months, the viral loads were still variable among organs, but had risen to above 100 copies in the most frequently tested samples, such as lung, lymph node, spleen, muzzle, tongue and nasopharynx. Notably, in the two older sheep (3.5 and 14 years) the viral loads were very low again.
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Evaluation of cattle and sheep buildings with their surroundings using ‘visual quality assessment’ technique

Evaluation of cattle and sheep buildings with their surroundings using ‘visual quality assessment’ technique

Descriptive statistics of visual quality scores (VQS1) for animal buildings are shown in Table 1. VQS1 were influenced significantly by district and farm type (P < 0.001). VQS1 also differed significantly by farm type in each district (P < 0.05). In this research, mean VQS1 was 1.92 ± 0.87, rated low (score 2) and varied from very low (score 1) to moderate (score 3). Mean VQS1 of cattle buildings was 2.24 ± 0.89, rated low and varied from very low (score 1) to moderate (score 3) while mean sheep buildings was 1.58 ± 0.70 rated low and varied from very low (score 1) to low (score 2). In general view, as in Table 1, VQS1 in sheep farms have been influenced much more from the lack of mainte- nance, and conventional buildings than that of cattle farms. In other words, cattle husbandry has been opera- ted in fair management. Animal buildings in Menemen rated slightly high due to that the district had better facilities while Ödemiş and İzmir centre were rated low due to that these districts had conventionally designed buildings and lack of maintenance. For cattle buildings, Menemen had significantly higher visual quality score (2.80) as compared to other districts. The lowest score was given to the cattle buildings in Seferihisar (1.90) and İzmir centre (1.91). For sheep buildings, Menemen had significantly higher visual quality score (2.04) whe- reas Seferihisar had lower score as compared to other districts (1.35).
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Microdigestion of Grazed Annual Forage, Clipped Herbage, and Standard Samples by Cattle and Sheep.

Microdigestion of Grazed Annual Forage, Clipped Herbage, and Standard Samples by Cattle and Sheep.

Alfalfa was more comparable in chemical composition to the period I forages than to those grazed in periods II or III, but the alfalfa sample and the early su[r]

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Dietary Chemical Composition of Cattle and Sheep Grazing in Common on a Dry Annual Range.

Dietary Chemical Composition of Cattle and Sheep Grazing in Common on a Dry Annual Range.

There were no significant differences among animals for chromogen, crude protein, cellulose, ether extract, and lignin content of for- age samples in the Montana st[r]

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Botanical and chemical composition of cattle and sheep diets on pinyon-juniper grassland range.

Botanical and chemical composition of cattle and sheep diets on pinyon-juniper grassland range.

Sheep diets were consistently higher in crude protein and ash content than cattle diets, but there were no significant differences in cell-wall constituents and i[r]

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Feeding value of dryland lupin/cocksfoot pasture compared to lucerne pasture for sheep

Feeding value of dryland lupin/cocksfoot pasture compared to lucerne pasture for sheep

ii in each paddock. There was no significant difference in herbage allowance between each group, and all sheep were shifted to the next paddock on the same day. Liveweight gain of sheep, herbage mass, herbage height, botanical and morphological composition of herbage and nutritive value were recorded throughout the trial period. Sheep grazing cocksfoot/lupin pasture gained 60% as much liveweight per hectare as sheep grazing lucerne pasture over the over the year (P<0.001). Herbage intake was 1.496 kg DM/sheep/day on lucerne pasture, higher than the 0.986 kg DM/sheep/day gained by sheep on cocksfoot/lupin pasture (P<0.001). Pre-grazing herbage mass was higher on lucerne pasture than cocksfoot/lupin pasture, allowing for a higher stocking rate on lucerne pasture at 20.8 head/ha compared with 13.6 head/ha on cocksfoot/lupin pasture. Leaf was the most rapidly consumed morphological pasture component, followed by petiole/pseudostem, and stem for both pasture types. The lupin fraction of the cocksfoot/lupin pasture was consumed within the first 4 days of the 10 day grazing period. Dead material was avoided by sheep grazing both pasture types. There was no significant difference in annual ME between cocksfoot/lupin and lucerne pasture, but lucerne pasture had greater ME FCE. Pre-grazing herbage mass and pasture composition indicated more opportunity for sheep to select high ME components on lucerne pasture than cocksfoot/lupin pasture. With adequate soil moisture lucerne pasture has the potential for high liveweight gain per hectare, making it a better pasture option for young lambs than cocksfoot/lupin pasture. However the feeding value of cocksfoot/lupin pasture is adequate for liveweight gain in young sheep. In the high country environment where the rooting depth of lucerne is restricted by high Al soils, limiting lucerne growth, cocksfoot/lupin pasture can be used as an alternative forage crop.
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Supplemental Feeding of Range Cattle in Longleaf-Slash Pine Forests of Georiga.

Supplemental Feeding of Range Cattle in Longleaf-Slash Pine Forests of Georiga.

round tended to increase the calf crop generally over the period of the.. The fact that three cows in group 1 calved in both years perhaps indicates a slightly [r]

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Article: Effect of feeding tree forages on productive performances on growing sheep

Article: Effect of feeding tree forages on productive performances on growing sheep

Tree forages Melia azardirachta, L. leucocephal and A. heterophyllus were supplied to animal groups B, C and D, respectively. Usually Leaves and edible soft stem parts of the foliage were collected in the afternoon for feeding the animals on the following morning. After harvesting it was chopped with scissor and chop length was 2 to 3 inches then fed to animals. Silage was collected from silo pit in the morning for feeding the sheep on the same day. Concentrate was supplied first followed by roughages with extra 20% of requirements and adlibitum access to fresh water.
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