Lactatingdomesticmammals are fed ketoisocaproate (KIC) with a diet containing limited leucine to improve the quantity and quality of the milk produced. This feedingmethod is particularly applicable to dairy cattle but also can advantageously be used with nursing domestic animals including cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and swine.
β-methyl-βbutyrate (HMB) has been found to be markedly more effective for activating the immune function of T lymphocytes of mammals than α-ketoisocaproate (KIC). For activation of the T lymphocytes, β-methyl- butyric acid or an edible water-soluble salt thereof is administered to the mammal by a route through which the HMB enters the blood of the mammal. The amount administered is sufficient for effective enhancement of the blastogenesis of their T lymphocytes. The method is adapted for use with domesticmammals, including particularly cattle, sheep, and swine. HMB can also be used with humans as an immune system stimulant.
A number of threats are repeatedly cited in the species accounts below. Not surprisingly many of these relate to habitat management issues. Woodland management is an important factor for many mammals (e.g. bats, red squirrel, pine marten). The spread of forestry in recent decades, albeit predominantly of conifers, has been of some benefit for these species. However, careful planning, particularly at clear-felling, is essential if these habitats are to continue to support healthy populations. New biodiversity guidelines from the Forest Service are addressing some of these issues. Continued consultation between local wildlife officers and woodland managers will also be critical.
Abstract—Water quality due to its direct correlation with human health becomes an important issue in fulfilling the needs of domestic water. The feasibility of water quality for the domestic needs must be in accordance with the standard as defined by the Regulation of Health Minister Number 416/PER/IX/1990. Domestic water refers to the water used to fulfil the needs of daily activities such as cooking, drinking, plant watering, or sanitary. The water quality can be observed from physical, chemical and biological parameters. These parameters must, at least, include odor, solved residue (TDS), turbidity, flavor, temperature, pH, and total Coliform. In this research, Fuzzy logic has been used to determine the water quality based on the physical, chemical and biological parameters. Not all parameters were tested with fuzzy method; there were a number of parameter tests must be carried out in the laboratory such as total total coliform, pH and TDS. Based on the sample taken, the water was seen transparent, little bit turbid, odorless, flavorless and at the average temperature of𝟐𝟓℃. From the testing result using Fuzzy and the result of laboratory test, it can be concluded that the ground water in the region of Mungkid city on average is feasible to fulfil the domestic needs (daily needs of people nearby).
approximately half of the glucose solution had been infused. Catheters were flushed with ~5 ml sodium citrate solution after each sample was taken. After the last blood samples were taken, catheters were again flushed with ~10 ml sodium citrate solution and the cows were returned to their dry lot enclosure. On day 3, the cows were again locked into stanchions, allowed the lactating cow TMR, and their catheters were checked and flushed. Each cow was then given an intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT) by administering a single intravenous injection of 0.1 IU bovine insulin/kg BW dissolved in saline (Sigma Chemical; St. Louis, MO). This insulin dose was chosen because it has been successfully used in nonlactating, nongestating Holstein cows (Pires et al., 2007; Pires et al., 2008) and growing beef steers (Kegley et al., 2000). The insulin preparation contained 27 IU/mg and the insulin was diluted so that injection volumes were 3-4ml. Blood samples were obtained at the same time points as the IVGTT. After sampling was complete, catheters were removed and the cows were returned to the dry cow herd.
On June 9, 2015, NMFS received an application from Excelerate and Tetra Tech, on behalf of Northeast Gateway and Algonquin, for an authorization to take 14 species of marine mammals by Level B harassment incidental to operations, maintenance, and repair of an LNG port and the Pipeline Lateral facilities in Massachusetts Bay. They are: North Atlantic right whale, humpback whale, fin whale, sei whale, minke whale, long-finned pilot whale, Atlantic white-sided dolphin, bottlenose dolphin, short-beaked common dolphin, killer whale, Risso’s dolphin, harbor porpoise, harbor seal, and gray seal. Since LNG Port and Pipeline Lateral operation, maintenance, and repair activities have the potential to take marine mammals, a marine mammal take authorization under the MMPA is warranted.
Ganjkhanlou et al. (2009) evaluated the production response of early lactating cows fed alfalfa hay (as forage) to rumen-protected fat (Ca-PFA). They found that supplementation of early lactating diet with decreased feed intake but without altering milk production, milk composition and body weight, thus improved milk efficiency. Other studies indicated that cows that were fed corn and alfalfa silage with Ca-PFA produced more milk than cows fed control diet or diets with hydrogenated triacylglycerides from palm oil (HPO) due to higher digestibility of long chain fatty acids from Ca-PFA, which increases the concentration of digestible energy in diets, compared to HPO (Weiss & Wyatt, 2004). Adding 200–300g supplemental Ca-PFA in wheat straw based diets fed to buffaloes to increase its energy density without adversely affecting DM intake and digestibility was proposed by Naik et al. (2009).
Some mammals, despite legal protection, continue to suffer from various forms of persecution. The mustelids in particular, and the bats to a lesser extent, are targeted. Badger baiting still occurs in Ireland and interference with setts is not uncommon. Stoat and pine marten are seen as a threat to game birds and are illegally trapped and shot. Further efforts will be required by the statutory authorities in both jurisdictions to combat these illegal activities. These issues were highlighted in the 2009 report, and some actions, such as the production of leaflets and a website informing stakeholders of non-lethal methods of preventing pine martens from attacking game birds or nesting in roof spaces, have been made available (www.pinemarten.ie). A combination of enhanced education and enforcement are required. The tendency of some bat species to roost in attics can bring them into conflict with humans. However, much of this conflict arises from misinformation and the education work of BCI and the Northern Ireland Bat Group together with the NIEA and the NPWS is helping address this (e.g. www.npws.ie/en/WildlifePlanningtheLaw/ Batsinhouses/).
Probably the first published account of a bioassay using extracted cetacean tissues was that of Eichelberger et al. (Eichelberger et al., 1940). Extracted renin from the kidney of a bottlenose dolphin was injected into dogs at two doses, 4 ml and 2 ml. In the initial trial, 4 ml of extract induced an immediate 48 % increase in blood pressure, which remained 38 % higher than control pressure for 10 min. In a separate trial, an initial 2 ml dose of extract induced a 21 % increase in blood pressure, but it was not sustained. A second 2 ml dose resulted in a 27 % increase in blood pressure, which was also not sustained. However, the two doses collectively were able to induce a 9 % increase in blood pressure that was sustained. A third dose of 2 ml produced a 20 % increase in blood pressure that sustained an additional 4 % increase in blood pressure. These experiments demonstrated (i) that renin in dolphins (and probably all cetaceans) causes a vascular pressor effect as in other mammals, (ii) that the pressor effect is dose-dependent, and (iii) that the response is graded until a threshold is reached that results in a sustained elevation in blood pressure. Unfortunately, the concentrations of the doses were not reported. However, sufficient information on the extract was provided to enable the experiments to be repeated using known concentrations of the doses and thus to shed light on the sensitivity and kinetics of the renin-induced increase in blood pressure.
Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are emerging human diseases caused by obligate intracel- lular Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. Despite being important causes of systemic febrile illnesses in travelers returning from sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the reservoir hosts of these pathogens. We conducted surveys for rickettsiae in domestic animals and ticks in a rural setting in western Kenya. Of the 100 serum specimens tested from each species of domestic ruminant 43% of goats, 23% of sheep, and 1% of cattle had immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the SFG rickettsiae. None of these sera were positive for IgG against typhus group rickettsiae. We detected Rickettsia africae–genotype DNA in 92.6% of adult Amblyomma variegatum ticks collected from domestic ruminants, but found no evidence of the pathogen in blood specimens from cattle, goats, or sheep. Sequencing of a subset of 21 rickettsia-positive ticks revealed R. africae variants in 95.2% (20/21) of ticks tested. Our findings show a high prevalence of R. africae variants in A. variegatum ticks in western Kenya, which may represent a low disease risk for humans. This may provide a possible explanation for the lack of African tick-bite fever cases among febrile patients in Kenya.
This also agrees with our earlier observations, which demonstrated that result can explain and forecast for instance, in Method 1: choose first four continuous data to forecast the 5 th of output value, 2 nd to 5 th consecutive data to forecast the 6 th output value and thereafter, in Method 2: Predict the 6 th of output value by adopting first five consecutive data, 2 nd to 6 th consecutive data to forecast the 7 th output value and henceforth.
In the next step, humidity is added into the model. Among different candidate models, the quadratic model with maximum temperature and average humidity gives the best explanation of variability of daily feed intake. This is consistent with a former study to evaluate the effects of climatic variables on feed intake of lactating sows (Bergsma and Hermesch, 2012). The model is,
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of feedingmethod (wet and dry) on the performance of meat quail chicks. This experiment was carried out with 160 one days old quail chicks in completely randomized design, 2 treatments included 4 replicates (20 quail chicks in each replicate) and conducted for a 35 day period. Measured traits, were included performance parameters, carcass characteristics, and meat quality items. Diets were based on corn-soybeans and wheat. Using wet feeding resulted in a significant difference in performance parameters quail chicks. The results of this experiment showed that for entire period (0–35d), the wet feeding significantly improved body weight gain, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio in compared with control group (P < 0.05). Also the wet feeing significantly decreased the length of cecaeum, pH of gizzard content and increased the population of lactic acid bacteria in compared to dry feeding. Meat quality items were not affected by feeding methods. In conclusion, the results of this experiment showed that wet feeding of chick quail improved the growth performance, and profit microbial population ofsmall intestine.